) is the creation of derived forms of a verb
from its principal parts
(alteration of form according to rules of grammar
). For instance, the verb break
can be conjugated to form the words break
. While English has a relatively simple conjugation, other languages such as French
are more complex, with each verb having dozens of conjugated forms. Some languages such as Georgian
have highly complex conjugation systems with hundreds of possible conjugations for every verb.
Part of the conjugation of the Spanish
, "to run", the lexeme is "corr-".
Red represents the speaker, purple the addressee
(or speaker/hearer) and teal a third person.
One person represents the singular number and two, the plural number.
Dawn represents the past (specifically the preterite
), noon the present and night the future.
Verbs may inflect for grammatical categories
such as person
, and reciprocity
. Verbs may also be affected by agreement
, polypersonal agreement
, noun class
, noun classifiers
, and verb classifiers
and polysynthetic languages
tend to have the most complex conjugations, albeit some fusional languages
such as Archi
can also have extremely complex conjugation. Typically the principal parts are the root
and/or several modifications of it (stems
). All the different forms of the same verb constitute a lexeme
, and the canonical
form of the verb that is conventionally used to represent that lexeme (as seen in dictionary entries) is called a lemma
The term conjugation is applied only to the inflection of verbs, and not of other parts of speech (inflection of nouns
is known as declension
). Also it is often restricted to denoting the formation of finite forms
of a verb – these may be referred to as conjugated forms
, as opposed to non-finite forms
, such as the infinitive
, which tend not to be marked for most of the grammatical categories.
is also the traditional name for a group of verbs that share a similar conjugation pattern in a particular language (a verb class
). For example, Latin
is said to have four conjugations of verbs. This means that any regular
Latin verb can be conjugated in any person, number, tense, mood, and voice by knowing which of the four conjugation groups it belongs to, and its principal parts. A verb that does not follow all of the standard conjugation patterns of the language is said to be an irregular verb
. The system of all conjugated variants of a particular verb or class of verbs is called a verb paradigm
; this may be presented in the form of a conjugation table
, or concord
, is a morpho
construct in which properties of the subject
of a verb
are indicated by the verb form. Verbs are then said to agree
with their subjects (resp. objects).
verbs exhibit subject agreement of the following sort: whereas I go
, you go
, we go
, they go
are all grammatical in standard English, she go
is not (except in the subjunctive
, as "They requested that she go
with them"). Instead, a special form of the verb to go
has to be used to produce she goes
. On the other hand I goes
, you goes
etc. are not grammatical in standard English. (Things are different in some English dialects that lack agreement.) A few English verbs have no special forms that indicate subject agreement (I may
, you may
, she may
), and the verb to be
has an additional form am
that can only be used with the pronoun I
as the subject.
Verbs in written French
exhibit more intensive agreement morphology
than English verbs: je suis
(I am), tu es
("you are", singular informal
), elle est
(she is), nous sommes
(we are), vous êtes
("you are", plural), ils sont
(they are). Historically, English used to have a similar verbal paradigm. Some historic verb forms are used by Shakespeare
as slightly archaic or more formal variants (I do
, thou dost
, she doth
, typically used by nobility) of the modern forms.
Some languages with verbal agreement can leave certain subjects implicit
when the subject is fully determined by the verb form. In Spanish
, for instance, subject pronouns do not need to be explicitly present, but in French, its close relative, they are obligatory. The Spanish equivalent to the French je suis
(I am) can be simply soy
(lit. "am"). The pronoun yo
(I) in the explicit form yo soy
is used only for emphasis or to clear ambiguity in complex texts.
Some languages have a richer agreement system in which verbs agree also with some or all of their objects. Ubykh
exhibits verbal agreement for the subject, direct object, indirect object, benefaction and ablative objects (a.w3.s.xe.n.t'u.n
, you gave it to him for me
can show agreement not only for subject, direct object and indirect object but it also can exhibit agreement for the listener as the implicit benefactor: autoa ekarri digute
means "they brought us the car" (neuter agreement for listener), but autoa ekarri ziguten
means "they brought us the car" (agreement for feminine singular listener).
Languages with a rich agreement morphology facilitate relatively free word order without leading to increased ambiguity. The canonical word order in Basque is subject–object–verb
, but all permutations of subject, verb and object are permitted.
Nonverbal person agreement
In some languages,
complements receive a form of person agreement that is distinct from that used on ordinary predicative verbs
. Although that is a form of conjugation in that it refers back to the person of the subject, it is not "verbal" because it always derives from pronouns
that have become clitic
to the nouns to which they refer.
An example of nonverbal person agreement, along with contrasting verbal conjugation, can be found from Beja
(person agreement affixes in bold):
- wun.tu.wi, “you (fem.) are big”
- hadá.b.wa, “you (masc.) are a sheik”
- e.n.fór, “he flees”
Another example can be found from Ket
- fèmba.di, “I am a Tungus”
- dɨ.fen, “I am standing”
- koş.u.yor.sun “you are running”
- çavuş.sun “you are a sergeant”
Under negation, that becomes (negative affixes in bold):
- koş.mu.yor.sun “you are not running”
- çavuş değil.sin “you are not a sergeant”
Therefore, the person agreement affixes used with predicative adjectives and nominals in Turkic languages are considered to be nonverbal in character. In some analyses, they are viewed as a form of verbal takeover by a copular strategy.
Factors that affect conjugation
Here are other factors that may affect conjugation:
verbs for several grammatical categories in complex paradigms
, although some, like English, have simplified verb conjugation to a large extent. Below is the conjugation of the verb to be
in the present tense (of the infinitive, if it exists, and indicative moods), in English
, Ancient Attic Greek
and Modern Greek
. This is usually the most irregular verb. The similarities in corresponding verb forms may be noticed. Some of the conjugations may be disused, like the English thou
-form, or have additional meanings, like the English you
-form, which can also stand for second person singular or be impersonal
"To be" in several Indo-European languages
Archaic, poetical; used only with the pronoun 'thou'.2
In Flemish dialects.3
In the bokmål
In the nynorsk
written standard. vera
are both alternate forms.5
'eínai' is only used as a noun ("being, existence").7
In the Tosk and Geg dialects, respectively.9
Existential: هست (hæst) has another meaning. Usage of (æ
) is considered to be colloquial, now. See, Indo-European copula10
With the Singular they
3rd person pronoun.11
Bengali verbs are further conjugated according to formality
. There are three verb forms for 2nd person pronouns: হও (hôo
, familiar), হোস (hoś
, very familiar) and হন (hôn
, polite). Also two forms for 3rd person pronouns: হয় (hôy
, familiar) and হন (hôn
, polite). Plural verb forms are exact same as singular.
One common feature of Pama–Nyungan languages
, the largest family of Australian Aboriginal languages
, is the notion of conjugation classes, which are a set of groups into which each lexical verb falls. They determine how a verb is conjugated for Tense–aspect–mood
. The classes can but do not universally correspond to the transitivity or valency of the verb in question. Generally, of the two to six conjugation classes in a Pama-Nyungan language, two classes are open with a large membership and allow for new coinages, and the remainder are closed and of limited membership.
- l class
- ∅ class
- n class
- ng class
They are labelled by using common morphological components of verb endings in each respective class in infinitival forms. In the Wanman language
these each correspond to la, ya, rra,
Example Verb Conjugations in Warnman
See also a similar table of verb classes and conjugations in Pitjantjatjara, a Wati language
wherein the correlating verb classes are presented below also by their imperative verbal endings -la, -∅, -ra
, a member of the Ngayarda
sub-family of languages has a binary conjugation system labelled:
In the case of Ngarla, there is a notably strong correlation between conjugation class and transitivity, with transitive/ditransitive verbs falling in the l-class and intransitive/semi-transitive verbs in the ∅-class.
Example Verb Conjugations in Ngarla
These classes even extend to how verbs are nominalized as instruments with the l-class verb including the addition of an /l/ before the nominalizing suffix and the blank class remaining blank:
‘(The) woman caused her digging stick to be in (the) hand (i.e. picked up her digging stick), (and) threw (it) at (the) girl.’
‘(A) match (lit. something to light with) give on (i.e. to) me, (a) fire I intend to light.’
has a ternary verb class system with two open classes and one closed class (~20 members). Verbs are classified as:
- -n class (open, intransitive/semi-transitive)
- -l class (open, transitive/ditransitive)
- -r class (closed, intransitive)
Example Verb Conjugations in Yidiny
- ^ "conjugation". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- ^ "conjugation". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved 2016-01-26.
- ^ "Grammatical Features - Associativity". www.grammaticalfeatures.net. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- ^ Passer, Matthias. "Verb Classifiers - 'Misfits' of Nominal Classification?". academia.edu. Retrieved 18 March 2018.
- ^ Stassen, Leon; Intransitive Predication (Oxford Studies in Typology and Linguistic Theory); published 1997 by Oxford University Press; p. 39. ISBN 0-19-925893-7
- ^ Stassen; Intransitive Predication; pp. 77 & 284-288
- ^ a b Stassen, Intransitive Predication; p. 40
- ^ a b Westerlund, Torbjörn (2015). A grammatical sketch of Ngarla (Ngayarta, Pama-Nyungan). Anu, A.C.T. ISBN 978-1-922185-15-0. OCLC 903244888.
- ^ Dixon, R. M. W. (2011). The Languages of Australia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-511-71971-4. OCLC 889953941.
- ^ Warnman. Part one, Sketch grammar. Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. South Hedland, W.A.: Wangka Maya Pilbara Aboriginal Language Centre. 2003. ISBN 1-875946-01-2. OCLC 271859132.
- ^ Eckert, Paul (1988). Wangka wir̲u: a handbook for the Pitjantjatjara language learner. Hudson, Joyce., South Australian College of Advanced Education. Aboriginal Studies and Teacher Education Centre, Summer Institute of Linguistics. Underdale, S. Aust.: University of South Australia /South Australian College of Advanced Education. ISBN 0-86803-230-1. OCLC 27569554.
- ^ Westerlund, Torbjörn (2017-07-03). "Verb Classification in Ngarla (Ngayarta, Pama-Nyungan)". Australian Journal of Linguistics. 37 (3): 328–355. doi:10.1080/07268602.2017.1298396. ISSN 0726-8602. S2CID 65180912.
- ^ Language description informed by theory. Pensalfini, Rob., Turpin, Myfany., Guillemin, Diana. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2014. p. 157. ISBN 978-90-272-7091-7. OCLC 868284094.
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 13:55
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