Yanukovych was elected President in 2010
, defeating Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko
. The election was judged free and fair by international observers.
November 2013 saw the beginning of a series of events that led to his ousting as president.
Yanukovych rejected a pending EU association agreement
, choosing instead to pursue a Russian loan bailout and closer ties with Russia. This led to protests and the occupation of Kyiv's Independence Square, a series of events dubbed the "Euromaidan
" by proponents of aligning Ukraine toward the European Union
. In January 2014, this developed into deadly clashes in Independence Square and in other areas across Ukraine, as Ukrainian citizens confronted the Berkut
and other special police units.
In February 2014, Ukraine appeared to be on the brink of civil war
, as violent clashes between protesters and special police forces led to many deaths and injuries.
On 21 February 2014, Yanukovych claimed that, after lengthy discussions, he had reached an agreement with the opposition.
Later that day, however, he left the capital for Kharkiv
, saying his car was shot at as he left Kyiv, and travelling next to Crimea
, and eventually to exile in southern Russia.
On 22 February 2014, the Ukrainian parliament
voted to remove him from his post.
Parliament set 25 May as the date for the special election to select his replacement,
and, two days later, issued a warrant for his arrest, accusing him of "mass killing of civilians."
After his departure, Yanukovych conducted several press conferences. In one of these, he declared himself to remain "the legitimate head of the Ukrainian state elected in a free vote by Ukrainian citizens".
On 18 June 2015, Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of President of Ukraine by the Verkhovna Rada
On 24 January 2019, he was sentenced in absentia
to thirteen years' imprisonment for high treason by a Ukrainian court.
Early life and career
Viktor Yanukovych was born in the village of Zhukovka near Yenakiieve
in Donetsk Oblast
, Ukrainian SSR
, Soviet Union
. He endured a very hard childhood about which he has stated, "My childhood was difficult and hungry. I grew up without my mother who died when I was two. I went around bare-footed on the streets. I had to fight for myself every day."
Yanukovych is of Russian
descent. Yanukovych is a surname of Belarusian origin;Yanuk
being a derivative of the Catholic name Yan
His mother was a Russian
nurse and his father was a Polish-Belarusian locomotive
-driver, originally from Yanuki, in the Dokshytsy Raion
of the Vitsebsk Voblast
in present-day Belarus.
By the time he was a teenager, Yanukovych had lost both his parents and was brought up by his Polish paternal grandmother, originally from Warsaw
. His grandfather and great-grandparents were Lithuanian-Poles
. Yanukovych has half-sisters
from his father's remarriage, but has no contact with them.
On 15 December 1967, at the age of 17, Yanukovych was sentenced to three years incarceration for participating in a robbery and assault.
On 8 June 1970 he was convicted for a second time on charges of assault. He was sentenced to two years of imprisonment and did not appeal against the verdict. Decades later, Yanukovych characterized his arrests and incarceration as "mistakes of youth".
In 1971, Yanukovych married Lyudmyla
(née Nastenko), a niece of Yenakiyeve city judge Oleksandr Sazhyn.
In July 1974, Yanukovych enrolled at the Donetsk Polytechnic Institute
. In 1976, as a second-year student, he was promoted to director of a small trucking division within the Ordzhonikidzeugol
In 1980, immediately upon graduating as an automobile mechanical-engineer, Yanukovych was appointed chief manager of a transportation company in Yenakiieve
and admitted to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
His appointment as the chief manager marked the start of his managerial career as a regional transport executive. He held various positions in transport companies in Yenakiieve and Donetsk until 1996.
Political career: 1996–2010 Yanukovych's political career began when he was appointed as a Vice-Head of Donetsk Oblast Administration in August 1996. On 14 May 1997, he was appointed as the Head of the Administration (i.e. Governor). Prime Minister (2002–2004)
President Leonid Kuchma
appointed Yanukovych to the post of Prime Minister following Anatoliy Kinakh
Yanukovych began his term as Prime Minister on 21 November 2002 following a 234-vote confirmation in the Verkhovna Rada, eight more than needed.
In foreign affairs, Yanukovych's cabinet was considered to be politically close to Russia
, although declaring support for Ukrainian membership in the European Union
. Although Yanukovych's parliamentary coalition was not supporting Ukrainian membership in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), his cabinet agreed to the commission of Ukrainian troops to the Iraq War
in support of the United States' War on Terrorism
2004 presidential campaign
Viktor Yanukovych (First round) – percentage of total national vote
Viktor Yanukovych (Second round) – percentage of total national vote
Viktor Yanukovych (Final round) – percentage of total national vote
In 2004, as the Prime Minister
, Yanukovych participated in the controversial Ukrainian presidential election
as the Party of Regions
candidate. Yanukovych's main base of support emerged from the southern and eastern regions of Ukraine, which favor close ties with neighbouring Russia. In the first round of voting held on 31 October 2004, Yanukovych took second place with 39.3 percent of the votes to opposition leader Viktor Yuschenko
with 39.8 percent. Because no candidate passed the 50 percent threshold, a second round of voting was scheduled. In the second round of the election, Yanukovych was initially declared the winner. However, the legitimacy of the election was questioned by many Ukrainians, international organizations, and foreign governments following allegations of electoral fraud
. The resulting widespread protests became known as the Orange Revolution
. The second round of the election was subsequently annulled by the Supreme Court of Ukraine
, and in the repeated run-off, Yanukovych lost to Yushchenko with 44.2 percent to Yushchenko's 51.9 percent.
After the election, the Ukrainian parliament passed a non-binding motion of no confidence
in Yanukovych's government, urging outgoing President Leonid Kuchma
to dismiss Yanukovych and appoint a caretaker government. Five days after his electoral defeat, Yanukovych declared his resignation from the post of Prime Minister. In November 2009 Yanukovych stated that he conceded defeat only to avoid violence. "I didn't want mothers to lose their children and wives their husbands. I didn't want dead bodies from Kyiv to flow down the Dnipro
. I didn't want to assume power through bloodshed."
After the Orange Revolution
Following his electoral defeat in 2004, Yanukovych led the main opposition party against the Tymoshenko government made up of Yushchenko's Our Ukraine, the Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc
, and Oleksandr Moroz
's Socialist Party. This government was marred by growing conflict between Yushchenko and Tymoshenko. Yanukovych's Party of Regions support allowed for the establishment of Yuriy Yekhanurov
's government in late 2005.
In October 2004, Ukrainian deputy
Hryhory Omelchenko accused Yanukovych of having been a member of "a group of individuals who brutally beat and raped a woman, but bought off the victim and the criminal case was closed".
The press-service of the Ukrainian Cabinet
asserted that Yanukovych suffered for the attempt to defend a girl from hooligans.
In 2005, the Party of Regions signed a collaboration agreement with the Russian
political party United Russia
In 2008, Yanukovych spoke at a congress of the United Russia party.
2006–2007 elections and second premiership
In January 2006, the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine
started an official investigation of the allegedly false acquittal of the criminal convictions which Yanukovych received in his youth. Yuriy Lutsenko
, the head of the ministry, announced that forensic
tests proved the forgery of the respective documents (issued in instead of 1978) and initially claimed that lack of the formal acquittal precluded Yanukovych from running for the seat in the 2006 parliamentary election
However, the latter statement was corrected within days by Lutsenko himself who conceded that the outcome of the investigation into the legality of the Yanukovych's acquittal could not affect his eligibility to run for the parliament seat since the deprivation of his civil rights due to the past convictions would have expired anyway due to the statute of limitations
Viktor Yanukovych's Party of Regions won the 2006 Ukrainian parliamentary election.
In 2006, a criminal charge was made for the falsification of documents regarding the retraction of Yanukovych's prior conviction.[peacock term]
According to Rossiyskaya Gazeta
two documents had been forged regarding Yanukovych's robbery in association with rape and assault and battery. The signature of the judge for these documents in Yanukovych's retraction was also forged.
Presidential campaign and election
Viktor Yanukovych (First round) – percentage of total national vote (35.33%)
Viktor Yanukovych (Second round) – percentage of total national vote (48.95%)
Early vote returns from the first round of the election held on 17 January showed Yanukovych in first place with 35.8% of the vote.
He faced a 7 February 2010 runoff against Tymoshenko, who finished second (with 24.7% of the vote). After all ballots were counted, the Ukrainian Central Election Commission declared that Yanukovych won the runoff election with 48.95% of the vote compared with 45.47% for Tymoshenko.
Tymoshenko withdrew her subsequent legal challenge of the result.
had (on 16 February) fixed 25 February 2010 for the inauguration of Yanukovych as president. Ukrainian PresidentViktor Yushchenko
signed a decree endorsing a plan of events related to Yanukovych's inauguration on 20 February 2010.
Yushchenko also congratulated and wished Yanukovych "to defend Ukrainian interests and democratic traditions" at the presidential post.
On 3 March 2010, Yanukovych suspended his membership in the Party of Regions
as he was barred by the Constitution
from heading a political party while president,
and handed over leadership in the party and its parliamentary faction to Mykola Azarov
On new alliances
Yanukovych said, "Ukraine's integration with the EU remains our strategic aim", with a "balanced policy, which will protect our national interests both on our eastern border – I mean with Russia
– and of course with the European Union".
According to Yanukovych, Ukraine must be a "Neutral state
" which should be part of a "collective defence system which the European Union, NATO
and Russia will take part in." Yanukovych wants Ukraine to "neither join NATO
nor the CSTO
He stated on 7 January 2010 that Ukraine is ready to consider an initiative by Dmitry Medvedev
on the creation of a new Europe collective security system
stating "And we're ready to back Russia's and France's initiatives".
Yanukovych stated during the 2010 presidential election
-campaign that the current level of Ukraine's cooperation with NATO
was sufficient and that the question of the country's accession to the alliance was therefore not urgent.
"The Ukrainian people don't currently support Ukraine's entry to NATO and this corresponds to the status that we currently have. We don't want to join any military bloc".
On 27 May 2010 President
Yanukovych stated he considered Ukraine's relations with NATO as a partnership, "And Ukraine can't live without this [partnership], because Ukraine is a large country".
In early November 2011, Yanukovych claimed that "arms are being bought in the country and armed attacks on government agencies are being prepared."
These claims were met with disbelief.
2012 Presidential predictions
For 2012 Yanukovych predicted "social standards will continue to grow" and "improvement of administrative services system will continue".
Yanukovich announced $2 billion worth of pension and other welfare increases on 7 March 2012.
Presidential powers of appointment
On 25 June 2010, President Yanukovych criticised 2004 amendments in the Ukrainian Constitution
which weakened presidential powers such as control over naming government ministers, passing those functions to parliament.
During the 2011 World Economic Forum
, Yanukovych called Ukraine "one of the leaders on democratic development in Eastern Europe".
Bureaucracy and corruption
are today hiding behind democratic slogans in Ukraine. The Ukrainian nation is wise and it will understand. Because a small handful of people, who have been plundering the country for 20 years is only a handful, from which the whole society, the whole state and our image in the world have been suffering. The interest of the Ukrainian nation is that the practice was put an end to... The country has to change. We need to reverse our approaches 180 degrees, and we will do it. The Ukrainian nation stimulates us to.
-- President Yanukovych in Warsaw
4 February 2011, speaking about Ukrainian corruption and cronyism
On 30 November 2010, Yanukovych vetoed a new tax code made by the Azarov Government and earlier approved by the Verkhovna Rada but protested against in rallies across Ukraine (one of the largest protests since the 2004 Orange Revolution
Yanukovych signed a new Tax Code on 3 December 2010.
Domestic spending vs. debt
Yanukovych's Party of Regions
wanted to increase social benefits, and raise salaries and pensions.
In late 2009, a law that raised the minimum wage and pensions was passed in the Ukrainian Parliament. As a result of this, the International Monetary Fund
suspended its 2008–2009 Ukrainian financial crisis
emergency lending programme. According to the IMF, the law breached promises to control spending. During the 2010 presidential campaign
, Yanukovych had stated he would stand by this particular law.
According to Yulia Tymoshenko Bloc
member of parliament Oleh Shevchuk, Yanukovych broke this election promise just three days after the 2010 presidential election when only two lawmakers of Yanukovych's Party of Regions supported a bill to raise pensions for low-incomes.
Downgrading uranium stock
Before the beginning of the Nuclear Security Summit with President of France Nicolas Sarkozy
and Dmitry Medvedev.
East/West Ukraine unification
Yanukovych and then Russian President Dmitry Medvedev
on 17 May 2010 near Memorial to the Holodomor Victims in Kyiv.
The Soviet famine of 1932–33
, called "Holodomor" in Ukrainian, claimed up to 10 million lives, mostly in Ukraine but also in some other parts of the Soviet Union, as peasants' food stocks were forcibly removed by Stalin
's regime via the NKVD
Yanukovych's stance on the Holodomor
was: "Holodomor took place, was denounced and the international society gave an evaluation of the famine
, but it was never labeled as a genocide
of the Ukrainian people. Ukraine's attempts to do so by blaming one of our neighbors are unjust."
"The Holodomor was in Ukraine, Russia
, Belarus and Kazakhstan
. It was the result of the policies of Stalin's totalitarian regime
In 2003, he supported then President Leonid Kuchma
's position that the Holodomor famine was genocide
Yanukovych's press service claims that he does not approve of crimes of the KGB
and their predecessors in Soviet times
, however, in 2002, he wrote in a book endorsing the KGB and its predecessors, stating that the NKVD
"firmly stood on guard over the interests of our people and the state" and praised them for launching "a struggle against political extremism, sabotage and criminal activities."
Russian as an official language
Yanukovych stated in the past that he wanted Russian to become the second state language
is the only official language of Ukraine. According to one Russian poll, Russian is more spoken in daily communications in Ukraine than Ukrainian.
On the other hand, he stated at a meeting with Taras Shevchenko National Prize
winners in Kyiv on 9 March 2010 that "Ukraine will continue to promote the Ukrainian language as its only state language".
In a newspaper interview during the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election
campaign, he stated that the status of Russian in Ukraine "is too politicized" and said that if elected president in 2010 he would "have a real opportunity to adopt a law on languages, which implements the requirements of the European Charter of regional languages
". He said that this law would need 226 votes in the Ukrainian parliament
(half of the votes instead of two-thirds of the votes needed to change the constitution of Ukraine
) and that voters told him that the current status of Russian in Ukraine
created "problems in the hospital, school, university, in the courts, in the office".
Effective in August 2012, a new law on regional languages
entitles any local language spoken by at least a 10% minority be declared official within that area.
On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution
, a bill was passed by the parliament which would have abolished the law on regional languages, making Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels.
This bill was blocked by acting President Turchynov, until a replacement bill is ready.
The 2012 law was ruled unconstitutional and was struck down by the Constitutional Court of Ukraine
in 2018, 4 years after the Euromaidan
In a late July 2013 speech Yanukovych stated: "All churches and religious organizations
are equal for the state. We respect the choice of our citizens and guarantee everyone's Constitutional right to freedom of religion
. We will not allow the use of churches and religious organizations by some political forces for their narrow interests. This also refers to foreign centres through which religious organizations sometimes seek to affect the internal political situation in Ukraine. This is a matter of the state's national security".
U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
is greeted by Yanukovych in Kyiv, Ukraine, 2 July 2010
On 3 June 2010, the Ukrainian parliament
excluded, in a bill written by Yanukovych, with 226 votes, Ukrainian membership of any military bloc, but allowed for co-operation with military alliances such as NATO
A day later Yanukovych stated that the recognition of the independence of Abkhazia
, South Ossetia and Kosovo
violates international law, "I have never recognized Abkhazia, South Ossetia or Kosovo's independence. This is a violation of international law".
On 22 November 2010, the European Council
and Ukraine announced "an action plan for Ukraine toward the establishment of a visa-free regime for short-stay travel".
In May 2011, Yanukovych stated that he would strive for Ukraine to join the EU.
Yanukovych's stance towards integration with the EU, according to The Economist
, led him to be "seen in Moscow as a traitor", a reversal of the 2004 presidential election where Moscow openly supported Yanukovych.
Alleged attempt to remove opposition
Press censorship allegation
Very serious situation
Not classified / No data
Ukraine moved from "noticeable problems" 89th place in 2009, to "difficult situation" 126th place in 2013
As president, Yanukovych stated in early February 2010 that he would support the freedom of speech of journalists
and protect their interests.
In general he wanted the civil society
to be involved in government policy making.
During spring 2010 Ukrainian journalists and Reporters Without Borders
complained of censorship
by Yanukovych's Presidential Administration
; despite statements by Yanukovych how deeply he valued press freedom and that 'free, independent media that must ensure society's unimpeded access to information.'
Anonymous journalists stated early May 2010 that they were voluntarily tailoring their coverage so as not to offend the Yanukovych administration and the Azarov Government
The Azarov Government,
the Presidential Administration
and Yanukovych himself denied being involved with censorship.
In a press conference 12 May 2010 President Yanukovych's representative in the Verkhovna Rada
Yury Miroshnychenko stated that Yanukovych was against political repression for criticism of the regime.
Crimean naval base
On 22 April 2010, Yanukovych stated he did not rule out the possibility of holding a referendum
on the stationing of the Russian Black Sea Fleet
in Ukraine after the necessary legislative framework is adopted for this in future. Yanukovych did plan to hold plebiscites also on other subjects.
Opposition members accused Yanukovych of "selling out national interests".
According to Yanukovych the main priority of his foreign policy was to integrate Ukraine "into the European mainstream", while improving relations with Russia.
According to Yanukovych the only way out of holding the state budget deficit down, as requested by the International Monetary Fund
, while protecting pensioners and minimal wages was to extend the Russian Navy lease in Crimea in exchange for cheaper natural gas.
2012 parliamentary elections
Results of the 2012 parliamentary election. Yanukovych's Party of Regions
Background to removal
protests started in November 2013 when Ukrainian citizens demanded stronger integration with the European Union. The origins of Euromaidan began as a smaller protest that had started in Independence Square
in the center of Kiev on 21 November, the day Yanukovych abruptly changed his mind on an Association Agreement with the European Union, deciding to strengthen economic ties with Russia instead.
However, it was not until 30 November, when a group of student protesters were attacked by police leading to several injuries and hospitalizations, that the protest became a national movement. Many people joined the protest in Independence Square, whose numbers had swelled to nearly 1 million by 8 December.
Mass protests in Kiev
Anti-riot police forces consisting of Internal Troops holding protective position and Berkut
special policemen shooting in Kiev riots, 22 January
The protesters refused to leave the square until their demands were met. These included items that the government should release jailed protesters, sign the EU agreement, and change the Constitution of Ukraine
, and that Yanukovych should resign.
The protestors were attacked by police, resulting in civil unrest across Western Ukraine.
Yanukovych dismissed this as the work of his political opponents; instead, protesters called all the more for his resignation, saying he was "aloof" and unresponsive.
Violence escalated after 16 January 2014 when Yanukovych signed the Bondarenko-Oliynyk laws, also known as Anti-Protest Laws
. Demonstrators occupied provincial administration buildings in at least 10 regions, sending the police fleeing through rear exits in some instances. Verkhovna Rada
lawmakers repealed nine of the 12 restrictive laws that had been passed on 16 January by a show of hands, without debate. Outrage ensued at the limits the laws imposed on free speech and assembly in the country. In a striking concession aimed at defusing Ukraine's civil uprising and preserving his own grip on power, President Yanukovych offered to install opposition leaders in top posts in a reshaped government, but they swiftly rebuffed the offer to the delight of thousands of protesters on the streets craving a fuller victory in the days ahead.
Talks with Yanukovych failed in February 2014, and, according to the President of RussiaVladimir Putin
, Ukraine appeared to be on the brink of civil war
28 protesters had been killed, including seven policemen and a civilian bystander, with 335 injured, on 18 February and dozens of others on 20 February in bloody clashes in Kyiv.
Altogether, at least 77 people were reportedly killed in Euromaidan, and estimates ranged to over 100 deaths and 1,100 injuries.
Reports of corruption and cronyism
By January 2013, more than half of the ministers appointed by Yanukovych were either born in the Donbas
region or made some crucial part of their careers there, and Yanukovych has been accused of "regional cronyism" for his staffing of police, judiciary, and tax services "all over Ukraine" with "Donbas people".
Over 46% of the budget subventions for social and economic development was allotted to the Donbas region's Donetsk Oblast
and Luhansk Oblast
administrations – 0.62 billion UAH ($76.2 million) versus 0.71 billion UAH ($87.5 million) for the rest of the country.
, a Swedish economist and Ukraine analyst, described the consolidation of Ukrainian economic power in the hands of a few "elite industrial tycoons", one of the richest and most influential of whom has become President Yanukovych's own son Oleksandr Yanukovych
. The exact distribution of wealth and precise weight of influence are difficult to gauge, but most of the country's richest men were afraid to cross the Yanukovich family, even in cases where their own economic interests favored an economically pro-EU Ukraine.
The Yanukovych family, a group of young businessmen described as "robber capitalists", have been buying up both public and private businesses at "rock bottom" prices available in the stagnating economic conditions brought on by Yanukovych's economic policies."
According to Åslund, one notable exception to the Yanukovych family's influence was Petro Poroshenko
, who is described as "uncommonly courageous", although his confectionery empire is less susceptible to ruin by the substantial power the Yanukovych family wielded in the heavy industry sectors located in Yanukovych's geographic power base of Donetsk
Yanukovych had an estimated net worth of $12 billion,
and has been accused by Ukrainian officials of misappropriating funds from Ukraine's treasury. Arseniy Yatsenyuk
has claimed that treasury funds of up to $70 billion were transferred to foreign accounts during Yanukovych's presidency. 
Authorities in Switzerland, Austria and Liechtenstein froze the assets of Yanukovych and his son Oleksander on 28 February 2014 pending a money laundering
investigation. Yanukovych has denied that he embezzled
funds and has said that his alleged foreign accounts do not exist.
Yanukovych abandoned his large estate, Mezhyhirya
when he fled the capital. The estate is located in a former forest preserve on the outskirts of Kyiv.
He had acquired the property in 2007, according to critics, through a convoluted series of companies and transactions. Yanukovych did not reveal the price he paid, although he called it a "very serious price".
Mezhyhirya is estimated to have been sold for more than 75 million U.S. dollars.
Protesters walked unchallenged into the former president's office and residential compounds after police and security left their posts in Kyiv. Protesters had free access to government buildings, and to the presidential mansion and estate. They were amazed at the opulence and extravagance of what they found, including a private zoo, a fleet of cars, and a large boat.
In a feature with photos on Yanukovych's Mezhyhirya mansion, Sergii Leshchenko notes "For most of [Yanukovych's] career he was a public servant or parliament deputy, where his salary never exceeded 2000 US dollars per month." Under a photo showing the new home's ornate ceiling, Leschenko remarks, "In a country where 35% of the population live under poverty line, spending 100,000 dollars on each individual chandelier seems excessive, to say the least." Crowned with a pure copper roof, the mansion was the largest wooden structure ever created by Finnish log home builder Honka
, whose representative suggested to Yanukovych that it be nominated for the Guinness Book of Records
. The property contained a private zoo, underground shooting range, 18-hole golf course, tennis, and bowling. After describing the mansion's complicated ownership scheme, the article author noted, "The story of Viktor Yanukovych and his residence highlights a paradox. Having completely rejected such European values as human rights and democracy, the Ukrainian president uses Europe as a place to hide his dirty money with impunity."
Documents recovered from Yanukovych's compound show among other expenses $800 medical treatment for fish, $14,500 spent on tablecloths, and a nearly 42 million dollar order for light fixtures. Also recovered were files on Yanukovych's perceived enemies, especially media members, including beating victim Tetyana Chornovol
. The cost of monitoring the mass media was reportedly $5.7 million just for the month of December 2010.
When the former president departed, 35 cars and seven motorbikes were left behind. Kyiv's District Court seized 27 vintage cars in 2016 from the fleet stationed at Mezhyhirya, some worth more than $US 1 million.
Yanukovych told BBC Newsnight
(in June 2015) that stories that Mezhyhirya cost the Ukrainian taxpayer millions of dollars were "political technology and spin
" and that the estate did not belong to him personally; he claimed that the ostriches in the residence's petting zoo "just happened to be there"
and remarked "I supported the ostriches, what’s wrong with that?".
Accusations of police abuse and vote rigging
Yanukovych has been accused, by Amnesty International
among others, of using the Berkut
to threaten, attack, and torture Ukrainian protesters. The Berkut, disbanded on 25 February 2014, were a controversial national police force under his personal command and were accused of promoting Russian interests. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe
confirmed witness accounts of voters being blocked from access to polls and being attacked along with local election officials who tried to frustrate the Berkut's practice of falsifying voters' ballots in favor of Yanukovych's Party of Regions candidates. Individual cases have been reported of citizens grouping together and fighting back against the Berkut in order to preserve election integrity and results.
Upon coming to power Yanukovych had reversed oversight measures established during the Yushchenko administration to restrain the Berkut's abuse of citizens whereupon the special force "upped its brutality."
Removal from presidency
On 22 February 2014, 328 of 447 members of the Ukrainian parliament (MPs)—or about 73% of the MPs—voted to "remove Viktor Yanukovych from the post of president of Ukraine" on the grounds that he was unable to fulfill his duties
and to hold early presidential elections on 25 May.
The vote came an hour after Yanukovych said in a televised address that he would not resign. He subsequently declared himself to still be "the legitimate head of the Ukrainian state elected in a free vote by Ukrainian citizens".
The constitutionality of Yanukovych's removal from office has been questioned by constitutional experts.
According to Daisy Sindelar from Radio Free Europe, the impeachment may have not followed the procedure provided by the constitution: "[I]t is not clear that the hasty February 22 vote upholds constitutional guidelines, which call for a review of the case by Ukraine's Constitutional Court and a three-fourths majority vote by the Verkhovna Rada -- i.e., 338 lawmakers."
The vote, as analyzed by Sindelar, had ten votes less than those required by the constitutional guidelines. However, Sindelar noted in the same article that, "That discrepancy may soon become irrelevant, with parliament expected to elect a new prime minister no later than February 24." The decision to remove Yanukovich was supported by 328 deputies.[b]
Although the legislative removal by an impeachment procedure would have lacked the number of votes required by Ukraine's constitution,
the resolution did not follow the impeachment procedure but instead established that Yanukovych "withdrew from his duties in an unconstitutional manner" and citing "circumstances of extreme urgency",
a situation for which there was no stipulation in the then-current Ukrainian constitution.
Two days later Ukraine's parliament dismissed five judges of the Constitutional Court for allegedly violating their oaths, who were then investigated for alleged malpractice.
Yanukovych maintains that his replacement was a coup and has continued to make statements from an official perspective.
Disavowal by party
Yanukovych was eventually disowned by the Party of Regions
. In a statement issued by Oleksandr Yefremov, parliamentary faction leader, the party and its members "strongly condemn[ed] the criminal orders that led to human victims, an empty state treasury, huge debts, shame before the eyes of the Ukrainian people and the entire world."
On the same day that parliament removed Yanukovych from office, it voted to authorize the release of his rival Yulia Tymoshenko from a prison hospital.
She had been imprisoned since 2011, in what many saw as political payback by Yanukovych. Her release had been an unmet condition for Ukraine's signing of a European Union trade pact.
Exile in Russia
Yanukovych left Kyiv during the night of 21 February 2014. Assisted by Russian Spetsnaz
he moved initially to Kharkiv
with bodyguards and personal effects.[c]
According to then governor of Kharkiv Oblast
, Mykhailo Dobkin
, Yanukovych had intended to make his stay in Kharkiv look like "just another presidential inspection tour" and according to Dobkin, "was desperate to make it look like he wasn't running away".
Yanukovych asked Dobkin to "pick out a few factories for me to visit"; the director of state-owned industrial giant Turboatom
declined even to take his call (according to Dobkin).
Dobkin met Yanukovych at Kharkiv International Airport
According to Dobkin at that time Yanukovych "thought this was a temporary difficulty" since he believed that the 21 February deal he had signed with opposition leaders
could still provide for a graceful departure of his power later in the year.
Dobkin's impression of Yanukovych (during this meeting) was "a guy on another planet".
In his press conference in Rostov-on-Don on 28 February Yanukovych claimed that at the time he did not "flee anywhere", but that his car was shot at "by automatic rifles
" as he left Kyiv for Kharkiv "to meet the representatives of local parties" and he was then forced to move around Ukraine amid fears for the safety of himself and his family.
"When we arrived in Kharkiv, on the early morning of 22 February, the security service started to receive information that radical groups were arriving in Kharkiv."
On 26 February, Russian media company RBC
Yanukovich's presence in Moscow. According to RBC sources, Yanukovich arrived at the Radisson Royal Hotel, Moscow
(often referred by its former name as "Hotel Ukraine") on the night of 25 February 2014. Then he moved to the Barvikha Sanatorium
, the health resort of the President of Russia in Moscow Oblast. RosBusinessConsulting also reported sightings of Viktor Pshonka
, a former Prosecutor General of Ukraine
in the hall of Radisson Royal Hotel.
The Press Secretary of the Department that manages Barvikha Sanatorium denied the report, stating that he had no information of Yanukovich settled in Barvikha Sanatorium.
According to Russian politician Oleg Mitvol
, Yanukovych bought a house in Barvikha for $52 million on 26 February 2014.
On 27 February, a report stated that Yanukovych had asked the authorities of the Russian Federation to guarantee his personal security in the territory of Russia, a request that they accepted.
Yanukovych claimed that the decisions of the Rada
adopted "in the atmosphere of extremist threats" are unlawful and he remains the "legal president of Ukraine". He accused the opposition of violation of the 21 February agreements and asked the armed forces of Ukraine not to intervene in the crisis. The exact whereabouts of Yanukovych when he made this statement remains unclear.
He later thanked Vladimir Putin for "saving his life".
According to an April 2014 poll conducted by the Razumkov Centre
, only 4.9% of respondents would have liked to see Yanukovych return to the presidency.
On 3 October 2014, several news agencies reported that according to a Facebook post made by the aide to the Ukrainian Interior Minister, Anton Gerashchenko, Viktor Yanukovych had been granted Russian citizenship by a "secret decree" of Vladimir Putin.
On the same day, Russian presidential spokesman Dmitry Peskov
said that he didn't know anything about this.
Position of Yanukovych on his removal
In a press conference in Rostov-on-Don
on 28 February 2014, Yanukovych stated that all his possessions had been legally declared and accounted for.
The same day Swiss and Austrian authorities blocked Yanukovych's and his associates' assets, and launched a corruption investigation.
Yanukovych said that an "armed coup" had taken place in Ukraine, and that he was still the legitimate president because there had been no impeachment, resignation, or death.
On 11 March he claimed he should return to Ukraine as soon as this was possible.[d]
Yanukovych further stated he had been able to escape to Russia "thanks to patriotic officers who did their duty and helped me stay alive".
In the press conference he stated that he was still President of Ukraine and "I can't find words to characterise this new authority
. These are people who advocate violence - the Ukrainian parliament
He described the new Ukrainian authorities as "pro-fascist
thugs" and that they "represent the absolute minority of the population of Ukraine
He apologised to the Ukrainian people
for not having "enough strength to keep stability" and for allowing "lawlessness in this country".
He vowed to return to Ukraine "as soon as there are guarantees for my security and that of my family".
He insisted he had not instructed Ukrainian forces to shoot at Euromaidan protesters.
He also announced he would not take part in the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election
since he "believe[d] they are unlawful...".
He also said he was surprised ("knowing the character of Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin"
) by the silence of Russia's president, Vladimir Putin
, on the events in Ukraine.
He hoped to find out more on Russia's position when he meets with Mr. Putin "as soon as he has time".
The issue of Russian military intervention
Protesters marching on the streets of Odessa
on 30 March 2014; some of them holding banners claiming Yanukovych as Ukraine's legitimate president.
Yanukovych also claimed "eastern Ukraine
will rise up as soon as they have to live without any means".
On 28 February 2014 the BBC reported him as insisting that military action was "unacceptable" and as stating that he would not request Russian military intervention.
On 4 March 2014, Russia's Permanent Representative to the United Nations
, Vitaly Churkin
, displayed a photocopy of a letter allegedly signed by Victor Yanukovych on 1 March 2014. In the letter Yanukovych requested Russian military intervention in Ukraine
to "restore law and order".
Yanukovych said: "We must set such a task and search for ways to return to Crimea on any conditions, so that Crimea may have the maximum degree of independence possible... but be part of Ukraine."
11 March press conference and further developments
At a press-conference in Rostov-On-Don on 11 March 2014 Yanukovych asked the Ukrainian military
to disobey the "criminal orders" of a "band of ultranationalists
". He called the 2014 Ukrainian presidential election
illegal, as well as U.S. financial help, since US law allegedly did not allow the support of "bandits". Yanukovych stated he would like to ask the Western supporters of the Yatsenyuk Government
that he referred to as "dark powers": "Have you become blind? Have you forgotten what fascism
is?" alluding to the fact that several positions in the transitional government went to representatives of the right-wing extremist nationalist group Svoboda, condemned by the EU in 2012 (see Svoboda Party
Unlike his 28 February press conference, Yanukovych did not take questions from reporters.
On 13 June 2014, Yanukovych released a video message in which he criticised Petro Poroshenko
's handling of the unrest in eastern Ukraine
, naming it "criminal orders to kill people...that causes anger and curse the mothers who see the death and suffering of their children".
Russian media had previously reported that Yanukovych, along with his wife, had moved to Sochi
On 21 February 2015, a year after the revolution, Yanukovych gave an interview to Channel One
regarding the situation in Ukraine and promised to return to power as soon as he could.
On 18 June 2015, Yanukovych was officially deprived of the title of President of Ukraine.
On 22 June 2015, Yanukovych was interviewed on BBC Newsnight
and he accepted some responsibility for the deaths just before his removal from power.
On 26 November 2015, Yanukovych received a temporary asylum certificate in Russia for one year; later extended until November 2017.
In October 2017, this was extended to another year.
According to his lawyer Yanukovych did not consider acquiring Russian citizenship or a permanent residence permits but "Only a temporary shelter for returning to the territory of Ukraine".
On 7 December 2015, Yanukovych announced his interest in returning to Ukrainian politics.
Former criminal convictions and new criminal cases
On 15 December 1967, at the age of 17, Yanukovych was sentenced to three years incarceration for participating in a robbery and assault.
On 8 June 1970, he was convicted for a second time on charges of assault. He was sentenced to two years of imprisonment and did not appeal against the verdict. Decades later, Yanukovych characterized his arrests and incarceration as "mistakes of youth".
On 11 July 2005, the office of the Donetsk Oblast Prosecutor charged Yanukovych with fraud,
stemming from alleged irregularities in the way his convictions were expunged twenty years earlier.
In 2006, the General Prosecutor closed the case due to lack of evidence.
In 2006, a criminal charge was filed for official falsifying of documents concerning the quashing of Yanukovych's prior convictions after it was discovered that two documents had been tampered with, including the forgery of a judge's signature in connection with one charge of battery
A warrant for Yanukovych's arrest was issued on 24 February 2014 by the interim government, accusing him of mass murder of protesters.
Acting Ukrainian Interior Minister Arsen Avakov
declared that Yanukovych has been placed on Ukraine's most wanted list
and that a criminal case on mass killings of civilians has been opened against him.
On 28 February 2014, the General Prosecutor of Ukraine, Oleh Makhnitsky
formally asked Russia to extradite Yanukovych.
Russian prosecutors stated that they had not received such a request from Ukraine.
To date, Russia has declined to extradite him.
Due to the Crimean crisis
he was put on the US sanction list on 17 March 2014, even though such have been already considered before.
After the Euromaidan
events the General Prosecutor opened at least four new criminal cases against the former president of Ukraine. This included multiple cash payments to a number of Ukraine's top officials which were investigated as suspected bribes. The payments totalled $2 billion over years, ranging from $500k to $20m paid in cash, the recipients included "ministers, heads of agencies, Verkhovna Rada members, civic activists, representatives of international organizations, top judges, including those of the Supreme Administrative Court and the Constitutional Court, and the Central Election Commission".
On 30 September 2014, the General Prosecutor of Ukraine opened a new case against Yanukovych for using 220 million hryvnia
of state money to establish his own private communication company based on Ukrtelekom
The prosecutor's office also considered that Yanukovych was helped by the former government officials Mykola Azarov
(prime minister), Yuriy Kolobov
(finance minister), Anatoliy Markovsky (first deputy minister of finance), Hennadiy Reznikov (director of Derzhspetszviazok
), and Dzenyk (Ukrtelekom board of directors).
Signing of the Kharkiv treaty
Since the summer of 2014, the prosecutor's office has investigated the signing the Kharkiv treaty by Yanukovych that allowed the Black Sea Fleet
to stay in Ukraine for an additional 25 years.
Yanukovych is being charged with abuse of power
(Article 364) and state treason
(Article 111) that are being investigated since April 2014 as well as the new procedure on creation of criminal organization
(Article 255) that is being investigated since the summer.
Mass murder at Maidan
Accusations of mass murder at Maidan included a group of Criminal Code articles including an attempt to relocate a headquarters of Supreme Commander-in-Chief, National Bank and Foreign Ministry to Sevastopol
(Article 109, part 2) as well as Yanukovych's statements about the illegitimacy of higher state authorities after his overthrow (Article 109, part 3).
Property theft through conspiracy
Yanukovych is also charged with property theft in a conspiracy with the chairman of the Nadra Ukrainy state company (Articles 109 and 209), which has been under investigation since March 2014.
For several years, Interpol refused to place Viktor Yanukovych on the wanted list as a suspect by the new Ukrainian government
for the mass killing of protesters during Euromaidan.
However, on 12 January 2015, Viktor Yanukovych was listed by Interpol
as "wanted by the judicial authorities of Ukraine for prosecution / to serve a sentence" on charges of "misappropriation, embezzlement or conversion of property by malversation, if committed in respect of an especially gross amount, or by an organized group".
On 16 July 2015, some Russian media reported that Interpol had suspended its Red Notice for Yanukovych.
According to the Ukrainian Interpol office, this was a temporary measure due to Yanukovych's complaints that the charges were politically motivated.
Interpol later confirmed that Yanukovych and Oleksandr Yanukovych were no longer subject to an Interpol red notice or diffusion, and that they are unknown on Interpol's databases. Interpol's action followed an application to Interpol by Joseph Hage Aaronson on behalf of Yanukovych seeking his removal from the Interpol wanted list, as according to the law firm, the criminal charges brought by the Ukrainian government against Yanukovych were "part of a pattern of political persecution of him."
In 2017, Yanukovych's son was removed from Interpol's wanted list.
In November 2016, Prosecutor General Yuriy Lutsenko
questioned Yanukovych via video link in connection with the former Berkut
. During the questioning, Lutsenko told Yanukovych that he was being accused of treason.
On 14 March 2017, the Prosecutor General submitted to court documents of the Yanukovych's case on state treason
Yanukovych was charged with encroachment on the territorial integrity and inviolability of Ukraine, high treason, and complicity in aggressive warfare by the Russian Federation aimed at altering Ukraine's state borders.
More than 100 witnesses were interviewed for the case. One was Denis Voronenkov
, who was shot in downtown Kyiv at the end of March 2017.
On 4 May 2017 the first preliminary session commenced in Kyiv's Obolonskyi District
Court under Judge Vladyslav Devyatko. Yanukovych was not present and was tried in absentia
. He gave evidence via video link from Russia.
Ukrainian prosecutors asked the court in Kyiv to sentence the former leader to 15 years in prison. Prosecutors Ruslan Kravchenko and Maksym Krym made the request on 16 August, during closing arguments of the trial. The judge then adjourned the trial until 13 September.
However the former leader was hospitalized in Moscow days before he was scheduled to give the final statement. Yanukovych was taken to Moscow's Sklifosovsky Institute of Emergency Medicine
by ambulance on 16 November in an immobilized condition. He allegedly sustained back and knee injuries while "playing tennis".
On 24 January 2019 a panel of three judges of the Obolonskyi District Court found Yanukovych guilty of high treason and complicity in Russian military intervention in Ukraine. They stated that "the court, having heard the testimony of witnesses, examined conclusions of experts, documents and material evidence, assessed the arguments of prosecution and defense, considers that the guilt of the accused in committing the crimes under Part 1 Article 111 (high treason), Part 5 Article 27, Part 2 Article 437 (complicity in conducting an aggressive war) of the Criminal Code of Ukraine
is duly proved by relevant and admissible evidence".
He was acquitted of the other charge relating to Ukraine's sovereignty and territorial integrity. The verdict was that Yanukovych was sentenced to 13 years of jail in absentia
The former president's official website stated that he graduated from Donetsk Polytechnic Institute
with a major in Mechanical Engineering, holds a master's degree in International Law at the Ukrainian Academy of Foreign Trade and is a member of the Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine, PhD in Economics.
According to the Russian website ua.spinform.ru, from December 2000 to February 2004, while in the position of Ukrainian Prime Minister, Yanukovych headed the Faculty of Innovative Management at the Donetsk State University of Management.
Yanukovych's curriculum vitae, published at website europarl.europa.eu, states he is a "Doctor of Economics, Professor, Full Member of the Academy of Economic Sciences of Ukraine, Member of the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences in Ukraine."
Website Pravda.com.ua reported that Yanukovych received the honorary title of docent (lecturer) of the Faculty of Automobile Transport at the Donetsk State Academy of Administration, a tertiary education establishment that specialised in Economics and Management
Oleksandr Zakharov, who studied international law at the Academy of Foreign Trade at the same time as Yanukovych, contended that "individual study programs" such as Yanukovych's were commonly viewed as a diploma mill
for state officials.
Until 2004, Yanukovych was known as batia
("Dad") among his family members, but since that time he became "leader
As Yanukovych himself stated, his ex-wife does not wish for her grandson to pick up the bad habits of his grandfather, albeit Yanukovych did not specify what kind of habits those were.
In March 2012, Yanukovych stated it was "a problem" for him in 2002 to speak Ukrainian but that "once I had the opportunity to speak Ukrainian, I started to do it with pleasure".
Yanukovych was first married to Lyudmyla Oleksandrivna. The couple married in 1971.
With his wife Yanukovych had two sons, Oleksandr
, and three grandsons Viktor, Oleksandr and Iliya.
From 2006 to 2014, the younger Viktor was a member of the Parliament of Ukraine
; he drowned in 2015.
Yanukovych also stated that he was living in an "unofficial marriage" in Russia with then 39-year-old Lybov Polezhay.
Polezhay is the sister of his former cook at the Mezhyhirya residence.
Polezhay also lived in the Mezhyhirya Residence and left Ukraine with Yanukovych in 2014.
Cultural and political image
Anti-presidential inscriptions concerning Yanukovych's criminal background (Luhansk
Yanukovych was seen by opponents as representing the interests of Ukrainian big business; they pointed out that his campaigns benefited from backing by Ukrainian billionaire Rinat Akhmetov
Supporters of Yanukovych pointed out that the Donetsk Oblast secured unprecedented levels of investment during his time in office.
Yanukovych drew strong support from Russian-speaking Ukrainians
in the east of the country.
He is disliked and distrusted in western Ukraine.
The People's Movement of Ukraine
labeled his election on 10 February 2010 as "an attack by anti-Ukrainian forces on our state" and stated that "all possible legal means should be used to prevent the concentration of power in the hands of anti-state politician Yanukovych and his pro-Moscow retinue".
On 16 February 2010, Yanukovych issued a statement that read: "I can say only one thing to those who anticipate that my presidency will weaken Ukraine – that will never happen."
Yanukovych refers to himself as Ukrainian
Voters for Yanukovych in 2010 believed he would bring "stability and order". They blamed the Orange Revolution
for creating broken promises, a dysfunctional economy and political chaos.
During the 2010 presidential election
campaign Yuriy Yakymenko, director of political research at the Razumkov Centre
, stated: "I think he has not just changed on the surface but also in his ideas."
Yanukovych is not known as a great speaker.
His native language is Russian,
similar to a majority of the population of his power-base and native Eastern Ukraine
He however, made efforts to speak Ukrainian
He admitted in March 2012 that it was a problem for him in 2002 to speak Ukrainian.
He has made some blunders, however, in Ukrainian since then.
For the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election
, Yanukovych wrote an autobiography for the Central Election Commission
, in which he misspelled his academic degree.
Thereafter, he came to be widely referred to under this nickname in opposition media and opponents' speeches.
His autobiographic resume of 90 words contains 12 major spelling and grammatical errors.
Opponents of Yanukovych made fun of this misspelling and his criminal convictions during the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election campaign and the incident during the campaign (September 2004) in Ivano-Frankivsk
when Yanukovych was rushed to hospital after being hit by an egg (while government officials claimed he was hit by a brick) was a source of ridicule.
Yanukovych stated in November 2009 that he respects all Ukrainian politicians. "I have never offended anyone. This is my rule of politics."
In spite of his claim, on 22 September 2007, during the 2007 Ukrainian parliamentary election
campaign, while delivering a speech in Vinnytsia
, he compared Yulia Tymoshenko
's performance as Prime Minister to "a cow on ice"
("Вона прем'єр-міністр, як корова на льду....", "She is a prime minister like a cow on ice") most likely referring to her skills and professionalism as a prime minister.
Other cases of strong colloquialisms used by Yanukovych include the incident when he called former president Viktor Yushchenko
"a coward and a babbler",
as well as a speech in Donetsk
during the 2004 Ukrainian presidential election
, when he referred to the electorate of his opponent Viktor Yushchenko
as "goats that make our lives difficult" ("эти козлы, которые нам мешают жить"). Later, during TV debates with Yushchenko he explained, "I called the traitors goats. According to the Bible, the goat is a traitor, and there are also rams, sheep."
After his February 2014 escape to Russia, during his 28 February press conference in Rostov-on-Don, Yanukovych said, "Ukraine is our strategic partner" (misspeaking and confusing Ukraine with Russia).
During the same press conference he also broke a pen in an emotional outburst, while trying to apologize to the Ukrainian people.
Opinion polls showed that Yanukovych's popularity sank after his election as president in 2010, with polls giving him from 13% to 20% of the votes if a presidential election were to be held in 2012 (in 2010 he received 35.8% of the vote in the first round of that election
A public opinion poll taken by Sociological group "RATING"
gave him 25.1% of the votes in an imaginary February 2013 presidential election.[e]
In an overview piece in March 2013, The Ukrainian Week
claimed that Yanukovych had "failed to meet" his 2010 election promises.
Manafort hired the public relations firm Edelman
to lift Yanukovych's public image. However, Manafort's friends have said that Yanukovych "stopped listening" to him after he became president in 2010; Manafort warned him of the consequences of "extreme" political measures.
Manafort would later go on to serve as campaign chairman for Donald Trump
The American FBI
began a criminal investigation into Manafort's business dealings while he was lobbying for Yanukovych. American Federal prosecutors alleged that between 2010 and 2014 Manafort was paid more than $60 million by Ukrainian sponsors, including Rinat Akhmetov
, believed to be the richest man in Ukraine.
In January 2019, Manafort resigned from the Connecticut bar.
- ^ De facto fled the country in the night of 21–22 February, although claiming his legitimacy sometime after that. Officially deprived of the title on 18 June 2015.
- ^ Feffer (2014) "Article 11 maintains that a vote on impeachment must pass by two-thirds of the members, and the impeachment itself requires a vote by three-quarters of the members. In this case, the 328 out of 447 votes were about 10 votes short of three-quarters,"
- ^ On 24 October 2014 Russian President Vladimir Putin stated that Russia had assisted Yanukovych in travelling to Crimea and then to Russia; after 21 February 2014 Putin claimed that Yanukovych "stayed for several more days" in Crimea but then asked to be evacuated to Russia "as the events in Kyiv were developing very quickly and violently, it made no sense for him to return to Kyiv in those conditions" (according to Putin). On 22 June 2015 Yanukovych confirmed this.
- ^ According to the Ukrainian constitution, the state language of Ukraine is Ukrainian. Russian is however widely spoken, especially in eastern and southern Ukraine.
- ^ According to polling organization Sociological group "RATING" in February 2013 Yanukovych would have lost the second round of the presidential election against Vitali Klitschko and/or Arseniy Yatsenyuk and/or Yulia Tymoshenko; and he would have defeated in a close race Oleh Tyahnybok (with 33.5% of the votes).
- ^ Resolution of Verkhovna Rada #757-VII. About self removal of President of Ukraine from execution of his constitutional powers and assignment of early elections of President of Ukraine (Про самоусунення Президента України від виконання конституційних повноважень та призначення позачергових виборів Президента України). Verkhovna Rada website. 22 February 2014
- ^ "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the V convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- ^ "People's Deputy of Ukraine of the VI convocation". Official portal (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine. Retrieved 22 December 2014.
- ^ a b c "YANUKOVYCH, VIKTOR". Interpol. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ Ukraine's Tymoshenko Slams Rival, No Comment On Election Result, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (11 February 2010): "International observers and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe have called the election transparent and honest."
- ^ Roth, Andrew (25 January 2019). "Ukraine's ex-president Viktor Yanukovych found guilty of treason". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 May 2020.
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: Timeline".
- ^ "Yanukovych set to become president as observers say Ukraine election was fair".
- ^ Rajan Menon (28 January 2014). "Ukraine: Is Yanukovych Finished?". The National Interest. p. 3. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ^ Kathy Lally (11 March 2014). "Ousted Ukraine president warns of civil war, criticizes U.S. for aiding current government". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Maxim Eristavi (2 March 2014). "How Ukraine's Parliament Brought Down Yanukovych". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b Taras Kuzio (14 November 2012). "Berkut Riot Police Used to Falsify Ukrainian Parliamentary Elections". Eurasia Daily Monitor Volume: 9 Issue: 209. The Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 18 October 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine Violence Leaves at Least 10 Dead". ABC News. 18 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 18 February 2014.
- ^ "Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president", BBC News (23 February 2014)
"Ukraine protests timeline", BBC News (23 February 2014)
- ^ Shiv Malik; Aisha Gani; Tom McCarthy (21 February 2014). "Ukraine crisis: deal signed in effort to end Kiev standoff". The Guardian. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Ukrainian ex-leader Viktor Yanukovych vows fightback, BBC News (28 February 2014)
- ^ a b c d Andrew Higgins; Andrew E.Kramer (22 February 2014). "Archrival Is Freed as Ukraine Leader Flees". The New York Times. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- ^ a b c David Stern (22 February 2014). "Ukrainian MPs vote to oust President Yanukovych". BBC. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b "Постанова про усунення і результати голосування по ній на сайті верховної ради України" (in Ukrainian) Archived 12 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b Рада скинула Януковича [Parliament dropped Yanukovych] (in Ukrainian). 22 February 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- ^ a b "Ukraine's new government is not legitimate – Dmitry Medvedev: Warrant out for former president Viktor Yanukovych's arrest on charges relating to deaths of civilians". The Guardian. 24 February 2014. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
- ^ a b "Yanukovych reportedly declares he is Ukraine's president and plans press conference in Russia on Feb. 28". Kyiv Post. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- ^ a b Published law deprives Yanukovych of presidential rank, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (17 June 2015)
- ^ "Ukrainian court sentences ex-president Yanukovich to 13 years in prison". Reuters. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2019.
- ^ a b c "Ukraine's 'Orange villain' seeks last laugh", U.K. Telegraph online (12 January 2010)
- ^ Wojciechowski, M. Janukowycz zmienia konstytucję Ukrainy, przedłuża sobie kadencję i podkreśla polskie korzenie. "Gazeta Wyborcza". Kyiv, 02/2011.
- ^ "Polski Network. Znani Polacy współcześnie". Polskinetwork.org. Archived from the original on 27 January 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ a b (in Belarusian) Бiрыла, М. В. (1966). Беларуская антрапанiмiя. Уласныя iмёны, iмёны-мянушкi, iмёны па бацьку, прозвiшчы. Мінск: Навука i тэхнiка. с. 85–86.
- ^ Unbegaun, B. O. (1972). Russian Surnames. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 529 p.
- ^ (in Belarusian) Усціновіч, Г. К. (1975). Антрапанімія Гродзеншчыны і Брэстчыны (XIV—XVIII стст.). Мінск: Навука і тэхніка. с. 89–106.
- ^ (in Belarusian) Ластоўскі, В. (1924). Падручны Расійска-Крыўскі (Беларускі) слоўнік. Коўна. c. 761–767.
- ^ (in Belarusian) Шур, В. В. (2010). Уласнае імя ў мастацкім тэксце. с. 93.
- ^ "Politicians' roots: Ataman from Khoruzhivka and Kuzhel-Dolgorukaya" (in Russian). Segodnya. 1 May 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2009.
- ^ Interfax-Ukraine. #comment-104899 "Yanukovych announces Polish roots ahead of Warsaw trip on 3 Feb" Check |url= value (help). Kyiv Post. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- ^ (in Russian) "Прємьєр-міністр" Янукович, или неофициальная биография для тех, кто подзабыл, Ukrayinska Pravda (4 August 2006)
- ^ a b c d Gorina, Ivanna (13 July 2005). "Criminal record of Yanukovych not purged". Rossiyskaya Gazeta (in Russian). Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ a b c d "Yanukovych's criminal record re-instated" (in Russian). Polit.ru. 12 July 2005. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ a b "First ladies of Ukraine", Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (6 June 2014)
- ^ Kazmirenko, Y. From where started Yanukovych. Gazeta po-kievsky. 25 February 2010
- ^ "Public image of Yanukovych". Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ a b c d "Profile: Viktor Yanukovych", BBC News (regularly updated)
- ^ "The countries of the former Soviet Union at the turn of the twenty-first century: the Baltic and European states in transition" (page 556) by Ian Jeffries, ISBN 0-415-25230-X, 9780415252300 (published in 2004)
- ^ "Political career of Viktor Y." from-ua.com (in Russian). Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- ^ "How Ukraine Became a Market Economy and Democracy" by Anders Åslund, Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2009, ISBN 978-0-88132-427-3 (page 153)
- ^ Paton Walsh, Nick. "Pressure Mounts on Yanukovych to yield." The Guardian. 29 December 2004.
- ^ "Yanukovych says presidential election scenario of 2004 won't be repeated in 2010" Archived 16 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (27 November 2009)
- ^ (in Russian) "Мог ли Янукович сесть в третий раз", Газета.ua (12 November 2009)
- ^ "Party of Regions hopes for strengthening collaboration with 'United Russia' party", Kyiv Post (22 November 2009) Archived 23 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b Yanukovych calls for new format of Ukraine-EU dialog on collective security, Kyiv Post (21 November 2009) Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Yanukovych to participate in congress of United Russia party in Moscow", Kyiv Post (20 November 2008) Archived 5 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Lutsenko accepts the fact of falsification with the clearing of charges on Yanukovych". Korrespondent (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Yanukovych can go to the elections, even with falsifications". Korrespondent (in Russian). Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Viktor Yanukovych was appointed chairman of the Government Chiefs Council of the CIS". for-ua. Archived from the original on 9 April 2014.
- ^ "Yanukovych tops list of presidential candidates in Ukraine – poll". Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2009.
- ^ "Party of Regions Nominates Yanukovych As Its Presidential Candidate". 23 October 2009. Archived from the original on 5 January 2013. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine's Youth Party to support Yanukovych at elections, party's congress decides", Interfax-Ukraine (7 December 2009)
- ^ "Lutsenko accuses Yanukovych of giving false data in his income declaration" Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (8 December 2009)
- ^ a b "Disturbing Role of American Consultants in Yanukovych’s Ukraine", Freedom House (28 February 2014)
- ^ "Yanukovych vows to gather people on Maidan if election results are rigged" Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (11 December 2009)
- ^ a b Marson, James (18 January 2010). "Ukrainian Presidential Election Set for Runoff". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 18 January 2010.
- ^ (in Ukrainian)"Regular elections of the President of Ukraine 17/01/2010", Central Election Commission of Ukraine Archived 21 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Yulia Tymoshenko will not challenge election results in Supreme Court" Archived 18 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Official website of Yulia Tymoshenko (20 February 2009)
- ^ "Update: Ukraine's Yanukovych to be sworn in on Feb. 25", Kyiv Post (16 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yushchenko endorses plan of presidential inauguration events, Kyiv Post (20 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yushchenko congratulates Yanukovych on being legally elected Ukrainian president, Kyiv Post (20 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Patriarch Kirill to conduct prayer service in Kyiv before Yanukovych's inauguration, Kyiv Post (February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Russian patriarch to attend Yanukovych's inauguration in Kiev, RIA Novosti (19 February 2010)
- ^ a b Ukraine Yanukovych sets visits to Moscow, Brussels, Kyiv Post (25 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ New Ukraine president pledges neutrality, Agence France-Presse (24 February 2010) Archived 2 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Half-empty chamber greets Ukraine's new president, Kyiv Post (25 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ukraine's Party of Regions to choose new leader, RIA Novosti (23 April 2010) Archived 17 October 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych suspends his membership in Party of Regions, hands over party leadership to Azarov, Kyiv Post (3 March 2010) Archived 14 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b EU, Ukraine Agree On 'Road Map' For Visa-Free Travel , Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (22 November 2010)
- ^ Ukraine's political cat-fight leaves voters cold, BBC News (2 December 2009)
- ^ a b c "Yanukovych: Ukraine will remain a neutral state". Kyiv Post. 7 January 2010. Archived from the original on 21 January 2010.
- ^ a b c Yanukovych describes current level of Ukraine's cooperation with NATO as sufficientArchived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (12 January 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine currently not ready to join NATO, Kyiv Post (27 May 2010)
- ^ a b c Creeping Paranoia, Kyiv Post (10 November 2011) Archived 28 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ President:Social standards will continue to grow in 2012, President.gov.ua (16 February 2012) Archived 26 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ President:Improvement of administrative services system will continue, President.gov.ua (16 February 2012) Archived 25 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ President:We need to bring perinatal care in Ukraine to European standards, President.gov.ua (16 February 2012) Archived 25 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych outlines four areas of social reforms in Ukraine, Kyiv Post (7 March 2012) Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ukraine government earmarks $2 billion in pre-election spending, Kyiv Post (7 March 2012) Archived 1 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Azarov:Government to cope with tasks set by Yanukovych, Kyiv Post (7 March 2012) Archived 19 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Klitschko:UDAR won't join work of Constitutional Assembly, Kyiv Post (7 December 2012)
- ^ Yanukovych criticises limits on his power, Kyiv Post (25 June 2010) Archived 30 July 2010 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine a leading country in Eastern Europe, Kyiv Post (28 January 2010) Archived 3 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b Yanukovych: 'Some misinform international community about Ukraine', Kyiv Post (7 February 2011) Archived 14 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ukrainian parliament creates new coalition, Kyiv Post (11 March 2010) Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Update: Former finance minister nominated as Ukraine prime minister, Kyiv Post (11 March 2010) Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Tax code protests intensify, Kyiv Post (26 November 2010) Archived 12 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Update: Yanukovych vetoes tax code after protests, Kyiv Post (30 November 2010) Archived 27 January 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych vetoes the tax code, Kyiv Post (30 November 2010) Archived 19 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych signs new tax code, Kyiv Post (3 December 2010) Archived 5 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych: Tymoshenko to use issue of increasing social benefits in her presidential campaign Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (16 September 2009)
- ^ "Analysis: West seeks clarity in Ukraine to boost economy". Kyiv Post. Reuters. 8 February 2010. Archived from the original on 29 January 2011.
- ^ Yanukovych back-tracks on his pre-election promises, Z I K (10 February 2010)
- ^ "It is necessary to restore law and order in our country", Euronews (12 October 2009)
- ^ "Ukraine presidential candidates trade warnings, promises", Earth Times (13 January 2010)
- ^ What Yanukovych presidency would mean for Ukraine, Kyiv Post (8 February 2010) Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych: we do not live in fairy tale, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (2 February 2011)
- ^ Yanukovych gives rare and long television interview (VIDEO), Kyiv Post (25 February 2012) Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Wilson, Scott (12 April 2010). "Ukraine to Give up Highly Enriched Uranium, Convert Nuclear Reactors". The Washington Post. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- ^ Yanukovych said about his big dream. Ukrainian Independent Information Agency. (28 September 2009).
- ^ "Prospects for Ukraine's joining EU depend on EU's political decision, says Yanukovych"Archived 15 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (28 September 2009)
- ^ a b Yanukovych: We should find ways of reconciliation between all parties participating in World War II, Interfax-Ukraine (9 May 2013)
- ^ "Holodomor: Memories of Ukraine's silent massacre". BBC News. 23 November 2013.
- ^ "Ukraine remembers famine horror". BBC News. 24 November 2007.
- ^ Ukraine must not blame neighbors for famine – Yanukovych, RIA Novosti (16 January 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych: Famine of 1930s was not genocide against Ukrainians, Kyiv Post (27 April 2010) Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b In 2002, Yanukovych as Donetsk Oblast governor endorsed book glorifying Stalin-era secret police, Kyiv Post (16 December 2011) Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych imagines how he signs law on Russian language, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (3 September 2009)
- ^ In an October 2009 poll by FOM-Ukraine 52% of the respondents state they use Russian as their "Language of communication"; 41% of the respondents state they use Ukrainian and 8% stated they use a mixture of both. Source: FOM-Ukraine (bottom of page) (in Russian)
- ^ Yanukovych: Ukraine will not have second state language, Kyiv Post (9 March 2010) Archived 5 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ (in Russian) "Доверия к Тимошенко у меня нет и быть не может", Kommersant (9 December 2009) Archived 18 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Yanukovych signs language bill into law". Kyiv Post. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- ^ Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Ukraine's 2012 Language Law to Stay Until New Bill Ready – Turchynov". RIA Novosti. 3 March 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Ухвалено Рішення Конституційного Суду України № 2-р/2018" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). Constitutional Court of Ukraine. 28 February 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 March 2018.
- ^ Mission: Impossible, The Ukrainian Week (6 August 2013)
- ^ Ukrainian protesters storm parliament, Kyiv Post (4 November 2011) Archived 1 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych Will Visit EU Before Russia, Moscow Times (24 February 2010)
- ^ Ukraine's Yanukovych: EU ties a 'key priority', Kyiv Post (1 March 2010) Archived 14 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ukraine vows new page in ties with Russia, The News International (6 March 2010)[dead link]
- ^ Russia and Ukraine improve soured relations – Russian President, RIA Novosti (16 May 2010)
- ^ Putin satisfied with state of Ukrainian-Russian relations, Kyiv Post (28 June 2010)
- ^ Ukraine drops Nato membership bid, EUobserver (6 June 2010)
- ^ Ukraine's parliament votes to abandon Nato ambitions, BBC News (3 June 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych: Recognition of independence of Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Kosovo violates international law, Kyiv Post (4 June 2010) Archived 18 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych Drives Ukraine Toward EU as Russian Natural Gas Agreement Looms, Bloomberg L.P. (25 May 2011)
- ^ "Charlemagne: Playing East against West". The Economist. 23 November 2013. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ Ian Traynor in Brussels. "Ukraine suspends talks on EU trade pact as Putin wins tug of war". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ Ukraine right-wing politics: is the genie out of the bottle?, openDemocracy.net (3 January 2011)
- ^ Ukraine viewpoint: Novelist Andrey Kurkov, BBC News (13 January 2011)
- ^ Ukraine ex-PM Tymoshenko charged with misusing funds, BBC News (20 December 2010)
- ^ The Party of Regions monopolises power in Ukraine, Centre for Eastern Studies (29 September 2010)
- ^ Ukraine launches battle against corruption, BBC News (18 January 2011)
- ^ Ukrainians' long wait for prosperity, BBC News (18 October 2010)
- ^ Ukraine:Journalists Face Uncertain Future, Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting (27 October 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych Tells U.K's Cameron No Fears for Ukraine's Democracy, Turkish Weekly (6 October 2010)[dead link]
- ^ Yulia Kovalevska:Only some bankrupt politicians try to use the Day of Unification with the aim of self-PR[permanent dead link], Party of Regions official website (21 January 2011)[dead link]
- ^ President: Ukraine must fulfill its commitments to Council of Europe, president.gov.ua (13 January 2011) Archived 27 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Our Ukraine comes to defense of Tymoshenko, Lutsenko, Didenko, Makarenko in statementArchived 3 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (25 May 2011)
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2016. US Embassy, Kyiv, (24 September 2011)
- ^ https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-14459446 BBC News, (24 September 2011)
- ^ "Kyiv Post (24 September 2011)". Kyiv Post. 2 September 2011. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^http://www.spiegel.de/international/europe/0,1518,736745,00.html, Der Spiegel (24 September 2011)
- ^  Kyiv Post (24 September 2011) Archived 1 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^  Kyiv Post (24 September 2011) Archived 4 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Trials of Tymoshenko, other officials fall short of European standards, Yanukovych admits, Kyiv Post (25 February 2012) Archived 9 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Press Freedom Index 2014" Archived 14 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Reporters Without Borders, 11 May 2014
- ^ Yanukovych says he will protect freedom of speech and interests of journalists, Kyiv Post (10 February 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych says good governance depends on involvement of civil society, Kyiv Post (23 September 2011) Archived 28 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ 1+1 TV journalists claim censorship of news reports, Kyiv Post (6 May 2009) Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Journalists, in defensive crouch, swing news coverage to Yanukovych’s favor, Kyiv Post (6 May 2009) Archived 13 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Semynozhenko: No examples of censorship on Ukrainian TV channels, Kyiv Post (13 May 2009) Archived 6 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Opposition benefiting from topic of censorship at mass media, says Hanna Herman, Kyiv Post (13 May 2009) Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ (in Ukrainian) Янукович: Україна готова, якщо Європа готова, BBC Ukrainian (10 May 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych bears no grudges against Tymoshenko, Z I K (12 May 2010)
- ^ Update: Ukraine, Russia ratify Black Sea naval lease, Kyiv Post (27 April 2010) Archived 11 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Yanukovych: Referendum on Russian Black Sea Fleet's stationing in Ukraine may be held". Kyiv Post. 22 April 2010. Archived from the original on 24 April 2010.
- ^ a b c Yanukovych snipes at opponent, defends fleet move, Kyiv Post (13 May 2009) Archived 6 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "With all party lists ballots counted, Regions Party gets 30%, Batkivschyna 25.54%, UDAR 13.96%, Communists 13.18%, Svoboda 10.44%". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ Denise Forsthuber (27 November 2013). "From Russia Without Love: The Ukrainian president's decision not to sign the Association Agreement illustrates Russia's ongoing power in the region". US News & World Report. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- ^ 2014-01-28T10:27+02:00 10:27 28.01.2014 (28 January 2014). "Ukrainian Prime Minister Azarov resigns". Interfax-Ukraine. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Ukraine crisis: Kiev launches 'anti-terror operation' in east – live updates. The Guardian.
- ^ Телефонный разговор с Федеральным канцлером Германии Ангелой Меркель. Kremlin.ru. 15 April 2014
- ^ Stewart, Will (19 February 2014). "Ukraine protests: 28 killed and more than 300 injured in bloody clashes in Kiev - Mirror Online". Mirror. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b Sergii Leshchenko (8 June 2012). "Yanukovych, the luxury residence and the money trail that leads to London". Open Democracy. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ^ a b c Anders Aslund (11 December 2013). "Ukraine crisis: Yanukovych and the tycoons". BBC News. Retrieved 11 December 2013.
- ^ Alexander J. Motyl (11 December 2013). "Yanukovych Must Go Ukrainians Will Protest as Long as His Corrupt Regime Exists". Foreign Affairs. The Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- ^ "Anti-Corruption Action Center calls for freeze of Yanukovych, other assets abroad". Kyiv Post. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ^ Benjamin Bidder (16 May 2012). "Profiting from Power? The Dubious Business of the Yanukovych Clan". Spiegel Online International. Retrieved 30 January 2014.
- ^ "Спецтеми | Експрес - онлайн". Expres.ua. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ "Бюджет-2013: золоті гори для сходу, заходу - мізер | Економічна правда". Epravda.com.ua. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
- ^ "Yanukovych opts for robber capitalism". Kyiv Post. 22 November 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- ^ , Sky News (27 February 2014)
- ^ "With Viktor Yanukovych gone, Ukraine hunts for secrets of former leader". Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- ^ "Ukrayinska Pravda exposes president’s Mezhygirya deal", Kyiv Post (6 May 2009) Archived 14 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Oliver Poole (23 February 2014). "Ukraine uprising: The private zoo, the galleon moored on a private lake, the fleet of vintage cars - Ukrainians left open-mouthed". The Independent. London. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- ^ "Yanukovych Spent $800 on Fish Medical Treatment, Leaked Documents Show". The Moscow Times. 26 February 2014.
- ^ a b c Ukraine crisis: Yanukovych regrets bloodshed in Kiev, BBC News (22 June 2015)
- ^ Harrison Jacobs (27 January 2014). "Why Ukraine's Berkut Special Police Force Is So Scary". Retrieved 1 February 2014.
- ^ "On Self-Removal of the President of Ukraine from his Constitutional Authority and Early Elections of the President of Ukraine". zakon.rada.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 19 February 2018.
- ^ a b c "Rada removes Yanukovych from office, schedules new elections for May 25", Interfax-Ukraine (24 February 2014)
- ^ "Yanukovych's removal was unconstitutional". wordpress.com. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
- ^ a b John Feffer (14 March 2014). "Who Are These 'People,' Anyway?". HuffPost. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- ^ "Parliament votes 328-0 to impeach Yanukovych on Feb. 22; sets May 25 for new election; Tymoshenko free (LIVE UPDATES, VIDEO)". Kyiv Post. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Maria Popova (20 March 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Removal Constitutional?". ponarseurasia.org. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- ^ "Rada dismisses Constitutional Court judges appointed from its quota". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- ^ a b <%= item.timeFlag %>. "ИТАР-ТАСС: Международная панорама - Янукович: я жив и я действующий президент, а отстранение от должности - "спектакль"". Information Telegraph Agency of Russia. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b "Janukowitsch ruft ukrainische Armee zur Befehlsverweigerung auf". Thomson Reuters (in German). 11 March 2014. Retrieved 11 March 2014.
- ^ "Where is Viktor Yanukovych? (VIDEO, UPDATE)". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 25 February 2014.
- ^ Booth, William (23 February 2014). "Ukrainian parliament, after ousting president, tries to consolidate power, frees prisoners". The Washington Post. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- ^ Krasnolutska, Daryna (23 February 2014). "Ukraine's Acting President Warns Economy Is in Dire State". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 April 2014.
- ^ Booth, William (22 February 2014). "Ukraine's parliament votes to oust president; former prime minister is freed from prison". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 February 2014.
- ^ "Ukraine ex-PM Tymoshenko freed". BBC News. BBC. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 22 February 2014.
- ^ "Putin: Russia helped Yanukovych to flee Ukraine". BBC. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2014.
- ^ Polityuk, Pavel (22 February 2014). "Ukraine parliament ousts Yanukovich, Tymoshenko freed". Reuters. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Putin: Russia helped Yanukovych leave Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (24.10.2014)
- ^ a b c d e Ukraine Leader Was Defeated Even Before He Was Ousted, The New York Times (3 January 2015)
- ^ "turboatom.com.ua". turboatom.com.ua. 13 April 2012. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- ^ a b c d e f Ensor, Josie (28 February 2014). "Ukraine crisis live: Russia admits its troops are moving in Crimea". UK Telegraph. London. Retrieved 28 February 2014.
- ^ a b c "Источники РБК: Виктор Янукович находится в Подмосковье". RosBusinessConsulting. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Управделами президента РФ: информации о том, что Янукович в Барвихе, нет". Argumenty i Fakty. 26 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Янукович купил дом в Барвихе за $52 млн - российский политик". Korrespondent. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ Bridget Kendall (27 February 2014). "Russia 'grants Ukraine's Viktor Yanukovych protection'". BBC. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ "Янукович попросил Россию о защите". Interfax. 27 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ ? Как к Вам обращаться? (3 March 2014). "СМИ: Янукович выступил с заявлением - считает себя президентом". Gazeta.ua. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ (in Ukrainian) Менше 5% українців хочуть повернення Януковича в крісло президента (Fewer than 5% of Ukrainians want the return of Yanukovych to the presidential chair), Ukrayinska Pravda (19 May 2014)
- ^ "Kyiv Says Yanukovych Obtained Russian Citizenship". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 3 October 2014.
- ^ "No information about Russian citizenship granted to Yanukovych – Kremlin spokesman". ITAR TASS. 3 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.
- ^ Yanukovych: I have never had any bank accounts, property abroad, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
- ^ "Янукович: Я вернусь в Киев, ждать осталось недолго :: Политика". Top.rbc.ru. Archived from the original on 11 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b Serhy Yekelchyk Ukraine: Birth of a Modern Nation, Oxford University Press (2007), ISBN 978-0-19-530546-3
- ^ ? Как к Вам обращаться? (3 March 2014). "Завтра Янукович проведет пресс-конференцию в Ростове-на-Дону - СМИ | Новости на". Gazeta.ua. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ Yanukovych says "patriotic officers" got him to Russia, Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
- ^ Yanukovych 'Is Finished': Experts Dismiss Ruler's Comeback Bid, NBC News (28 February 2014)
- ^ "Yanukovych: Presidential elections slated for May 25 unlawful, I won't run", Interfax-Ukraine (28 February 2014)
- ^ a b Armed Men Occupy Two Airports in Ukraine's Crimea, The Wall Street Journal (28 February 2014)
- ^ Ukrainian ex-leader Viktor Yanukovych vows fightback, BBC News (28 February 2014).
- ^ a b c d "Ukraine crisis: Viktor Yanukovych decries Crimea 'tragedy'", BBC News (2 April 2014)
- ^ "Ukraine crisis: Viktor Yanukovych decries Crimea 'tragedy'". BBC News. 2 April 2014
- ^ "Ousted Ukrainian President Warns of Civil War | Russia". RIA Novosti. Retrieved 17 March 2014.
- ^ a b c #EUdebate2014 (28 March 2014). "Ousted leader Yanukovych calls for referendum in every region of Ukraine | euronews, world news". Euronews.com. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- ^ a b "Politics ""Party of Regions" has excluded Yanukovich, Arbuzov, Klimenko and proceeded to the form of collective management". Breaking news "NovostiMira"". Novostimira.com.ua. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
- ^ 24tv.ua. "Телеканал 24. Оперативні новини та відео з місця подій". Archived from the original on 16 October 2014.
- ^ a b Янукович записал видеообращение с критикой действий нового президента [Yanukovych recorded a video message criticising the actions of the new president] (in Russian). Sq.com.ua. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 29 August 2015.
- ^ Yanukovych says he is clean, unlike the current government, Kyiv Post (24 December 2014)
- ^ "Ousted Ukraine leader aiming to return as rebel rockets threaten peace plan". The Guardian. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 22 February 2015.
- ^ Yanukovych status in Russia clarified, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (9 December 2016)
- ^ a b "Yanukovych was allowed to stay in Russia for another year". Retrieved 17 October 2017.
- ^ "Yanukovych Wants Political Comeback". The Moscow Times. 8 December 2015. Retrieved 16 December 2015.
- ^ ""Медуза" рассказала о подмосковной даче Януковича". Retrieved 1 September 2017.
- ^ Expert report with official documents. Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ "Ukrainian Pravda". Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010., 4 August 2006 (in Ukrainian).
- ^ Ukrainian Pravda, 20 July 2006. Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ (in English)"Lutsenko cannot believe what Medvedko did"
- ^ Outside perspective of the Ukrainian leader(in English)
- ^ Interfax-Ukraine (24 February 2014). "Avakov: Yanukovych put on wanted list". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ "Yanukovych Extradition: Ukraine Officially Asks Russia To Extradite Ukrainian President". HuffPost 28 February 2014
- ^ Ukraine accuses Russia of breaking CIS agreements over Yanukovych extradition, Interfax-Ukraine (12 January 2015)
- ^ Shmatenko, Leonid. "If petition against Yanukovych gathers 100,000 signatures people might have to wait for month for official response from White House". Voice of Russia.
- ^ "Ex-official says he filed documents on Party of Regions' $2 billion graft scheme". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
- ^ a b General Prosecutor opened another case against Yanukovych. Ukrayinska Pravda. 30 September 2014
- ^ a b c d GPU opened a case on Yanukovych for the Kharkiv treaty. LB. 21 October 2014
- ^ Інтерпол відмовився оголосити у розшук Януковича і К° [Interpol has declined putting Yanukovych and Co on wanted list] (in Ukrainian). Ukrinform. 8 December 2014. Archived from the original on 10 August 2015.
- ^ Interpol announced search for Yanukovych, Azarov, and Co Archived 12 January 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Ukrinform. 12 January 2015
- ^ storify.com yanukovych wanted
- ^ "Interpol". Interpol.int. Archived from the original on 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
- ^ "Yanukovych no longer listed as wanted person by Interpol". Interfax-Ukraine. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ "Интерпол подтвердил, что приостановил международный розыск Януковича". RIA Novosti. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ "Интерпол снял Януковича с международного розыска". RBC - Ukraine. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ "Former President of Ukraine Yanukovych no longer wanted by Interpol". Echo of Moscow. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2015.
- ^ Yanukovych disappears from Interpol wanted list temporarily, Ukrainian Independent Information Agency (21 July 2015)
- ^ "Yanukovych no longer listed as wanted person by Interpol - Jul. 21, 2015". Kyiv Post. 21 July 2015. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "Yanukovych, son off Interpol's wanted list". unian.info. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ a b c Hubenko, Dmytro (4 May 2017). "Treason trial against Yanukovych begins in Ukraine". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ Case against Yanukovych was submitted to court (Справу проти Януковича передали до суду). Ukrayinska Pravda. 14 March 2017
- ^ a b Levy, Clifford J. (30 September 2007). "Ukrainian Prime Minister Reinvents Himself". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- ^ "Ukraine's former president Viktor Yanukovich on trial. What is he being accused of?". meduza.io. 4 May 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "Prosecutors Seek 15 Years in Prison For Ukraine's Ex-President". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "Former Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych Convicted of Treason". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- ^ "Yanukovych reportedly hospitalized in Moscow – Russian media". unian.info. 18 November 2018. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "Court finds Yanukovych's guilt of high treason, complicity in war proven". UNIAN. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
- ^ "Guilty: Yanukovych sentenced to 13 years in prison for high treason, complicity in war". unian.info. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "Kyiv court sentences Yanukovych in absentia to 13 years in prison for high treason". Interfax-Ukraine. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
- ^ "The President's official site". President.gov.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on 9 February 2014. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
- ^ Президент Украины. Ua.spinform.ru.
- ^ "Viktor Yanukovych Curriculum Vitae" (PDF). Retrieved 19 March 2014.
- ^ The Path of the Professor. Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ "Is Yanukovych's education paper-thin? Some think so". Kyiv Post. 15 January 2010. Retrieved 2 April 2014.
- ^ "The biography of Yanukovych for who has forgotten it". Archived from the original on 10 March 2010. Retrieved 10 March 2010.. Pravda.com.ua.
- ^ "Interview of Viktor Viktorovich". Archived from the original on 17 June 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2012.. Pravda.com.ua.
- ^ Ukrainian pravda 19 February 2006. Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ a b (in Russian) Украина надеется на урегулирование газового вопроса с Россией – президент Украины Виктор ЯНУКОВИЧ, Information Telegraph Agency of Russia (19 March 2012)
- ^ "About us: The Leader". partyofregions.org.ua. Archived from the original on 2 March 2010.
- ^ a b (in Ukrainian) Yanukovych said that he divorced wife, Ukrayinska Pravda (27 February 2017)
- ^ a b Ukraine's election: portraits of main players, Kyiv Post (1 January 2010) Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yanukovych faces uphill battle in getting Lviv to accept him, Kyiv Post (18 February 2009) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Popular Rukh of Ukraine calling on political forces to prevent concentration of power in hands of Yanukovych's team, Kyiv Post (10 February 2009) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Viktor Yanukovych: My aim is to build a strong and independent Ukraine. For this purpose I will use all tools". Retrieved 1 June 2016.[dead link], Party of Regions Official Information Server (16 February 2010)
- ^ Let's Get Acquainted, Viktor Yanukovych Personal Information Server Archived 24 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Exit polls favor Yanukovych in Ukraine race, Kyiv Post (7 February 2009) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ukraine set for tilt to east as Russia's ally holds poll lead, The Guardian (7 February 2010)
- ^ Kuchma: Yanukovych-Tymoshenko contest a choice between 'bad and very bad', Kyiv Post (3 December 2010) Archived 9 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Putin shows no respect for Yanukovych, U.S. cable says, Kyiv Post (11 April 2011) Archived 14 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Grytsenko, Oksana (23 January 2012). "WikiLeaks: Regions Party partly composed of 'criminals'". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 24 January 2012. Retrieved 24 January 2012.
- ^ Tymoshenko challenges Yanukovych to televised debates, Z I K (21 December 2009)
- ^ Viktor Yanukovych promises Ukraine will embrace Russia, The Guardian (5 March 2010)
- ^ Russia's Medvedev in Ukraine visit to boost ties, BBC News (17 May 2010)
- ^ Yanukovych bullish ahead of runoff, Kyiv Post (4 February 2010) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Tymoshenko slams Yanukovych's gift for gaffe, Kyiv Post (29 December 2009) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b c Revolution in Orange, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, ISBN 0-87003-221-6 (page 58 + 59 written by Taras Kuzio)
- ^ Тому що "проффесор". Ukrayinska Pravda.
- ^ (in English)"Chekhov is a Ukrainian poet"
- ^ (in English)discussion board about Yanukovych literally claims
- ^ (in English)Kyiv Post on Yanukovych Presidential program Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Yatseniuk lashes at Yanukovych for ignoring Greek Catholics. Zik.com.ua.
- ^ Ukraine's New President Shows Poor Knowledge of Geography, Pravda.ru (3 March 2010)
- ^ Потому что "проффесор"
- ^ "Yanukovych: Tigipko, Yatseniuk will take top posts after presidential elections", Kyiv Post (26 November 2009) Archived 12 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "5.ua :: Янукович назвав Тимошенко "коровою на льду" on YouTube (22 September 2009)
- ^ Orange Revolution Democracy Emerging in Ukraine Archived 21 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Archives.gov.ua (21 December 2004).
- ^ Defiant Yanukovych Emerges in Russia, Vows to Return to Power. The Wall Street Journal (28 February 2014).
- ^ Yanukovych snaps pen in anger at press conference. Euronews (28 February 2014).
- ^ All In The Family, Kyiv Post (2 March 2012) Archived 1 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ If presidential elections were held next Sunday how would you vote? Archived 6 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Razumkov Centre
Poll: Yanukovych's electoral rating is four percentage points higher than Tymoshenko's, Kyiv Post (14 March 2012)
- ^ Ratings of politicians Archived 29 January 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Sociological group "RATING"
Electoral moods of the Ukrainian population: February 2012 Archived 29 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Sociological group "RATING" (5 March 2012)
- ^ Every fourth Ukrainian ready to vote for Yanukovych in presidential election – poll, Interfax-Ukraine (6 March 2013) Archived 4 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Ratings of politicians in presidential elections: February 2013 Archived 6 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Sociological group "RATING" (6 March 2013)
- ^ EU ambassador to Ukraine:Yanukovych comes short of expectations, Kyiv Post (12 April 2012) Archived 13 April 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Three Years of Promises, The Ukrainian Week (15 March 2013)
- ^ Kharchenko, Aleksandra (2 May 2016). "Paul Manafort, Donald Trump's top adviser, and his ties to pro-Russian politicians in Ukraine". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved 22 August 2018.
- ^ Myers, Steven Lee; Kramer, Andrew E. (31 July 2016). "How Paul Manafort Wielded Power in Ukraine Before Advising Donald Trump". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ Mosk, Matthew (26 June 2008). "Top McCain Adviser Has Found Success Mixing Money, Politics". The Washington Post. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- ^ Boudreaux, Richard (9 February 2010). "Candidates Sought Guidance From American Consultants". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 31 March 2016.
- ^ Alina Pastukhova; Kateryna Grushenko (19 November 2009). "Paid advisers descend on candidates, nation". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 23 November 2009.
- ^ Kneally, Meghan (30 October 2017). "Timeline of Paul Manafort's role in the Trump campaign". ABC News. Retrieved 18 July 2019.
- ^ LaFraniere, Sharon; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Haberman, Maggie (12 August 2018). "The Rise and Fall of Paul Manafort: Greed, Deception and Ego". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 August 2018.
- ^ Neil Vigdor, Paul Manafort resigns from Connecticut bar ahead of misconduct hearing, Hartford Courant (10 January 2019).
Yanukovych, Viktor F.: Opportunity Ukraine.
Vienna 2011. (Mandelbaum Publishing; ISBN 978-3-85476-379-6
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 11:15
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.