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Vietnamese alphabet
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The Vietnamese alphabet (Vietnamese: chữ Quốc ngữ, "script of the national language") is the modern Latin writing script or writing system for Vietnamese. It uses the Latin script based on Romance languages[4] originally developed by Portuguese missionaries.[1]
Vietnamese Latin Alphabet
chữ Quốc ngữ
Script type
Alphabet
CreatorFrancisco de Pina, Portuguese Jesuits,[1][2][3] Alexandre de Rhodes
LanguagesVietnamese, other indigenous languages of Vietnam
Related scripts
Parent systems
Vietnamese Latin Alphabet
The Vietnamese alphabet contains 29 letters, including nine with diacritics, five of which are used to designate a tone (a, à, á, , ã, and ) and the other four used for other letters of the alphabet (ă, â/ê/ô, ơ, ư).
The large number of letters with diacritics, which can even stack twice on the same letter (e.g. nhất — "first"), makes it recognizable among Latin scripts with its complex vowel system.[5]
Letter names and pronunciation
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
Handwritten Vietnamese Alphabet
Vietnamese alphabet[6]
LetterName (when pronounced)IPAName when
used in spelling
IPA
Hà NộiSài Gòn
A aa/aː˧//aː˧/
Ă ăá/aː˧˥//aː˧˥/
 â/əː˧˥//əː˧˥/
B b/ɓe˧//ɓe˧/bờ/ɓəː˨˩/
C c/se˧//se˧/cờ/kəː˨˩/
D d/ze˧//je˧/dờ/zəː˨˩/
Đ đđê/ɗe˧//ɗe˧/đờ/ɗəː˨˩/
E ee/ɛ˧//ɛ˧/
Ê êê/e˧//e˧/
G ggiê/ʒe˧//ʒe˧, ɹe˧/gờ/ɣəː˨˩/
H hhát, hắt/ha:t˧˥//hak˧˥/hờ/həː˨˩/
I ii ngắn/i˧ ŋan˧˥//ɪi̯˧ ŋaŋ˧˥/[7]i/i˧/
(/ɪi̯˧/)
K kca/kaː˧//kaː˧/cờ/kəː˨˩/
L len lờ/ɛn˧ ləː˨˩//ɛŋ˧ ləː˨˩/lờ/ləː˨˩/
M mem mờ/ɛm˧ məː˨˩//ɛm˧ məː˨˩/mờ/məː˨˩/
N nen nờ, anh nờ/ɛn˧ nəː˨˩//an˧ nəː˨˩/nờ/nəː˨˩/
O oo/ɔ˧//ɔ˧/
Ô ôô/o˧//o˧/
Ơ ơơ/əː˧//əː˧/
P ppê, bê phở/pe˧//pe˧/pờ/pəː˨˩/
Q qquy/ku˧, kwi˧//kwi˧/quờ
cờ
/kwəː˨˩/
/kəː˨˩/
R re rờ/ɛ˧ rəː˨˩//ɛ˧ ɹəː˨˩/rờ/rəː˨˩/
S sét xì, ét xờ/ɛt˦˥ si˨˩//ɛt˦˥, ə:t˦˥ (sə˨˩)/sờ/ʂəː˨˩/
T t/te˧//te˧/tờ/təː˨˩/
U uu/u˧//ʊu̯˧/[7]
Ư ưư/ɨ˧//ɯ̽ɯ̯˧/[7]
V v/ve˧//ve˧/vờ/vəː˧/
X xích xì/ik˦˥ si˨˩//ɪ̈t˦˥ (si˨˩)/xờ/səː˨˩/
Y yy dài/i˧ zaːj˨˩//ɪi̯˧ jaːj˨˩/[7]y/i˧/
(/ɪi̯˧/)
There are six tones, each with a separate diacritic, which are marked in the IPA as suprasegmentals following the phonemic value. It uses all 22 letters of the ISO basic Latin alphabet plus 6 additional "letters" where 4 letters are with the other 3 diacritics: Ă/ă, Â/â, Ê/ê, Ô/ô, Ơ/ơ, Ư/ư and the letter Đ/đ except for F/f, J/j, W/w and Z/z. The aforementioned 4 letters are only used to write loanwords, languages of other ethnic groups in the country based on Vietnamese phonetics to differentiate the meanings or even Vietnamese dialects, for example: dz or z for Northern Vietnamese pronunciation of "gi" in standard Vietnamese, or to distinguish the from the Vietnamese D (pronounced y/j or dz/z) and from Đ (pronounced D like in English).
Notes:
Consonants
The alphabet is largely derived from Portuguese with major influence from French, although the usage of gh and gi was borrowed from Italian (compare ghetto, Giuseppe) and that for c/k/qu from Greek and Latin (compare canis, kinesis, quō vādis), mirroring the English usage of these letters (compare cat, kite, queen).
Consonants
GraphemeWord-Initial (IPA)Word-FinalNotes
NorthernSouthernNorthernSouthern
B b/ɓ/
C c/k///⟨k⟩ is used instead when preceding ⟨i y e ê⟩. K is also used before U in the Vietnamese city Pleiku.
⟨qu⟩ is used instead of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
Realized as [k] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
Ch ch///c//ʲk///Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨ch⟩ have been proposed (main article).
D d/z//j/In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨d⟩ represented /ð/. ⟨d⟩ was used to write native Vietnamese words and ⟨gi⟩ was used to write words of Chinese origin.
Đ đ/ɗ/
G g/ɣ/
Gh ghSpelling used ⟨gh⟩ instead of ⟨g⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩, seemingly to follow the Italian convention. ⟨g⟩ is not allowed in these environments.
Gi gi/z//j/In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨gi⟩ represented /ʝ/. The distinction between ⟨d⟩ and ⟨gi⟩ is now purely etymological (and is the only one) in most modern dialects. Realized as [ʒ] in Northern spelling pronunciation. Spelled ⟨g⟩ before another ⟨i⟩.[a]
H h/h/
K k/k/Spelling used instead of ⟨c⟩ before ⟨i y e ê⟩ to follow the European tradition. ⟨c⟩ is not allowed in these environments.
Kh kh/x/In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨kh⟩ was pronounced []
L l/l/
M m/m//m/
N n/n//n//ŋ/In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨n⟩ is realized as [ŋ] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.
Ng ng/ŋ//ŋ/Realized as [ŋ͡m] in word-final position following rounded vowels ⟨u ô o⟩.
Ngh nghSpelling used instead of ⟨ng⟩ before ⟨i e ê⟩ in accordance with ⟨gh⟩.
Nh nh/ɲ//ʲŋ//n/Multiple phonemic analyses of final ⟨nh⟩ have been proposed (main article).
P p/p/Only occurs initially in loanwords. Some Vietnamese pronounce it as a "b" sound instead (as in Arabic).
Ph ph/f/In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨ph⟩ was pronounced []
Qu qu//Spelling used in place of ⟨co cu⟩ if a /w/ on-glide exists.
R r/z//r/Variably pronounced as a fricative [ʐ], approximant [ɹ], flap [ɾ] or trill [r] in Southern speech.
S s/s//ʂ/Realized as [ʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.
T t/t////k/In Southern Vietnamese, word-final ⟨t⟩ is realized as [k] if not following ⟨i ê⟩.
Th th//
Tr tr///ʈ/Realized as [tʃ] in Northern spelling pronunciation.
V v/v/In Middle Vietnamese, it was represented by a b with flourish ⟨⟩ and was pronounced [β].
Can be realized as [v] in Southern speech through spelling pronunciation and in loanwords.
X x/s/In Middle Vietnamese, ⟨x⟩ was pronounced [ɕ].
^ This causes some ambiguity with the diphthong ia/, for example gia could be either gi+a [za ~ ja] or gi+ia [ziə̯ ~ jiə̯]. If there is a tone mark the ambiguity is resolved: giá is gi+á and gía is gi+ía.
Vowels
Pronunciation
The correspondence between the orthography and pronunciation is somewhat complicated. In some cases, the same letter may represent several different sounds, and different letters may represent the same sound. This is because the orthography was designed centuries ago and the spoken language has changed, as shown in the chart directly above that contrasts the difference between Middle and Modern Vietnamese.
The letters y and i are mostly equivalent, and there is no concrete rule that says when to use one or the other, except in sequences like ay and uy (i.e. tay ("arm, hand") is read /tă̄j/ while tai ("ear") is read /tāj/). There have been attempts since the late 20th century to standardize the orthography by replacing all the vowel uses of y with i, the latest being a decision from the Vietnamese Ministry of Education in 1984. These efforts seem to have had limited effect. In textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục ("Publishing House of Education"), y is used to represent /i/ only in Sino-Vietnamese words that are written with one letter y alone (diacritics can still be added, as in ý, ), at the beginning of a syllable when followed by ê (as in yếm, yết), after u and in the sequence ay; therefore such forms as *lý and *kỹ are not "standard", though they are much preferred elsewhere. Most people and the popular media continue to use the spelling that they are most accustomed to.
Spelling and pronunciation in Vietnamese
SpellingSound
a /a/ ([æ] in some dialects) except as below
 /ă/ in au /ăw/ and ay /ăj/ (but /a/ in ao/aw/ and ai /aj/)
 /ăj/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch/k/, see
 Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
 /ə̯/ in ưa /ɨə̯/, ia /iə̯/ and ya /iə̯/
 /ə̯/ in ua except after q[note 1]
ă /ă/
â /ə̆/
e /ɛ/
ê /e/ except as below
 /ə̆j/ before syllable-final nh /ŋ/ and ch/k/, see
 Vietnamese phonology#Analysis of final ch, nh
 /ə̯/ in /iə̯/ and /iə̯/
i /i/ except as below
 /j/ after any vowel letter
o /ɔ/ except as below
 /ăw/ before ng and c[note 2]
 /w/ after any vowel letter (= after a or e)
 /w/ before any vowel letter except i (= before ă, a or e)
ô /o/ except as below
 /ə̆w/ before ng and c except after a u that is not preceded by a q[note 3]
 /ə̯/ in except after q[note 4]
ơ /ə/ except as below
 /ə̯/ in ươ /ɨə̯/
u /u/ except as below
 /w/ after q or any vowel letter
 /w/ before any vowel letter except a, ô and i
 Before a, ô and i: /w/ if preceded by q, /u/ otherwise
ư /ɨ/
y /i/ except as below
 /j/ after any vowel letter except u (= after â and a)
  1. ^ qua is pronounced /kwa/ except in quay, where it is pronounced /kwă/. When not preceded by q, ua is pronounced /uə̯/.
  2. ^ However, oong and ooc are pronounced /ɔŋ/ and /ɔk/.
  3. ^ uông and uôc are pronounced /uə̯ŋ/ and /uə̯k/ when not preceded by a q.
  4. ^ quô is pronounced /kwo/ except in quông and quôc, where it is pronounced /kwə̆w/. When not preceded by q, is pronounced /uə̯/.
The uses of the letters i and y to represent the phoneme /i/ can be categorized as "standard" (as used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục) and "non-standard" as follows.
Standard spellings in Vietnamese
Context"Standard""Non-standard"
In one-lettered non-Sino-Vietnamese syllablesi (e.g.: i tờ, í ới, ì ạch, ỉ ôi, đi ị)
In one-lettered Sino-Vietnamese syllablesy (e.g.: y học, ý kiến, ỷ lại)
Syllable-initial, not followed by êi (e.g.: ỉa đái, im lặng, ích lợi, ỉu xìu)
Syllable-initial, followed by êy (e.g.: yếu ớt, yếm dãi, yết hầu)
After uy (e.g.: uy lực, huy hoàng, khuya khoắt, tuyển mộ, khuyết tật, khuỷu tay, huýt sáo, khuynh hướng)
After qu, not followed by ê, nhy (e.g.: quý giá, quấn quýt)i (e.g.: quí giá, quấn quít)
After qu, followed by ê, nhy (e.g.: quyên góp, xảo quyệt, mừng quýnh, hoa quỳnh)
After b, d, đ, r, xi (e.g.: bịa đặt, diêm dúa, địch thủ, rủ rỉ, triều đại, xinh xắn)
After g, not followed by a, ă, â, e, ê, o, ô, ơ, u, ưi (e.g.: cái gì?, giữ gìn)
After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in non-Sino-Vietnamese syllablesi (e.g.: ti hí, kì cọ, lí nhí, mí mắt, tí xíu)
After h, k, l, m, t, not followed by any letter, in Sino-Vietnamese syllablesi (e.g.: hi vọng, kì thú, lí luận, mĩ thuật, giờ Tí)y (e.g.: hy vọng, kỳ thú, lý luận, mỹ thuật, giờ Tý)
After ch, gh, kh, nh, ph, thi (e.g.: chíp hôi, ghi nhớ, ý nghĩa, khiêu khích, nhí nhố, phiến đá, buồn thiu)
After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in non-proper-noun syllablesi (e.g.: ni cô, si tình, vi khuẩn)
After n, s, v, not followed by any letter, in proper nounsi (e.g.: Ni, Thuỵ Sĩ, Vi)y (e.g.: Ny, Thụy Sỹ, Vy)
After h, k, l, m, n, s, t, v, followed by a letteri (e.g.: thương hiệu, kiên trì, bại liệt, ngôi miếu, nũng nịu, siêu đẳng, mẫn tiệp, được việc)
In Vietnamese personal names, after a consonantieither i or y, depending on personal preference
This "standard" set by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục is not definite. It is unknown why the literature books use while the history books use .
Spelling
Vowel nuclei
The table below matches the vowels of Hanoi Vietnamese (written in the IPA) and their respective orthographic symbols used in the writing system.
FrontCentralBack
SoundSpellingSoundSpellingSoundSpelling
Centering/iə̯/iê/ia*/ɨə̯/ươ/ưa*/uə̯/uô/ua*
Close/i/i, y/ɨ/ư/u/u
Close-mid/
Mid
/e/ê/ə/ơ/o/ô
/ə̆/â
Open-mid/
Open
/ɛ/e/a/a/ɔ/o
/ă/ă
Notes:
The vowel /i/ is:
  1. preceded by an orthographic vowel: /xwīə̯n/ = khuyên 'to advise';
  2. at the beginning of a word derived from Chinese (written as i otherwise): /ʔīə̯w/ = yêu 'to love'.
Diphthongs and triphthongs
Rising VowelsRising-Falling VowelsFalling Vowels
nucleus (V)/w/ on-glides/w/ + V + off-glide/j/ off-glides/w/ off-glides
fronte/wɛ/ oe/(q)ue*/wɛw/ oeo/(q)ueo*/ɛw/ eo
ê/we/ uê/ew/ êu
i/wi/ uy/wiw/ uyu/iw/ iu
ia/iê/yê*/wiə̯/ uyê/uya*/iə̯w/ iêu/yêu*
centrala/wa/ oa/(q)ua*/waj/ oai/(q)uai, /waw/ oao/(q)uao*/aj/ ai/aw/ ao
ă/wă/ oă/(q)uă*/wăj/ oay/(q)uay*/ăj/ ay/ăw/ au
â/wə̆/ uâ/wə̆j/ uây/ə̆j/ ây/ə̆w/ âu
ơ/wə/ uơ/əj/ ơi/əw/ ơu
ư/ɨj/ ưi/ɨw/ ưu
ưa/ươ*/ɨə̯j/ ươi/ɨə̯w/ ươu
backo/ɔj/ oi
ô/oj/ ôi
u/uj/ ui
ua/uô*/uə̯j/ uôi
Notes:
The glide /w/ is written:
The off-glide /j/ is written as i except after â and ă, where it is written as y; note that /ăj/ is written as ay instead of *ăy (cf. ai /aj/) .
The diphthong /iə̯/ is written:
Note that the i of the diphthong changes to y after u:
changes to at the beginning of a syllable (ia does not change):
/īə̯n/ = yên 'calm'; /ǐə̯w/ yếu' 'weak, feeble'
The diphthong /uə̯/ is written:
The diphthong /ɨə̯/ is written:
Tone marks
Vietnamese is a tonal language, i.e. the meaning of each word depends on the pitch (basically a specific tone and glottalization pattern) in which it is pronounced. There are six distinct tones (including no tone) in the standard northern dialect. In the south, there is a merging of the hỏi and ngã tones, in effect leaving five tones. The first one ("level tone") is not marked and the other five are indicated by diacritics applied to the vowel part of the syllable. The tone names are chosen such that the name of each tone is spoken in the tone it identifies.
DiacriticSymbolNameContourVowels with diacritic
unmarkedN/ANgangmid level, ˧A/a, Ă/ă, Â/â, E/e, Ê/ê, I/i, O/o, Ô/ô, Ơ/ơ, U/u, Ư/ư, Y/y
grave accentàHuyềnlow falling, ˨˩À/à, Ằ/ằ, Ầ/ầ, È/è, Ề/ề, Ì/ì, Ò/ò, Ồ/ồ, Ờ/ờ, Ù/ù, Ừ/ừ, Ỳ/ỳ
hook aboveHỏimid falling, ˧˩ (Northern); dipping, ˨˩˥ (Southern)Ả/ả, Ẳ/ẳ, Ẩ/ẩ, Ẻ/ẻ, Ể/ể, Ỉ/ỉ, Ỏ/ỏ, Ổ/ổ, Ở/ở, Ủ/ủ, Ử/ử, Ỷ/ỷ
tildeãNgãglottalized rising, ˧˥ˀ (Northern); slightly lengthened Dấu Hỏi tone (Southern)Ã/ã, Ẵ/ẵ, Ẫ/ẫ, Ẽ/ẽ, Ễ/ễ, Ĩ/ĩ, Õ/õ, Ỗ/ỗ, Ỡ/ỡ, Ũ/ũ, Ữ/ữ, Ỹ/ỹ
acute accentáSắchigh rising, ˧˥Á/á, Ắ/ắ, Ấ/ấ, É/é, Ế/ế, Í/í, Ó/ó, Ố/ố, Ớ/ớ, Ú/ú, Ứ/ứ, Ý/ý
dot below
ạ or
Nặngglottalized falling, ˧˨ˀ (Northern); low rising, ˩˧ (Southern)Ạ/ạ, Ặ/ặ, Ậ/ậ, Ẹ/ẹ, Ệ/ệ, Ị/ị, Ọ/ọ, Ộ/ộ, Ợ/ợ, Ụ/ụ, Ự/ự, Ỵ/ỵ
In syllables where the vowel part consists of more than one vowel (such as diphthongs and triphthongs), the placement of the tone is still a matter of debate. Generally, there are two methodologies, an "old style" and a "new style". While the "old style" emphasizes aesthetics by placing the tone mark as close as possible to the center of the word (by placing the tone mark on the last vowel if an ending consonant part exists and on the next-to-last vowel if the ending consonant doesn't exist, as in hóa, hủy), the "new style" emphasizes linguistic principles and tries to apply the tone mark on the main vowel (as in hoá, huỷ). In both styles, when one vowel already has a quality diacritic on it, the tone mark must be applied to it as well, regardless of where it appears in the syllable (thus thuế is acceptable while thúê is not). In the case of the ươ diphthong, the mark is placed on the ơ. The u in qu is considered part of the consonant. Currently, the new style is usually used in textbooks published by Nhà Xuất bản Giáo dục, while most people still prefer the old style in casual uses. Among Overseas Vietnamese communities, the old style is predominant for all purposes.
In lexical ordering, differences in letters are treated as primary, differences in tone markings as secondary and differences in case as tertiary differences. (Letters include for instance A and Ă but not Ẳ. Older dictionaries also treated digraphs and trigraphs like CH and NGH as base letters.[9]) Ordering according to primary and secondary differences proceeds syllable by syllable. According to this principle, a dictionary lists tuân thủ before tuần chay because the secondary difference in the first syllable takes precedence over the primary difference in the second syllable.
Structure
In the past, syllables in multisyllabic words were concatenated with hyphens, but this practice has died out and hyphenation is now reserved for word-borrowings from other languages. A written syllable consists of at most three parts, in the following order from left to right:
  1. An optional beginning consonant part
  2. A required vowel syllable nucleus and the tone mark, if needed, applied above or below it
  3. An ending consonant part, can only be one of the following: c, ch, m, n, ng, nh, p, t, or nothing.[10]
History
Further information: History of writing in Vietnam and Vietnamese language and computers
A page from Alexandre de Rhodes' 1651 dictionary
Since the beginning of the Chinese rule 111 BC, literature, government papers, scholarly works, and religious scripture were all written in classical Chinese (chữ Hán) while indigenous writing in chu han started around the ninth century.[11] Since the 12th century, several Vietnamese words started to be written in chữ Nôm, using variant Chinese characters, each of them representing one word. The system was based on chữ Hán, but was also supplemented with Vietnamese-invented characters (chữ thuần nôm, proper Nôm characters) to represent native Vietnamese words.
Creation of chữ Quốc ngữ
As early as 1620, with the work of Francisco de Pina, Portuguese, and Italian Jesuit missionaries in Vietnam began using Latin script to transcribe the Vietnamese language as an assistance for learning the language.[1][3] The work was continued by the Avignonese Alexandre de Rhodes. Building on previous dictionaries by Gaspar do Amaral and Antonio Barbosa, Rhodes compiled the Dictionarium Annamiticum Lusitanum et Latinum, a Vietnamese–Portuguese–Latin dictionary, which was later printed in Rome in 1651, using their spelling system.[1][12] These efforts led eventually to the development of the present Vietnamese alphabet. For 200 years, chữ Quốc ngữ was used within the Catholic community.[13][14]
Colonial period
In 1910, the French colonial administration enforced chữ Quốc ngữ.[15] The Latin alphabet then became a means to publish Vietnamese popular literature, which was disparaged as vulgar by the Chinese-educated imperial elites.[16] Historian Pamela A. Pears asserted that by instituting the Latin alphabet in Vietnam, the French cut the Vietnamese from their traditional Hán Nôm literature.[17] Since the 1920s, the Vietnamese mostly use chữ Quốc ngữ, and new Vietnamese terms for new items or words are often calqued from Hán Nôm. Some French had originally planned to replace Vietnamese with French, but this never was a serious project, given the small number of French settlers compared with the native population. The French had to reluctantly accept the use of chữ Quốc ngữ to write Vietnamese since this writing system, created by Portuguese missionaries, is based on Portuguese orthography, not French.[18]
Mass Education
Between 1907 and 1908, the short-lived Tonkin Free School promulgated chữ quốc ngữ and taught French language to the general population.
In 1917, the French system suppressed Vietnam's Confucian examination system, viewed as an aristocratic system linked with the "ancient regime", thereby forcing Vietnamese elites to educate their offspring in the French language education system. Emperor Khải Định declared the traditional writing system abolished in 1918.[16] While traditional nationalists favoured the Confucian examination system and the use of chữ Hán, Vietnamese revolutionaries, progressive nationalists, and pro-French elites viewed the French education system as a means to "liberate" the Vietnamese from old Chinese domination and the unsatisfactory "outdated" Confucian examination system, to "democratize" education and to help link Vietnamese to European philosophies.
The French colonial system then set up another educational system, teaching Vietnamese as a first language using chữ quốc ngữ in primary school and then the French language (taught in chữ quốc ngữ). Hundreds of thosands of textbooks for primary education began to be published in chữ quốc ngữ, with the unintentional result of turning the script into the popular medium for the expression for Vietnamese culture.[19]
Late 20th century to present
Typesetting and printing Vietnamese has been challenging due to its number of accents/diacritics.​[20]​[21]​[22] Contemporary Vietnamese texts sometimes include words which have not been adapted to modern Vietnamese orthography, especially for documents written in Chinese characters. The Vietnamese language itself has been likened to a system akin to "ruby characters" elsewhere in Asia. See Vietnamese language and computers for usage on computers and the internet.
Typing Vietnamese (computer support)
Main article: Vietnamese language and computers
Different ways in which tone marks can be presented on letters that already have diacritic e.g. (`) on letter ê when computerising Vietnamese.
The universal character set Unicode has full support for the Latin Vietnamese writing system, although it does not have a separate segment for it. The required characters that other languages use are scattered throughout the Basic Latin, Latin-1 Supplement, Latin Extended-A and Latin Extended-B blocks; those that remain (such as the letters with more than one diacritic) are placed in the Latin Extended Additional block. An ASCII-based writing convention, Vietnamese Quoted Readable and several byte-based encodings including VSCII (TCVN), VNI, VISCII and Windows-1258 were widely used before Unicode became popular. Most new documents now exclusively use the Unicode format UTF-8.
Unicode allows the user to choose between precomposed characters and combining characters in inputting Vietnamese. Because in the past some fonts implemented combining characters in a nonstandard way (see Verdana font), most people use precomposed characters when composing Vietnamese-language documents (except on Windows where Windows-1258 used combining characters).
Most keyboards on phones and computers used by Vietnamese-language users do not support direct input of diacritics by default.[citation needed] Software may be built into the operating system or various free software such as Unikey on computers or Laban Key for phones that act as keyboard drivers exist. They support most input methods, such as Telex, VNI, VIQR and its variants.
See also
Bibliography
Further reading
References
  1. ^ a b c d Jacques, Roland (2002). Portuguese Pioneers of Vietnamese Linguistics Prior to 1650 – Pionniers Portugais de la Linguistique Vietnamienne Jusqu'en 1650 (in English and French). Bangkok, Thailand: Orchid Press. ISBN 974-8304-77-9.
  2. ^ Jacques, Roland (2004). "Bồ Đào Nha và công trình sáng chế chữ quốc ngữ: Phải chăng cần viết lại lịch sử?" Translated by Nguyễn Đăng Trúc. In Các nhà truyền giáo Bồ Đào Nha và thời kỳ đầu của Giáo hội Công giáo Việt Nam (Quyển 1)Les missionnaires portugais et les débuts de l'Eglise catholique au Viêt-nam (Tome 1) (in Vietnamese & French). Reichstett, France: Định Hướng Tùng Thư. ISBN 2-912554-26-8.
  3. ^ a b Trần, Quốc Anh; Phạm, Thị Kiều Ly (October 2019). Từ Nước Mặn đến Roma: Những đóng góp của các giáo sĩ Dòng Tên trong quá trình La tinh hoá tiếng Việt ở thế kỷ 17. Conference 400 năm hình thành và phát triển chữ Quốc ngữ trong lịch sử loan báo Tin Mừng tại Việt Nam. Ho Chi Minh City: Ủy ban Văn hóa, Catholic Bishops' Conference of Vietnam.
  4. ^ Haudricourt, André-Georges. 2010. "The Origin of the Peculiarities of the Vietnamese Alphabet." Mon-Khmer Studies 39: 89–104. Translated from: Haudricourt, André-Georges. 1949. "L'origine Des Particularités de L'alphabet Vietnamien." Dân Viêt-Nam 3: 61–68.
  5. ^ Jakob Rupert Friederichsen Opening Up Knowledge Production Through Participatory Research? Frankfurt 2009 [6.1 History of Science and Research in Vietnam] Page 126 "6.1.2 French colonial science in Vietnam: With the colonial era, deep changes took place in education, communication, and ... French colonizers installed a modern European system of education to replace the literary and Confucianism-based model, they promoted a romanized Vietnamese script (Quốc Ngữ) to replace the Sino-Vietnamese characters (Hán Nôm)"
  6. ^ "Vietnam Alphabet". vietnamesetypography.
  7. ^ a b c d The close vowels /i, ɨ, u/ are diphthongized [ɪi̯, ɯ̽ɯ̯, ʊu̯].
  8. ^ "Do you know How to pronounce Igrec?". HowToPronounce.com​. Retrieved 2017-10-30.
  9. ^ See for example Lê Bá Khanh; Lê Bá Kông (1998) [1975]. Vietnamese-English/English-Vietnamese Dictionary (7th ed.). New York City: Hippocrene Books. ISBN 0-87052-924-2.
  10. ^ "vietnamese Alphabet". Omniglot.com. 2014.
  11. ^ Kornicki 2017, p. 568.
  12. ^ Tran, Anh Q. (October 2018). "The Historiography of the Jesuits in Vietnam: 1615–1773 and 1957–2007". Jesuit Historiography Online. Brill.
  13. ^ Li 2020, p. 106.
  14. ^ Ostrowski, Brian Eugene (2010). "The Rise of Christian Nôm Literature in Seventeenth-Century Vietnam: Fusing European Content and Local Expression". In Wilcox, Wynn (ed.). Vietnam and the West: New Approaches. Ithaca, New York: SEAP Publications, Cornell university Press. pp. 23, 38. ISBN 9780877277828.
  15. ^ "Quoc-ngu | Vietnamese writing system". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2019-04-13.
  16. ^ a b Nguyên Tùng, "Langues, écritures et littératures au Viêt-nam", Aséanie, Sciences humaines en Asie du Sud-Est, Vol. 2000/5, pp. 135-149.
  17. ^ Pamela A. Pears (2006). Remnants of Empire in Algeria and Vietnam: Women, Words and War. Lexington Books. p. 18. ISBN 0-7391-2022-0. Retrieved 2010-11-28.
  18. ^ Trần Bích San. "Thi cử và giáo dục Việt Nam dưới thời thuộc Pháp" (in Vietnamese). Note 3. "The French had to accept reluctantly the existence of chữ quốc ngữ. The propagation of chữ quốc ngữ in Cochinchina was, in fact, not without resistance [by French authority or pro-French Vietnamese elite] [...] Chữ quốc ngữ was created by Portuguese missionaries according to the phonemic orthography of Portuguese language. The Vietnamese could not use chữ quốc ngữ to learn French script. The French would mispronounce chữ quốc ngữ in French orthography, particularly people's names and place names. Thus, the French constantly disparaged chữ quốc ngữ because of its uselessness in helping with the propagation of French script."
  19. ^ Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. pp. 127-128.
  20. ^ Wellisch 1978, p. 94.
  21. ^ "Language Monthly, Issues 40–57" 1987, p. 20.
  22. ^ Sassoon 1995, p. 123.
External links
Last edited on 18 June 2021, at 23:57
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