Travel visa - Wikipedia
Travel visa
  (Redirected from Visa (document))
"Transit visa" redirects here. For the novel, see Transit Visa (novel). For other uses, see Visa (disambiguation).
A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper that has to be seen")[1] is a conditional authorization granted by a territory to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that territory. Visas typically may include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, areas within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a territory and thus are, in most countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, and can be revoked at any time. Visa evidence most commonly takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document but may also exist electronically. Some countries no longer issue physical visa evidence, instead recording details only in immigration databases.
A United States visa issued in 2014
Russian visa issued in 1916
Tourist visa for John F. Kennedy to travel to Brazil, issued by the Brazilian government in 1941
Brazilian multiple entry visa in a United States passport, with immigration stamps from Brazil, France, and the United States
Visa - Kaliningrad 1992.
Historically, immigration officials were empowered to permit or reject entry of visitors on arrival at the frontiers. If permitted entry, the official would issue a visa, when required, which would be a stamp in a passport. Today, travellers wishing to enter another country must often apply in advance for what is also called a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by post, or over the internet. The modern visa may be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, an electronic record of the authorization, or a separate document which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the visited territory. Some countries do not require visitors to apply for a visa in advance for short visits.
Visa applications in advance of arrival give countries a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travel, and details of previous visits to the country. Visitors may also be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the port of entry.
Some countries which restrict emigration require individuals to possess an exit visa to leave the country.[2] These exit visas may be required for citizens, foreigners, or both, depending on the policies of the country concerned. Unlike ordinary visas, exit visas are often seen as an illegitimate intrusion on individuals' right to freedom of movement. Imposition of an exit visa requirement may be seen to violate customary international law, as the right to leave any country is provided for in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty. Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before travelling was at its lowest level ever in 2015.[3][4]
History
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (August 2011)
In western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century, passports and visas were not generally necessary for moving from one country to another. The relatively high speed and large movements of people travelling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used.[5] Passports and visas became usually necessary as travel documents only after World War I.[6]
Long before that, in ancient times, passports and visas were usually the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents.
Conditions of issue
Some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist who is specialized in the issuance of international travel documents. These agencies are authorized by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travellers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, and submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country, then one would have to travel to a third country (or apply by post) and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border. The need or absence of need of a visa generally depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, and the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits; these may delineate different formal categories of visas, with different issue conditions.
The issuing authority, usually a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department (e.g. U.S. State Department), and typically consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant. This may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country (lodging, food), proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home really exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc. Some countries ask for proof of health status, especially for long-term visas; some countries deny such visas to persons with certain illnesses, such as AIDS. The exact conditions depend on the country and category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Russia[7] and Uzbekistan.[8] In Uzbekistan, however, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not strictly enforced.[8] Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test, even for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory.
The issuing authority may also require applicants to attest that they have no criminal convictions, or that they do not participate in certain activities (like prostitution or drug trafficking). Some countries will deny visas if passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country that is considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel.
Many countries frequently demand strong evidence of intent to return to the home country, if the visa is for a temporary stay, due to potential unwanted illegal immigration. Proof of ties to the visa applicant's country of residence is often demanded to demonstrate a sufficient incentive to return. This can include things such as documented evidence of employment, bank statements, property ownership, and family ties.
Types
Tourist entry visa to the People's Republic of China.
Transit visa, issued by Japanese Consul Chiune Sugihara in Lithuania to Susan Bluman in World War II.
Each country typically has a multitude of categories of visas with various names. The most common types and names of visas include:
By purpose
Transit visas
For passing through the country of issue to a destination outside that country. Validity of transit visas are usually limited by short terms such as several hours to ten days depending on the size of the country or the circumstances of a particular transit itinerary.
Short-stay or visitor visas
For short visits to the visited country. Many countries differentiate between different reasons for these visits, such as:
Long-stay visas
Visas valid for long term stays of a specific duration include:
Immigrant visas
See also visa policy of the United States#Immigrant visas for specific letters/codes
Granted for those intending to settle permanently in the issuing country (obtain the status of a permanent resident with a prospect of possible naturalization in the future):
Official visas
These are granted to officials doing jobs for their governments, or otherwise representing their countries in the host country, such as the personnel of diplomatic missions.
By method of issue
Normally visa applications are made at and collected from a consulate, embassy, or other diplomatic mission.
On-arrival visas
  Countries that issue visas or permits on arrival as a general rule for all arriving visitors
  Countries that issue visas or permits on arrival to a selected group of nationalities (more than 10)
Also known as visas on arrival (VOA), they are granted at a port of entry. This is distinct from visa-free entry, where no visa is required, as the visitor must still obtain the visa on arrival before proceeding to immigration control.
CountryUniversal eligibilityElectronic visa alternativeLimited ports of entryRef.
 ArmeniaXX
 AzerbaijanX
 BahrainXX
 BangladeshX
 Bolivia
XXX
 BruneiXXX
 Burkina Faso
XXX
 Cambodia
XX
 Cape VerdeXX
 Chad
XXX
 ComorosXX
 Congo
XXX
 DR Congo
XXX
 Djibouti
X
 Egypt
X
 EritreaXXX
 EthiopiaX
 Gabon
X
 Gambia
XXX
 Ghana
XXX
 GrenadaXXX
 Guinea-BissauX
 India
X
 Indonesia
XX[16]
 IranX
 Iraq
XX
 JamaicaXXX
 JordanXXX
 Kenya
XX
 KuwaitXX
 KyrgyzstanXX
 Laos
X
 Lebanon
XXX
 Macau
XXX
 Madagascar
X
 Malawi
XXX
 Maldives
XX
 Marshall IslandsXXX
 Mauritania
X
 Mauritius
XXX
 MongoliaXX
 Mozambique
XX
 Namibia
XX
 NauruXXX
   Nepal
XX
 NicaraguaXX
 NigeriaXXX
 OmanXX
 PalauXX
 Papua New Guinea
X
 ParaguayXX
 Rwanda
X
 Saint LuciaXXX
 São Tomé and PríncipeX
 Saudi Arabia
XX
 SeychellesXX
 Sierra Leone
XXX
Somalia
XXX
 Sri LankaXX
 SudanXXX
 Taiwan
X
 Tanzania
XX
 Thailand
XX
 East TimorX
 TogoXX
 TongaXXX
 Trinidad and TobagoXXX
 TuvaluXX
 Uganda
X
 Ukraine
X
 United Arab EmiratesXXX
 Yemen
XXX
 Zambia
XX
 ZimbabweXX
Electronic visas
Electronic visas
  Countries granting electronic visas universally
  Countries granting electronic visas to select nationalities
  Countries requiring electronic registration from most visa exempt visitors (excluding Australian eVisitor)
  Countries that plan to introduce eVisas in the future)
An electronic visa (e-Visa or eVisa) is stored in a computer and is linked to the passport number so no label, sticker, or stamp is placed in the passport before travel. The application is done over the internet, and the receipt acts as a visa, which can be printed or stored on a mobile device.
CountryModeUniversal eligibilityVoA alternativeRef.
 Angola
Pre-approvalXX[17]
 Antigua and Barbuda
eVisaX[18]
 ArmeniaeVisaX[19]
 Ascension IslandeVisaX[20]
 AustraliaETAXX[21]
 AzerbaijaneVisaXpartial[22]
 BahraineVisaXpartial[23]
 Benin
eVisaX[24]
 Cambodia
eVisaX[25]
 Djibouti
eVisa[26]
 Egypt
eVisaXpartial[27]
 EthiopiaeVisapartial[28]
 Gabon
eVisapartial[29]
 Georgia
eVisaXX[30]
 Guinea
eVisaX[31]
 Guinea-BissauPre-approval[32]
 Hong Kong
ETAXX[33]
 India
eVisaXpartial[34]
IraneVisaX[35]
 Ivory Coast
eVisaX[36]
 Kenya
eVisaX[37]
 KuwaiteVisaX[38]
 KyrgyzstaneVisapartial[39]
 Laos
eVisaX[40]
 Lesotho
eVisaX[41]
 Madagascar
eVisa[42]
 Malawi
eVisa[43]
 MalaysiaeVisaXX[44]
 MexicoETAXX[45]
 MongoliaPre-approvalXpartial[46]
 MontserrateVisaX[47]
 Morocco
ETAXX[48]
 Myanmar
eVisaXpartial[49]
 New ZealandETAXX[50]
 NigeriaeVisaXpartial[51]
 OmaneVisaX[52]
 Pakistan
ETAXX[53]
 Papua New Guinea
eVisaX[54]
 QatareVisa
 Russia
eVisaXX[55]
 Rwanda
eVisa[56]
 Saint HelenaeVisaX[57]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis
eVisaX[58]
 São Tomé and PríncipeeVisaX[59]
 Saudi Arabia
eVisaX[60]
 Singapore
eVisaXX[61]
 South SudaneVisaX[62]
 Sri LankaETAX[63]
 Suriname
eVisaX[64]
 Taiwan
eVisaXpartial[65]
 TajikistaneVisaXX[66]
 Tanzania
eVisa[67]
 Thailand
Pre-approvalX[68]
 Turkey
eVisaXX[69]
 Uganda
eVisaX[70]
 Ukraine
eVisaXX[71]
 United KingdomEVWXX[72]
 UzbekistaneVisaXX[73]
 Vietnam
eVisaXX[74]
 Zambia
eVisapartial[75]
 ZimbabweeVisapartial[76]
Russia maintains an eVisa program for visitors from certain countries arriving to Russian Far East, Saint Petersburg, Leningrad Region and Kaliningrad Region.[77] And will introduce a single electronic visa from 1 January 2021.[78]
Authorities of Belarus,[79] Chad,[80] Republic of the Congo,[81] Democratic Republic of the Congo,[82] Equatorial Guinea,[83] Ghana,[84]Japan,[85] Kazakhstan,[86] Liberia,[87] South Africa,[88] and Tunisia[89] have announced plans to introduce electronic visas in the future.
These lists are not exhaustive. Some countries may have more detailed classifications of some of these categories reflecting the nuances of their respective geographies, social conditions, economies, international treaties, etc.
See also: Electronic Travel Authorization
In some countries that exempt visitors of certain nationalities from visa requirements, it is still necessary to receive prior authorization before arriving by air. These travel authorizations typically last for several years, and can be used multiple times. Airlines are required to verify that all passengers without a visa have obtained authorization before departure, or risk fines and the cost of a returning a passenger to their country of origin.
Entry and duration period
Visas can also be single-entry, which means the visa is cancelled as soon as the holder leaves the country; double-entry, or multiple-entry, which permits double or multiple entries into the country with the same visa. Countries may also issue re-entry permits that allow temporarily leaving the country without invalidating the visa. Even a business visa will normally not allow the holder to work in the host country without an additional work permit.
Once issued, a visa will typically have to be used within a certain period of time.
In some countries, the validity of a visa is not the same as the authorized period of stay. The visa validity then indicates the time period when the entry is permitted into the country. For example, if a visa has been issued to begin on January 1 and to expire on March 30, and the typical authorized period of stay in a country is 90 days, then the 90-day authorized stay starts on the day the passenger enters the country (entrance has to be between 1 January and 30 March). Thus, the latest day the traveller could conceivably stay in the issuing country is 1 July (if the traveller entered on 30 March). This interpretation of visas is common in the Americas.
With other countries, a person may not stay beyond the period of validity of their visa, which is usually set within the period of validity of their passport. The visa may also limit the total number of days the visitor may spend in the applicable territory within the period of validity. This interpretation of visa periods is common in Europe.
Once in the country, the validity period of a visa or authorized stay can often be extended for a fee at the discretion of immigration authorities. Overstaying a period of authorized stay given by the immigration officers is considered illegal immigration even if the visa validity period isn't over (i.e., for multiple entry visas) and a form of being "out of status" and the offender may be fined, prosecuted, deported, or even blacklisted from entering the country again.
Entering a country without a valid visa or visa exemption may result in detention and removal (deportation or exclusion) from the country. Undertaking activities that are not authorized by the status of entry (for example, working while possessing a non-worker tourist status) can result in the individual being deemed liable for deportation—commonly referred to as an illegal alien. Such violation is not a violation of a visa, despite the common misuse of the phrase, but a violation of status; hence the term "out of status".
Even having a visa does not guarantee entry to the host country. The border crossing authorities make the final determination to allow entry, and may even cancel a visa at the border if the alien cannot demonstrate to their satisfaction that they will abide by the status their visa grants them.
Some countries that do not require visas for short stays may require a long-stay visa for those who intend to apply for a residence permit. For example, the EU does not require a visa of citizens of many countries for stays under 90 days, but its member states require a long-stay visa of such citizens for longer stays.
Visa extensions
Many countries have a mechanism to allow the holder of a visa to apply to extend a visa. In Denmark, a visa holder can apply to the Danish Immigration Service for a Residence Permit after they have arrived in the country. In the United Kingdom, applications can be made to UK Visas and Immigration.
In certain circumstances, it is not possible for the holder of the visa to do this, either because the country does not have a mechanism to prolong visas or, most likely, because the holder of the visa is using a short stay visa to live in a country.
Visa run
Visa run example
Some foreign visitors sometimes engage in what is known as a visa run: leaving a country—usually to a neighbouring country—for a short period just before the permitted length of stay expires, then returning to the first country to get a new entry stamp in order to extend their stay ("reset the clock"). Despite the name, a visa run is usually done with a passport that can be used for entry without a visa.
Visa runs are frowned upon by immigration authorities as such acts may signify that the foreigner wishes to reside permanently and might also work in that country; purposes that visitors are prohibited from engaging in and usually require an immigrant visa or a work visa. Immigration officers may deny re-entry to visitors suspected of engaging in prohibited activities, especially when they have done repeated visa runs and have no evidence of spending reasonable time in their home countries or countries where they have the right to reside and work.
To combat visa runs, some countries have limits on how long visitors can spend in the country without a visa, as well as how much time they have to stay out before "resetting the clock". For example, Schengen countries impose a maximum limit for visitors of 90 days in any 180-day period. Some countries do not "reset the clock" when a visitor comes back after visiting a neighbouring country. For example, the United States does not give visitors a new period of stay when they come back from visiting Canada, Mexico, or the Caribbean; instead they are readmitted to the United States for the remaining days granted on their initial entry.[91] Some other countries, e.g. Thailand, allow visitors who arrive by land from neighbouring countries a shorter length of stay than those who arrive by air.
In some cases, a visa run is necessary to activate new visas or change the immigration status of a person. An example would be leaving a country and then returning immediately to activate a newly issued work visa before a person can legally work.
Visa refusal
In general, an applicant may be refused a visa if they do not meet the requirements for admission or entry under that country's immigration laws. More specifically, a visa may be denied or refused when the applicant:
Even if a traveller does not need a visa, the aforementioned criteria can also be used by border control officials to refuse the traveller's entry into the country in question.
Visa policies
The main reasons states impose visa restrictions on foreign nationals are to curb illegal immigration, security concerns, and reciprocity for visa restrictions imposed on their own nationals. Typically, nations impose visa restrictions on citizens of poorer countries, along with politically unstable and undemocratic ones, as it is considered more likely that people from these countries will seek to illegally immigrate. Visa restrictions may also be imposed when nationals of another country are perceived as likelier to be terrorists or criminals, or by autocratic regimes that perceive foreign influence to be a threat to their rule.[92][93] According to Professor Eric Neumayer of the London School of Economics:
"The poorer, the less democratic, and the more exposed to armed political conflict the target country is, the more likely that visa restrictions are in place against its passport holders. The same is true for countries whose nationals have been major perpetrators of terrorist acts in the past".[92]
Some countries apply the principle of reciprocity in their visa policy. A country's visa policy is called 'reciprocal' if it imposes visa requirement against citizens of all the countries that impose visa requirements against its own citizens. The opposite is rarely true: a country rarely lifts visa requirements against citizens of all the countries that also lift visa requirements against its own citizens, unless a prior bilateral agreement has been made.
A fee may be charged for issuing a visa; these are often also reciprocal—hence, if country A charges country B's citizens US$50 for a visa, country B will often also charge the same amount for country A's visitors. The fee charged may also be at the discretion of each embassy. A similar reciprocity often applies to the duration of the visa (the period in which one is permitted to request entry of the country) and the number of entries one can attempt with the visa. Other restrictions, such as requiring fingerprints and photographs, may also be reciprocated. Expedited processing of the visa application for some countries will generally incur additional charges.
Government authorities usually impose administrative entry restrictions on foreign citizens in three ways - countries whose nationals may enter without a visa, countries whose nationals may obtain a visa on arrival, and countries whose nationals require a visa in advance. Nationals who require a visa in advance are usually advised to obtain them at a diplomatic mission of their destination country. Several countries allow nationals of countries that require a visa to obtain them online.
The following table lists visa policies of all countries by the number of foreign nationalities that may enter that country for tourism without a visa or by obtaining a visa on arrival with normal passport. It also notes countries that issue electronic visas to certain nationalities. Symbol "+" indicates a country that limits the visa-free regime negatively by only listing nationals who require a visa, thus the number represents the number of UN member states reduced by the number of nationals who require a visa and "+" stands for all possible non-UN member state nationals that might also not require a visa. "N/A" indicates countries that have contradictory information on its official websites or information supplied by the Government to IATA. Some countries that allow visa on arrival do so only at a limited number of entry points. Some countries such as the European Union member states have a qualitatively different visa regime between each other as it also includes freedom of movement.
The following table is current as of 3 October 2019. Source:[94]
CountryTotal
(excl. electronic visas)
Visa-freeVisa on arrivalElectronic visasNotes
Afghanistan
0
Albania
8585
Algeria
78
Angola
701159
Antigua and Barbuda
106106All
Argentina8787
Armenia1296267
Australia110All-1
Azerbaijan25101593
Bahamas120120
Bahrain70466115
Bangladesh17425All-20Limited VOA locations.
Barbados
114108
Belarus9027+63
Belize101101
Benin
193+56All others
Bhutan
33
Bolivia
174+51123+
Bosnia and Herzegovina9797
Botswana
103103
Brazil
9999
Brunei63567
Burkina Faso
701852
Burundi66
Cambodia
193+9All othersAll-10
Cameroon
66
Canada5353
Cape Verde193+57All others
Central African Republic
1717
Chad
15141
Chile
9292
China
1717
Colombia
9999
Comoros193+0All
Republic of the Congo
13135
Democratic Republic of the Congo
743
Costa Rica9797
Côte d'Ivoire
2323All
Cuba1818
Djibouti
193+1AllAll
Dominica196All-2
Dominican Republic
108108
Ecuador
168+All-25
Egypt
115810346
El Salvador8686
Equatorial Guinea
88
Eritrea312
Ethiopia94292All-2Limited VOA locations.
Fiji107107
Gabon
56848All
Gambia
125104+174
Georgia
9494
Ghana
622834
Grenada10110314
Guatemala8686
Guinea
2121
Guinea-Bissau193+14179+All
Guyana5555
Haiti184+All-9
Honduras8484
Hong Kong[95]
1441441
India[96]
532150Limited e-Tourist Visa locations.
Indonesia
165+All-28
Iran183+16All-10
Iraq
606
Ireland8756+31 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
Israel
9999
Jamaica1169323
Japan
6666
Jordan13212120Limited VOA locations.
Kazakhstan7373
Kenya
43430All-16
Kiribati7373
North Korea0
South Korea
117117
Kuwait5855353
Kyrgyzstan1496919All
Laos
178+15All-30
Lebanon
88781
Lesotho
7171All
Liberia1414
Libya22
Macau
19281All-6
North Macedonia8485
Madagascar
193+0AllAll
Malawi
164+33131
Malaysia16316310
Maldives
1980All
Mali
2425
Marshall Islands863355
Mauritania
1989185
Mauritius
18211166
Mexico67653
Micronesia198194+
Moldova6969
Mongolia2122
Montenegro9495
Morocco
7170
Mozambique
1988186+Limited VOA locations.
Myanmar
88102
Namibia
5352
Nauru14016
Nepal
1861182+Limited VOA locations.
New Zealand10060
Nicaragua1619274
Niger
1919
Nigeria18171
Oman72568
Pakistan
55
Palau19634158+
Panama
119117
Papua New Guinea
71070
Paraguay64575
Peru
10098
Philippines160157
Qatar90580+4All-2Limited VOA locations.
Russia
4448
Rwanda
19820174+All
Saint Kitts and Nevis
116102All
Saint Lucia1439554
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
1900All-8
Samoa198All
São Tomé and Príncipe57450All
Saudi Arabia
4451
Schengen area[97]
936232 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
Senegal
124125
Serbia
8678
Seychelles19834160+
Sierra Leone
1615
Singapore
163160+
Solomon Islands763047
Somalia
198Limited VOA locations.
South Africa
7675
South Sudan506
Sri Lanka1793172+172+
Sudan8322
Suriname
702850
Swaziland
9396
Syria
0
Tajikistan81981
Tanzania
1766All-24
Thailand
785719
Timor-Leste19830AllLimited VOA locations.
Togo19814164+
Tonga683137
Trinidad and Tobago1041012
Tunisia
9696+11 for organised groups.
Turkey
15978043e-Visas can also be obtained on arrival for a higher cost.
Turkmenistan
0
Tuvalu19830160+
Uganda
19833161+All
Ukraine
1006434
United Arab Emirates593718
United Kingdom91564+31 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
United States4442
Uruguay
7976
Uzbekistan1616
Vanuatu120120
Venezuela
7071
Vietnam
242440
Yemen
12111
Zambia
1364395All
Zimbabwe1434481All
Visa exemption agreements
Possession of a valid visa is a condition for entry into many countries, and exemption schemes exist. In some cases visa-free entry may be granted to holders of diplomatic passports even as visas are required by normal passport holders (see: Passport).
Some countries have reciprocal agreements such that a visa is not needed under certain conditions, e.g., when the visit is for tourism and for a relatively short period. Such reciprocal agreements may stem from common membership in international organizations or a shared heritage:
Other countries may unilaterally grant visa-free entry to nationals of certain countries to facilitate tourism, promote business, or even to cut expenses on maintaining consular posts abroad.
Some of the considerations for a country to grant visa-free entry to another country include (but are not limited to):[citation needed]
To have a smaller worldwide diplomatic staff, some countries rely on other country's (or countries') judgments when issuing visas. For example, Mexico allows citizens of all countries to enter without Mexican visas if they possess a valid American visa that has already been used. Costa Rica accepts valid visas of Schengen/EU countries, Canada, Japan, South Korea, and the United States (if valid for at least 3 months on date of arrival). The ultimate example of such reliance is Andorra, which imposes no visa requirements of its own because it has no international airport and is inaccessible by land without passing through the territory of either France or Spain and is thus "protected" by the Schengen visa system.
Visa-free travel between countries also occurs in all cases where passports (or passport-replacing documents such as laissez-passer) are not needed for such travel. (For examples of passport-free travel, see International travel without passports.)
As of 2019, the Henley & Partners passport index ranks the Japanese, Singaporean, and South Korean passports as the ones with the most visa exemptions by other nations, allowing holders of those passports to visit 189 countries without obtaining a visa in advance of arrival.[104] However, as of 6 June 2019, the Passport Index ranks the United Arab Emirates passport as the one with the most visa exemptions by other nations, allowing holders of this passport to visit 173 countries[105] without obtaining a visa in advance of arrival.
Common visas
Normally, visas are valid for entry only into the country that issued the visa. Countries that are members of regional organizations or party to regional agreements may, however, issue visas valid for entry into some or all of the member states of the organization or agreement:
Possible common visa schemes
Potentially, there are new common visa schemes:
Previous common visa schemes
These schemes no longer operate.
Exit visas
See also: Illegal emigration
Exit visas may be required to leave some countries. Many countries limit the ability of individuals to leave in certain circumstances, such as those with outstanding legal proceedings or large government debts.[116][117][118] Despite this, the term exit visa is generally limited to countries that systematically restrict departure, where the right to leave is not automatic. Imposing a systematic requirement for exit permission may be seen to violate the right to freedom of movement, which is found in the UDHR and forms part of customary international law.[119]
Countries implementing exit visas vary in who they require to obtain one. Some countries permit the free movement of foreign nationals while restricting their own citizens.[120][121] Others may limit the exit visa requirement to resident foreigners in the country on work visas, such as in the Kafala system​.​[122]​[123]​[124]​[125]
Asia
Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates all have an exit visa requirement for alien foreign workers. This is part of their kafala work visa sponsorship system. Consequently, at the end of a foreign worker's employment period, the worker must secure clearance from their employer stating that the worker has satisfactorily fulfilled the terms of their employment contract or that the worker's services are no longer needed. The exit visa can also be withheld if there are pending court charges that need to be settled or penalties that have to be meted out. In September 2018, Qatar lifted the exit visa requirement for most workers.[126]
Nepal requires its citizens emigrating to the United States on an H-1B visa to present an exit permit issued by the Nepali Ministry of Labour. This document is called a work permit and needs to be presented to Nepali immigration to leave Nepal.[127]
Uzbekistan was the last remaining country of the former USSR that required an exit visa, which was valid for a two-year period. The practice was abolished in 2019.[128] There had been explicit United Nations complaint about this practice.[129]
North Korea requires that its citizens obtain an exit visa stating the traveller's destination country and time to be spent abroad before leaving the country. Additionally, North Korean authorities also require North Korean citizens obtain a re-entry visa from a North Korean embassy or North Korean mission abroad before being allowed back into North Korea.
The government of the People's Republic of China requires its citizens to obtain a two-way permit, issued by the People's Republic of China's authorities, prior to visiting to Hong Kong or Macau. The two-way permit is a de facto exit visa for Hong Kong- or Macau-bound trips for citizens of the People's Republic of China.
Singapore operates an Exit Permit scheme in order to enforce the national service obligations of its male citizens and permanent residents.[130] Requirements vary according to age and status:[131]
StatusTime overseasRequirements
Pre-enlistment: 13 – 16.5 years of age3+ monthsExit permit
2+ yearsExit permit + bond
Pre-enlistment: 16.5 years of age and older3+ monthsRegistration, exit permit + bond[132]
Full-time National Service3+ monthsExit permit
Operationally-ready National Service14+ daysOverseas notification
6+ monthsNational service unit approval + exit permit
Regular servicemen3+ monthsExit permit, where Minimum Term of Engagement is not complete
6+ monthsExit permit
Taiwan[133] and South Korea also require male citizens who are older than a certain age but have not fulfill their military duties to register with local Military Manpower Administration office before they pursue international travels, studies, business trips, and/or performances. Failure to do so is a felony in those countries and violators would face less than 3 years of imprisonment.
Europe
During the Fascist period in Italy, an exit visa was required from 1922 to 1943. Nazi Germany required exit visas from 1933 to 1945.[134]
The Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies required exit visas both for emigration and for those who wanted to leave the Soviet Union for a shorter period.
Some countries, including the Czech Republic,[135] require that an alien who needs a visa on entry be in possession of a valid visa upon exit. To satisfy this formal requirement, exit visas sometimes need to be issued. Russia requires an exit visa if a visitor stays past the expiration date of their visa. They must then extend their visa or apply for an exit visa and are not allowed to leave the country until they show a valid visa or have a permissible excuse for overstaying their visa (e.g., a note from a doctor or a hospital explaining an illness, missed flight, lost or stolen visa). In some cases, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs can issue a return-Home certificate that is valid for ten days from the embassy of the visitor's native country, thus eliminating the need for an exit visa.
A foreign citizen granted a temporary residence permit in Russia needs a temporary resident visa to take a trip abroad (valid for both exit and return). It is also colloquially called an exit visa. Not all foreign citizens are subject to that requirement. Citizens of Germany, for example, do not require this exit visa.
In March 2021, during the COVID-19 pandemic, the United Kingdom required everyone leaving England to fill out an exit form detailing their address, passport number, destination, and reason to travel.[136] Permitted reasons to travel included for work or volunteering, education, medical or compassionate reasons such as weddings and funerals.[137] Travellers may be required to carry evidence to support their reason to travel.
Americas
The government of Cuba announced in October 2012 its plans to remove exit visa requirements to be effective January 14, 2013, albeit with some exceptions.[138]
Guatemala requires any foreigner who is a permanent resident to apply for a multiple 5-year exit visa.
United States
The United States of America does not require exit visas. Since October 1, 2007, however, the U.S. government requires all foreign and U.S. nationals departing the United States by air to hold a valid passport (or certain specific passport-replacing documents). Even though travellers might not require a passport to enter a certain country, they will require a valid passport booklet (booklet only, U.S. Passport Card not accepted) to depart the United States in order to satisfy the U.S. immigration authorities.[139] Exemptions to this requirement to hold a valid passport include:
In addition, green card holders and certain other aliens must obtain a certificate of compliance (also known as a "sailing permit" or "departure permit") from the Internal Revenue Service proving that they are up-to-date with their US income tax obligations before they may leave the country.[140] While the requirement has been in effect since 1921, it has not been stringently enforced, but in 2014 the House Ways and Means Committee has considered beginning to enforce the requirement as a way to increase tax revenues.[141]
Visa restrictions
Henley & Partners
This section is transcluded from Henley Passport Index. (edit | history)
The Henley Passport index (HPI) ranks passports according to how many destinations can be reached using a particular country's ordinary passport without requiring a visa ('visa-free'). All distinct destination countries and territories in the IATA database are considered. However, since not all territories issue passports, there are far fewer passports ranked than destinations against which queries are made.[142]

World Tourism Organization
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) of the United Nations has issued various Visa Openness Reports.
Non-visa restrictions
This section is transcluded from Non-visa travel restrictions. (edit | history)
Blank passport pages
Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages to be available in the passport being presented, typically one or two pages.[143] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.
Vaccination
An International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis is required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever
Main articles: Vaccination requirements for international travel and International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis
Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination or Prophylaxis, as does the South American territory of French Guiana.[144]
Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has visited one recently.[145]
An increasing number of countries have been imposing additional COVID-19 related health restrictions such as quarantine measures and testing requirements. Many countries will increasingly consider the vaccination status of travellers when deciding to allow them entry or not or require them to quarantine since recently published research shows that the Pfizer vaccine effect lasts for six months or so.[146]
Passport validity length
In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid for at least 6 more months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[147] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[148] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Peru.[149] Philippines,[150] Qatar, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Turkey, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela, and Vietnam.[151]
Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.
Countries requiring passports with a validity of at least 3 months beyond the date of intended departure include Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova and New Zealand. Similarly, the EEA countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, all European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland) together with Switzerland also require 3 months validity beyond the date of the bearer's intended departure unless the bearer is an EEA or Swiss national.
Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months on arrival include Albania, Honduras, North Macedonia, Panama, and Senegal.
Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.
Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the date of intended departure include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau, the Maldives[152] and South Africa.
Other countries, such as Japan,[153] Ireland and the United Kingdom,[154] require a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay.
A very few countries, such as Paraguay, just require a passport valid on arrival.
Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[155][156] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[157]
Criminal record
Some countries, including Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States,[158] routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record while others impose restrictions depending on the type of conviction and the length of the sentence.
Persona non grata
The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity.[159]
Israeli stamps
Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)
Kuwait,[160] Lebanon,[161] Libya,[162] Sudan,[163] Syria,[164] and Yemen[165] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.
To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel (unless the entry is for some work-related purposes). Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport. Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when passing into and out of Gaza.[citation needed]
The Saudi Commission for Tourism and National Heritage claims that having an Israeli stamp does not disqualify someone from visiting Saudi Arabia.[166]
Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.
Armenian ethnicity
Main articles: Anti-Armenian sentiment in Azerbaijan, Armenia–Azerbaijan relations, and Nagorno-Karabakh conflict
Entry Permit to Nagorno-Karabakh issued in Yerevan as a stand-alone document rather than a visa affixed in a passport
Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan​,​[167]​[168]​[169] Armenian citizens and other foreign nationals of Armenian descent are likely to encounter difficulties when attempting to enter the Republic of Azerbaijan.​[170]​[171]​[172]
Azerbaijan bans visits by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh​[172] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories, and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı, and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under the control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[173] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[174] As of 2 September 2019, the list mentioned 852 people.
Biometrics
See also: Countries applying biometrics
A fingerprint scanner at Dulles International Airport collects biometric data on visitors, which can be used for confirming identities.
Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest travellers who refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[175]
Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[176][177] Argentina,[178] Brunei, Cambodia,[179] China,[180] Ethiopia,[181] Ghana, Guinea,[182] India, Japan,[183][184] Kenya (both fingerprints and a photo are taken),[185] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[186] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[187] Singapore, South Korea,[188] Taiwan, Thailand,[189] Uganda[190] and the United States.
Many countries also require a photo be taken of people entering the country. The United States, which does not fully implement exit control formalities at its land frontiers (although long mandated by its legislature),​[191]​[192]​[193] intends to implement facial recognition for passengers departing from international airports to identify people who overstay their visa.[194]
Together with fingerprint and face recognition, iris scanning is one of three biometric identification technologies internationally standardised since 2006 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) for use in e-passports[195] and the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[196][197] The United States Department of Homeland Security has announced plans to greatly increase the biometric data it collects at US borders.[198] In 2018, Singapore began trials of iris scanning at three land and maritime immigration checkpoints.[199][200]

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  149. ^ "Government Of Peru Requires Six-Month Validity On Passports To Enter Peru". Traveling & Living in Peru. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
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  153. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions". Embassy of Japan in New Zealand. Retrieved 17 March 2021. 15. How long does my passport need to be valid in order to enter Japan? Japan does not have any regulations relating to passport validity, so long as your passport will be valid until after you leave Japan.
  154. ^ "Entering the UK". Gov.UK. Retrieved 17 March 2021. You’re not from an EEA country: you must have a valid passport to enter the UK. It should be valid for the whole of your stay.
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  157. ^ "Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2018. Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports: 1. Germany – Passports expired within the last year / ID’s expired within the last year, 2. Belgium - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 3. France - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 4. Spain - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 5. Switzerland - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 6. Luxemburg - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 7. Portugal - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 8. Bulgaria – Valid ordinary passport
  158. ^ Government of Canada -- Overcome criminal convictions
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  164. ^ Travel Advice for Syria - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-19 at the Wayback Machine and Syrian Ministry of Tourism
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  167. ^ "2020 Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Azerbaijan". U.S. Department of State. Office of the Inspector General. 30 March 2021. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Significant human rights issues included: unlawful or arbitrary killing; torture; arbitrary detention; harsh and sometimes life-threatening prison conditions; political prisoners; arbitrary interference with privacy; politically motivated reprisal against individuals outside the country; pervasive problems with the independence of the judiciary; heavy restrictions on free expression, the press, and the internet, including violence against journalists, the criminalization of libel and slander, harassment and incarceration of journalists on questionable charges, and blocking of websites; substantial interference with the rights of peaceful assembly and freedom of association; restrictions on freedom of movement; severe restrictions on political participation; systemic government corruption; police brutality against individuals based on sexual orientation; and existence of the worst forms of child labour. Significant human rights issues connected with the Nagorno-Karabakh armed conflict included unlawful killings, civilian casualties, and inhuman treatment. The government did not prosecute or punish the majority of officials who committed human rights abuses; impunity remained a problem.
  168. ^ "ECRI REPORT ON AZERBAIJAN (fifth monitoring cycle)" (PDF). European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI). Council of Europe. Retrieved 3 May 2021. there is a conflict-ridden domestic political discourse and Azerbaijan’s leadership, education system and media are very prolific in their denigration of Armenians. Political opponents are accused of having Armenian roots or of receiving funds from Armenian sources. An entire generation of Azerbaijanis has now grown up listening to constant rhetoric of Armenian aggression. According to a 2012 survey, 91% perceived Armenia as Azerbaijan’s greatest enemy. As a result, the Armenians living in the country need to hide their ethnic affiliation and there is no organisation of the Armenian minority in the country with which ECRI’s delegation could have met. The human rights activists Leyla and Arif Yunus, who worked inter alia towards reconciliation with Armenia, have been arrested and sentenced under controversial accusations to heavy prison terms.
  169. ^ The Caucasus: Frozen Conflicts and Closed Borders: Hearing Before The Committee On Foreign Affairs House Of Representatives One Hundred Tenth Congress Second Session(PDF). U.S. Government Printing Office. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 February 2010. Retrieved 3 May 2021. Our goal is the complete elimination of Armenians. You, Nazis, already eliminated the Jews in the 1930s and 40s, right? You should be able to understand us.
  170. ^ Kucera, Joshua (5 July 2017). "Russia Complains To Azerbaijan About Discrimination Against Armenians". Eurasianet, an independent news organization. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Russia has formally complained to Azerbaijan about "ethnic discrimination" against Russian citizens of Armenian origin, saying that 25 Russians so far this year have been denied entry to Azerbaijan because they had Armenian names. #"Russian citizens arriving in Azerbaijan are truly discriminated against on ethnic grounds," the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a statement on July 5. "We demand the cessation of this outrageous practice, inconsistent with the friendly relations between our two countries." Azerbaijan has long denied entry to citizens of all countries, not just Russians, whose names end in the standard Armenian surname suffixes -ian or -yan.
  171. ^ "Citing ethnicity, Azerbaijan bars photojournalist". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved 2 May 2021. Diana Markosian, a freelance photographer for Bloomberg Markets magazine was denied entry to Azerbaijan last week by authorities who cited her ethnicity as a reason, international news reports said. On June 27, border guards at the Heydar Aliyev International Airport in Baku detained Markosian on arrival from the Latvian capital, Riga, then expelled her the next day, according to press reports and CPJ interviews. Markosian told CPJ that the border guards took her passport, saying that she had an Armenian last name and that they "needed to clarify something." Then they put her in the airport's transit zone where she spent 16 hours until she was put on a flight to Tbilisi, Georgia. Markosian holds both U.S. and Russian citizenship, she told CPJ. A government spokesman told the Baku-based news agency APA that Markosian was deported because authorities would be unable to provide her with "security" since she is an ethnic Armenian.
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  175. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for passengers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently “strict requirements for travellers” in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
  176. ^ "How to enter Afghanistan. The Entry Requirements for Afghanistan - CountryReports". Countryreports.org.
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  179. ^ "Cambodia Foreign Entry Requirements". Us-passport-information.com​.
  180. ^ "China to Start Fingerprinting Foreign Visitors". Air Canada. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Effective April 27, 2018, border control authorities at all of China’s ports of entry, including its airports, will start collecting the fingerprints of all foreign visitors aged between 14 and 70. Diplomatic passport holders and beneficiaries of reciprocal agreements are exempted..
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  185. ^ "Immigration & Visas FAQs". Kenya Airports Authority. Retrieved 6 May 2019. Will visitors still have their digital photo and fingerprints taken at the immigration desk on arrival? Yes, the need to have photos and fingerprints taken upon arrival is to authenticate that the person who applied for the Visa is the same person at the port of entry
  186. ^ "Malaysia". CountryReports. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  187. ^ "Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners - SecureIDNews". secureidnews.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  188. ^ F_161. "S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors - People's Daily Online". peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
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  190. ^ AfricaNews (14 January 2019). "Gemalto awarded Uganda's new e-Immigration solution with fast-track border crossing eKiosks at Entebbe Airport". Africanews. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
  191. ^ Brown, Theresa Cardinal (9 May 2016). "Biometric Entry-Exit Update: CBP Developing Land Border Process". Bipartisan Policy Center. Retrieved 25 April 2019. While a requirement for a biometric entry-exit system has been in law for over a decade, it is not yet a reality. Many reasons for the long gestating development have been documented in BPC’s 2014 report Entry-Exit System: Progress, Challenges, and Outlook, including the technological, operational, and cost challenges of creating exit systems and infrastructure where none exist today. However, many critics, especially in Congress, simply accused the Department of Homeland security of dragging its feet... the major operational, logistical, and technical challenge in implementing exit capability at our ports has been the land borders. Unlike airports and seaports, the land border environment is not physically controlled, there is no means to get advance information on who is arriving, and the sheer volume of travel—both vehicular and pedestrian—creates challenges in any system to not further exacerbate delays. While biometric exit for land vehicular traffic is still in the “what if” stage, CBP is moving ahead and piloting systems and technology to use with the large population of pedestrian crossers at the U.S.-Mexico border.
  192. ^ Lipton, Eric (21 May 2013). "U.S. Quietly Monitors Foreigners' Departures at the Canadian Border". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Long demanded by lawmakers in Congress, it is considered a critical step to developing a coherent program to curb illegal immigration, as historically about 30 percent to 40 percent of illegal immigrants in the United States arrived on tourist visas or other legal means and then never left, according to estimates by Homeland Security officials.
  193. ^ LIPTON, Eric (15 December 2006). "Administration to Drop Effort to Track if Visitors Leave". The New York Times. Retrieved 25 April 2019. Efforts to determine whether visitors actually leave have faltered. Departure monitoring would help officials hunt for foreigners who have not left, if necessary. Domestic security officials say, however, it would be too expensive to conduct fingerprint or facial recognition scans for land departures.
  194. ^ Campoy, Ana. "The US wants to scan the faces of all air passengers leaving the country". Quartz. Retrieved 24 April 2019.
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  197. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
  198. ^ Roberts, Jeff John (12 September 2016). "Homeland Security Plans to Expand Fingerprint and Eye Scanning at Borders". Fortune. Fortune Media IP Limited. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Unlike with documents, it’s very hard for a traveler to present a forged copy of a fingerprint or iris. That’s why the U.S. Department of Homeland Security plans to vastly expand the amount of biometric data it collects at the borders. According to Passcode, a new program will ramp up a process to scan fingers and eyes in order to stop people entering and exiting the country on someone else’s passport.
  199. ^ "Singapore tests eye scans at immigration checkpoints". Reuters. 6 August 2018. Retrieved 24 April 2019. Singapore has started scanning travellers’ eyes at some of its border checkpoints, its immigration authority said on Monday, in a trial of expensive technology that could one day replace fingerprint verification.
  200. ^ Lee, Vivien (6 August 2018). "5 Reasons We Prefer Iris Scans To Fingerprint Checks At Our Borders In Singapore". Retrieved 24 April 2019. The iris technology could potentially scan irises covertly, as opposed to the scanning of thumbprints which necessitates active participation.
Further reading
External links
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