- A tilde or swung dash through the letter U+0334 ̴ COMBINING TILDE OVERLAY (HTML ̴) covers velarization, uvularization and pharyngealization, as in [ɫ] (the velarized equivalent of [l])
- A superscript Latin gamma U+02E0 ˠ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL GAMMA (HTML ˠ) after the letter standing for the velarized consonant, as in ⟨tˠ⟩ (a velarized [t])
- To distinguish velarization from a velar fricative release, ⟨ᵚ⟩ may be used instead of ⟨ˠ⟩
- A superscript ⟨w⟩ U+02B7 ʷ MODIFIER LETTER SMALL W indicates either simultaneous velarization and labialization, as in ⟨sʷ⟩ or ⟨pʷ⟩, or labialization of a velar consonant, as in ⟨kʷ⟩.
Velarized or pharyngealized
studies have shown that there is a continuum of possible degrees of velarization,
the IPA does not specify any way to indicate degrees of velarization, as the difference has not been found to be contrastive in any language. However, the IPA convention of doubling diacritics to indicate a greater degree can be used: ⟨ˠˠ⟩.
For many languages, velarization is generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or dentoalveolar, and clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.
Other velarized consonants
- Danish realizes /d/ in some environments as a velarized [ð].
- Irish has velarized consonants that systematically contrast with palatalized consonants.
- Russian has velarized consonants as allophones before /ɨ/.
- Scottish Gaelic has a three-way contrast in nasals and laterals between [n ~ n̪ˠ ~ ɲ] and [l ~ l̪ˠ ~ ʎ]
- Kurdish has three velarized consonants (/ɫ/, /sˠ/, and /zˠ/) which contrast with plain ones.
- Gilbertese has three velarized consonants (/mˠ/, /pˠ/, and /βˠ/), two of which (/mˠ/ and /pˠ/) contrast with a plain form.
The palatalized/velarized contrast is known by other names, especially in language pedagogy: in Irish and Scottish Gaelic language teaching, the terms slender (for palatalized) and broad (for velarized) are often used. In Scottish Gaelic the terms are caol (for palatalized) and leathann (for velarized).
The terms light
(for non-velarized or palatalized) and dark
(for velarized) are also widespread. The terms "soft l
" and "hard l
" are not equivalent to "light l
" and "dark l
". The former pair refers to palatalized
("soft" or iotated
) and plain ("hard") Slavic
- ^ Vd. Tryon (1995) Comparative Austronesian Dictionary"
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:2) citing Recasens, Fontdevila & Pallarès (1995)
- ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
- ^ Pharao, Nicolai. "Word frequency and sound change in groups and individuals" (PDF). Retrieved 10 October 2018.
- ^ Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
- ^ Fattah, Ismaïl Kamandâr (2000), Les dialectes Kurdes méridionaux, Acta Iranica, ISBN 9042909188
- ^ McCarus, Ernest N. (1958), —A Kurdish Grammar (PDF), retrieved 11 June 2018
- Recasens, Daniel; Fontdevila, J; Pallarès, Maria Dolores (1995), "Velarization degree and coarticulatory resistance for /l/ in Catalan and German", Journal of Phonetics, 23 (1–2): 37–52, doi:10.1016/S0095-4470(95)80031-X
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2005), "Articulatory, positional and coarticulatory characteristics for clear /l/ and dark /l/: evidence from two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 35 (1): 1–25, doi:10.1017/S0025100305001878
- Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521153003
Last edited on 25 March 2021, at 19:49
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