Velarization - Wikipedia
Velarization
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. In the International Phonetic Alphabet, velarization is transcribed by one of four diacritics:
Velarized
◌ˠ
IPA Number422
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ˠ
Unicode (hex)U+02E0
Velarized or pharyngealized
◌̴
Although electropalatographic studies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization,[2] the IPA does not specify any way to indicate degrees of velarization, as the difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language. However, the IPA convention of doubling diacritics to indicate a greater degree can be used: ⟨ˠˠ⟩.
Examples
English
A common example of a velarized consonant is the velarized alveolar lateral approximant (or "dark L"). In some accents of English, such as Received Pronunciation and General American English, the phoneme /l/ has "dark" and "light" allophones: the "dark", velarized allophone [ɫ] appears in syllable coda position (e.g. in full), while the "light", non-velarized allophone [l] appears in syllable onset position (e.g. in lawn). Other accents of English, such as Scottish English, Australian English, some U.S. and Canadian regional accents, have "dark L" in all positions.
Velarized /l/
For many languages, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or dentoalveolar, and clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.[3]
Other velarized consonants
The palatalized/velarized contrast is known by other names, especially in language pedagogy: in Irish and Scottish Gaelic language teaching, the terms slender (for palatalized) and broad (for velarized) are often used. In Scottish Gaelic the terms are caol (for palatalized) and leathann (for velarized).
The terms light or clear (for non-velarized or palatalized) and dark (for velarized) are also widespread. The terms "soft l " and "hard l " are not equivalent to "light l " and "dark l ". The former pair refers to palatalized ("soft" or iotated) and plain ("hard") Slavic consonants.
References
  1. ^ Vd. Tryon (1995) Comparative Austronesian Dictionary"
  2. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:2) citing Recasens, Fontdevila & Pallarès (1995)
  3. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
  4. ^ Pharao, Nicolai. "Word frequency and sound change in groups and individuals" (PDF). Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  5. ^ Jones & Ward 1969, pp. 79-80.
  6. ^ Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
  7. ^ Fattah, Ismaïl Kamandâr (2000), Les dialectes Kurdes méridionaux, Acta Iranica, ISBN 9042909188
  8. ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1958), —A Kurdish Grammar (PDF), retrieved 11 June 2018
Sources
Last edited on 25 March 2021, at 19:49
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit