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Voiced alveolar fricative
The voiced alveolar fricatives are consonantal sounds. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents these sounds depends on whether a sibilant or non-sibilant fricative is being described.
Voiced coronal fricatives
Dental
Denti-
alveolar
AlveolarPost-alveolar
RetractedRetroflex
Palato-
alveolar
Alveolo-
palatal
Sibilantplainʐʒʑ
Non-sibilantðð̠/ð͇/ɹ̝ɻ̝
tappedɾ̞/ɹ̝̆
Voiced alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar fricative
z
IPA Number133
Encoding
Entity (decimal)z
Unicode (hex)U+007A
X-SAMPAz
Braille
Audio sample
Voiced laminal dentalized alveolar sibilant
Voiced laminal predorsal alveolar sibilant
Voiced alveolar retracted sibilant
Encoding
Entity (decimal)z​̺
Unicode (hex)U+007A U+033A
The voiced alveolar sibilant is common across European languages, but is relatively uncommon cross-linguistically compared to the voiceless variant. Only about 28% of the world's languages contain a voiced dental or alveolar sibilant. Moreover, 85% of the languages with some form of [z] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia.
Features
Occurrence
Dentalized laminal alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArmenianEastern[2]
զարդ
[z̪ɑɾt̪ʰ] (help·info)'decoration'
Azerbaijani[3]
z
[z̪ɔʁ]'sprout'
Belarusian[4]
база
[ˈbäz̪ä]'base'Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[5]
езеро
[ˈɛz̪ɛro]'lake'Contrasts with palatalized form.
Czech[6]
zima
[ˈz̪ɪmä]'winter'See Czech phonology
EnglishMulticultural London[7]
zoo
[z̪ʏˑy̯]'zoo'See English phonology
French[8][9]
zèbre
[z̪ɛbʁ]'zebra'See French phonology
Hungarian[10]
zálog
[ˈz̪äːl̪oɡ]'pledge'See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[11][example needed]
Kazakh[12]
заң/zan'
[z̪äŋ]'law'
Kyrgyz[13]
заң
Latvian[14]
zars
[z̪ärs̪]'branch'See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15]
зошто
[ˈz̪ɔʃt̪ɔ]'why'See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese
daprendizaige
[d̪əpɾẽd̪iˈz̪ajʒ(ɯ̽)]'learning'Contrasts seven sibilants altogether, preserving medieval Ibero-Romance contrasts.
Polish[1][16]
zero
[ˈz̪ɛrɔ] (help·info)'zero'See Polish phonology
PortugueseMost speakers
Estados Unidos
[isˈt̪ad̪uz̪‿ʉˈnid͡zᶶ(ˢ)]'United States'See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[17]
zar
[z̪är]'dice'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]заезжать / zaezžat'[z̪əɪˈʑʑætʲ] (help·info)'to pick up'Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20]зајам / zajam[z̪ǎːjäm]'loan'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak
zima
[ˈz̪imä]'winter'
Slovene[21]
zima
[ˈz̪ìːma]'winter'
Turkish[8][22]
z
[ɟø̞̈z̪]'eye'See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23]
зуб
[z̪ub]'tooth'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[24]koza[ˈkoz̪ä]'goat'See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[25]zafar'victory'
VietnameseHanoi[26]
da
[z̪äː]'skin'See Vietnamese phonology
Non-retracted alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adyghe
зы
[ˈzə] (help·info)'one'
Albanian
zjarr
[zjar]'fire'
ArabicStandard[27]زائِر[ˈzaːʔir]'visitor'See Arabic phonology
Assamese
লকীয়া
[zɔlɔkija]'chili'
Assyrianܙܢ̱ܓܐ zìga[ziɡa]'bell'
Bengali
নামা
[namaz]'Salah'See Bengali phonology
Bretoniliz[iliz]'church'
Chechenзурма / zurma[zuɾma]'music'
Dutch[28][29]
zaad
[z̻aːt̻]'seed'Laminal; may have only mid-to-low pitched friction in the Netherlands.[28][29] See Dutch phonology
Emilian and Romagnol
raån
[raːz̺ʌŋ]'reason'Palatalized apical; may be [ʐ] or [ʒ] instead.
English
zoo
[zuː]'zoo'Absent from some Scottish and Asian dialects. See English phonology
Esperanto
kuzo
[ˈkuzo]'cousin'See Esperanto phonology
Georgian[30]
არი
[ˈzɑɾi]'bell'
GreekAthens dialect[31]ζάλη / záli[ˈz̻ali]'dizziness'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrewזאב[zeˈʔev]'wolf'See Modern Hebrew phonology
HindustaniHindi
ज़मीन
[zəmiːn]'land'See Hindustani phonology
Urduزمین
Japanese[32]全部 / zenbu[zembɯ]'everything'See Japanese phonology
Kabardian
зы
[ˈzə] (help·info)'one'
Kalaw Lagaw Yazilamiz[zilʌmiz]'go'
Kashmiriज़ानुन / زانُن[zaːnun]'to know'
Malay
beza
[bezə]'difference'
Maltese
żelu
[zelu]'zeal'
Marathi
[zər]'if'See Marathi phonology.
OccitanLimousinjòune[ˈzɒwne]'young'See Occitan phonology
Persianگوز[guz]'fart'
Portuguese[33]
casa
[ˈkazɐ]'house'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਜ਼ਿੰਦਗੀ[zɪnˈd̪əgi]'life'
SpanishAndalusian
comunismo
[ko̞muˈnizmo̞]'Communism'Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants, when it is not debuccalized to [h ~ ɦ]. Present in dialects which realize /s/ as a non-retracted alveolar fricative. Before /d/ it is dental [z̪].
Latin American
Filipino
Mexican
isla
[ˈiz.lä]'island'Some northern dialects. Corresponds to /s/ in other Mexican dialects, and to /θ/ in Peninsular Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Swahili
lazima
[lɑzimɑ]'must'
West Frisian[34]sizze[ˈsɪzə]'to say'It never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ssy[zɹ̩˧]'generation'
Yiddish
zien
[zin]'son'
ZapotecTilquiapan[35]guanaz[ɡʷanaz]'went to grab'
Retracted alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Catalan[36][37]
zel
[ˈz̺ɛɫ]'zeal'Apical. See Catalan phonology
Galicianmesmo[ˈme̞z̺mo̞]'same'Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪].
Greek[38]μάζα / za[ˈmɐz̠ɐ]'mass'See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianCentral Italy[39]
caso
[ˈkäːz̠o]'case'Present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[39] most of Umbria[39] (save Perugia and the extreme south)[39] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[39]
Northern Italy[40][41]Apical.[42] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[43][44] See Italian phonology
Sicily[39]Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[39]
Low German[45][example needed]
Maldivianzaraafaa[z̺aˈraːfaː]'giraffe'
Mirandese
eisistir
[e̞jz̺is̺ˈtiɾ]'to exist'Apical. Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ⟨ch⟩ //, ⟨x⟩ /ʃ/, ⟨g⟩/⟨j⟩ /ʒ/, ⟨c⟩/⟨ç⟩ //, ⟨z⟩ /z̪/, ⟨s⟩/-⟨ss⟩- //, -⟨s⟩- /z̺/
OccitanGasconcasèrna[kaz̺ɛrno]'barracks'See Occitan phonology
Languedocienser[bez̺e]'to see'
Piedmonteseamis[aˈmiz̠]'friend'Apical. See Piemontese phonology
PortugueseCoastal Northern European[example needed]Merges with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland Northern European[example needed]Apical. Contrasts with non-retracted /z/. See Portuguese phonology
SpanishAndeanmismo[ˈmiz̺mo̞]'same'Apical. Allophone of /s/ before voiced consonants. Before /d/ it is pronounced dentally [z̪]. See Spanish phonology
Castilian
Paisa Region
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
GermanStandard[46]
sauber
[ˈzäʊ̯bɐ]'clean'Varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[46] See Standard German phonology
ItalianStandard[47]
caso
[ˈkäːzo]'case'Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[47] See Italian phonology
Ticino[42]Varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical.[48] Both variants may be labiodentalized.[42] See Italian phonology
Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
Voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative
ð̠
ð͇
ɹ̝
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ð​̠
Unicode (hex)U+00F0 U+0320
Audio sample
Voiced alveolar tapped fricative
ɾ̞
ɹ̝̆
IPA Number124 430
Audio sample
source · help
The voiced alveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized), it can represent the sound as in a number of ways including ⟨ð̠⟩ or ⟨ð͇⟩ (retracted or alveolarized [ð], respectively), ⟨ɹ̝⟩ (constricted [ɹ]), or ⟨d̞⟩ (lowered [d]).
Few languages also have the voiced alveolar tapped fricative, which is simply a very brief apical alveolar non-sibilant fricative, with the tongue making the gesture for a tapped stop but not making full contact. It can be indicated in the IPA with the lowering diacritic to show that full occlusion does not occur. Flapped fricatives are theoretically possible but are not attested.[49]
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AragonesePyrenean[50]aire[ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞]'air'Tapped; common realization of /ɾ/.[50]
Czech[51]
čtyři
[ˈt͡ʃtɪɹ̝ɪ]'four'May be a fricative trill[51] or a tap fricative instead.[52] It contrasts with /r/ and /ʒ/. See Czech phonology
Dahalo[53][káð̠i]'work'Apical; only weakly fricated. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d̠/, and may be an approximant [ð̠˕] or simply a plosive [d] instead.[54]
Danish[55]Few speakers[56]
ved
[ve̝ð̠]'at'Laminal.[55] Allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda; much more often realized as an approximant.[56] See Danish phonology
Dutch[57]
voor
[vöːɹ̝]'for'One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear. See Dutch phonology
EmilianBolognesechè[ˈkɛːð̠]'case'Laminal
EnglishScouse[58]
maid
[meɪð̠]'maid'Allophone of /d/. See English phonology
South African[59][60]
round
[ɹ̝æʊ̯nd]'round'Apical,[60] present in some urban dialects.[59] See South African English phonology
Icelandic[61][62]
bróðir
[ˈprou̯ð̠ir]'brother'Usually apical,[61][62] may be closer to an approximant. See Icelandic phonology
ItalianSicily[63]
terra
[ˈt̪ɛɹ̝ä]'earth'Apical; corresponds to /rr/ in standard Italian.[63] See Italian phonology
Manxmooar[muːɹ̝]'big'Common word-final realization of /r/.
Spanish[64]Aragonese
aire
[ˈäi̯ɾ̞e̞]'air'Tapped; possible realization of /ɾ/.[64] See Spanish phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[65][66]
vandrare
[²vän̪ːd̪ɹ̝äɹɛ]'wanderer'Allophone of /r/ around the Stockholm area. See Swedish phonology
Tacana[67][example needed]Tapped.[67]
Turkish[68]
rüya
[ˈɾ̞ÿjä]'dream'Tapped; word-initial allophone of /ɾ/.[68] See Turkish phonology
See also
Notes
  1. ^ a b Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  3. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 136, 139–142.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  6. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  7. ^ "english speech services | Accent of the Year / sibilants in MLE". 31 December 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  8. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  10. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  12. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  17. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  22. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  23. ^ Buk, Solomija; Mačutek, Ján; Rovenchak, Andrij (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16 (16): 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198. Bibcode​:​2008arXiv0802.4198B​. (PDF ram-verlag.eu)
  24. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38, 39.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  26. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 5 and 7.
  27. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  28. ^ a b Gussenhoven (1999), p. 75.
  29. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 190.
  30. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  31. ^ Adams (1975), p. 283.
  32. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  33. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  34. ^ Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  35. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  36. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  37. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  38. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 12.
  39. ^ a b c d e f g Adams (1975), p. 286.
  40. ^ Adams (1975), pp. 285–286.
  41. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71-72.
  42. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  43. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  44. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  45. ^ Adams (1975), p. 289.
  46. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  47. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  48. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  49. ^ Laver (1994), p. 263.
  50. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 104, 112.
  51. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 228–230 and 233.
  52. ^ Šimáčková, Podlipský & Chládková (2012), p. 226.
  53. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:34)
  54. ^ Maddieson et al. (1993:28, 34)
  55. ^ a b Jespersen (1897–1899:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144)
  56. ^ a b Bauer et al. (1980:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:144): "Only in a very distinct Danish – as from the stage of the Royal Theater – do we get a fricative."
  57. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors do not say where exactly it is used.
  58. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352–353.
  59. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 236.
  60. ^ a b Ogden (2009), p. 92.
  61. ^ a b Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  62. ^ a b Grønnum (2005:139)
  63. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.
  64. ^ a b Mott (2007), p. 112.
  65. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 141.
  66. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  67. ^ a b "UPSID r[F". Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  68. ^ a b Yavuz & Balcı (2011), p. 25.
References
External links
Last edited on 13 June 2021, at 02:39
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