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Voiced dental, alveolar and postalveolar nasals
  (Redirected from Voiced alveolar nasal)
For consonants followed by superscript ⁿ, see Nasal release.
"Alveolar nasal" redirects here. For the voiceless consonant, see Voiceless alveolar nasal.
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The voiced alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar nasals is ⟨n⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n.
Voiced alveolar nasal
n
IPA Number116
Encoding
Entity (decimal)n
Unicode (hex)U+006E
X-SAMPAn
Braille
Audio sample
The vast majority of languages have either an alveolar or dental nasal. There are a few languages that lack either sound but have [m] (e.g. Palauan and colloquial Samoan). There are some languages (e.g. Rotokas) that lack both [m] and [n].
True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. In the Romance, Dravidian, and Australian languages, n is often called "dental" in the literature. However, the rearmost contact (which is what gives a consonant its distinctive sound) is actually alveolar or denti-alveolar. The difference between the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth, as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in the Romance languages it is the flat of the tongue just above the tip (such sounds are called laminal).
However, there are languages with true apical (or less commonly laminal) dental n. It is found in the Mapuche language of South America, where it is actually interdental. A true dental generally occurs allophonically before /θ/ in languages which have it, as in English tenth. Similarly, a denti-alveolar allophone will occur in languages which have denti-alveolar stops, as in Spanish cinta.
Some languages contrast laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar nasals. For example, in the Malayalam pronunciation of Nārāyanan, the first n is dental, the second is retroflex, and the third alveolar.
A postalveolar nasal occurs in a number of Australian Aboriginal languages, including Djeebbana and Jingulu.[1]
Features
Features of the voiced alveolar nasal:
Occurrence
Dental or denti-alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Belarusian[2]новы/novy[ˈn̪ovɨ]'new'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[3]жена/žena[ʒɛˈn̪a]'woman'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Catalan[4]
cantar
[kən̪ˈt̪ä]'to sing'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.[4] See Catalan phonology
Chuvashшăна/šăna[ʃɒn̪a]'a fly'
DutchBelgian
nicht
[n̻ɪxt̻]'niece'Laminal denti-alveolar, sometimes simply alveolar. See Dutch phonology
English
month
[mʌn̪θ]'month'Interdental. Allophone of /n/ before /θ, ð/.
Esperanto
Esperanto
[espeˈran̪t̪o]'One who hopes'See Esperanto phonology
French[5]
connexion
[kɔn̻ɛksjɔ̃]'connection'Laminal denti-alveolar, sometimes simply alveolar. See French phonology
Greek[6]άνθος/ánthos[ˈɐn̪θo̞s]'flower'Interdental. Allophone of /n/. See Modern Greek phonology
Hindustaniया / نیا‎/najā[n̪əjaː]'new'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian[7]
nagyi
[ˈn̪ɒɟi]'grandma'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[8][9]
cantare
[kän̪ˈt̪äːre]'to sing'Laminal denti-alveolar.[9] Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t͡s, d͡z/.[8][9] See Italian phonology
Irishnaoi[n̪ˠɰiː]'nine'Velarized.
Kashubian[10][example needed]Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kazakh
көрінді/körindi
[kœɾɪn̪d̪ɪ]'it seemed'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.
Kyrgyzбедели​н​де​/bedelinde[be̞d̪e̞lin̪d̪e̞]'in the authority'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.
Latvian[11]
nakts
[n̪äkt̪s̪]'night'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[12]нос/nos[n̪o̞s̪]'nose'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Macedonian phonology
Malayalam[13]പന്നി/panni[pən̪n̪i]'pig'Interdental for some speakers.
Mapudungun[14]
a
[mɘ̝ˈn̪ɐ̝]'male cousin on father's side'Interdental.[14]
Marathi/nakha[n̪əkʰə]'fingernail'See Marathi phonology
Nepali
सुगन्ध
[suˈɡʌn̪d̪ʱʌ]'fraɡrance'Allophone of /n/ in neighbourhood of /t̪, t̪ʰ, d̪, d̪ʱ/.
Polish[15]
nos
[n̪ɔs̪]'nose'Laminal denti-alveolar. Alveolar before /t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/. See Polish phonology
PortugueseGeneral[16][17]
narina
[n̻ɐˈɾin̻ɐ]'nostril'Laminal denti-alveolar. May nasalize preceding vowel (especially if stressed). Has [ɲ̟] as allophone, forming from clusters with [j], and before /i/.
Vernacular Paulista[18][19]percebendo[pe̞ʁse̞ˈbẽn̻u]'perceiving'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ after a stressed nasal vowel in more stigmatized varieties. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[20]
alună
[äˈl̪un̪ə]'hazelnut'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Romanian phonology
Russianнаш/nash[n̪aʂ]'our'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatianстудент / student[s̪t̪ǔd̪e̞n̪t̪]'student'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t͡s/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene
amarant
[amaˈɾaːn̪t̪]'amaranth'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t͡s/. See Slovene phonology
SpanishMost dialects
cantar
[kän̪ˈt̪är]'to sing'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/. See Spanish phonology
Tamilநாடு/nāḍu[n̪ɑːɖɯ]'country'See Tamil phonology
Ukrainian[21]наш/nash[n̪ɑʃ]'our'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with palatalized form. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[22][example needed]Laminal denti-alveolar.
Alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheнэфнэ/nėfnė[nafna]'light'
ArabicStandardنور‎/nūr[nuːr]'light'See Arabic phonology
Assyrianܢܘܪܐ nōra[noːɾaː]'mirror'
Basque
ni
[ni]'I'
Bengaliনাক/naak/nāk[naːk]'nose'See Bengali phonology
Catalan[23]
nou
[ˈnɔw]'new'See Catalan phonology
ChineseMandarin/nán[nan˧˥]'difficult'See Mandarin phonology
Czech
na
[na]'on'See Czech phonology
Dutch[24]
nacht
[nɑxt]'night'See Dutch phonology
English
nice
[naɪs]'nice'See English phonology
Finnish
annan
[ˈɑnːɑn]'I give'See Finnish phonology
Georgian[25]კა/k'ani[ˈkʼɑni]'skin'
Greekνάμα/náma[ˈnama]'communion wine'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiહી/nahi[nəhi]'no'See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[26]
naka
[naka]'to shake'See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrewנבון‎/navon[navon]'wise'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[27]
nano
[ˈnäːno]'dwarf'See Italian phonology
Irishbinn[bʲiːnʲ]'peak'Palatalized.
Japanese[28]反対/hantai[hantai]'opposite'See Japanese phonology
Korean나라/nara[nɐɾɐ]'Country'See Korean phonology
KurdishNorthern
giyanewer
[ˈgʲɪjä:ˈnɛwɛˈɾ]'animal'See Kurdish phonology
Centralگیانلەبەر/gîyânlabar[ˈgʲiːäːnˈlæbæˈɾ]
Southern[ˈgʲiːäːnˈlabaˈɾ]
Kyrgyz[29]банан/banan[baˈnan]'banana'
Malay
nasi
[näsi]'cooked rice'
Malayalam[13]കന്നി/kanni[kənni]'virgin'
Maltese
lenbuba
[lenbuˈba]'truncheon'
Mapudungun[14]
na
[mɘ̝ˈnɐ̝]'enough'
NgweMmockngie dialect[nøɣə̀]'sun'
Nepaliक्कल/nakkal[nʌkːʌl]'imitation'See Nepali phonology
Odiaନାକ/nāka[näkɔ]'nose'
Persianنون/nun[nun]'bread'
Pirahãgíxai[níˈʔàì̯]'you'
Polish[15]
poncz
[ˈpɔn̥t͡ʂ]'punch'Allophone of /n/ (which is normally laminal denti-alveolar []) before /t͡ʂ, d͡ʐ/. See Polish phonology
Punjabiਨੱਕ/nakk[nəkː]'nose'
Slovak
na
[nä]'on'
Slovene[30]
novice
[nɔˈʋìːt̪͡s̪ɛ]'news'
Spanish[31]
nada
[ˈnäð̞ä]'nothing'See Spanish phonology
Swahilindizi[n̩dizi]'banana'
Tagalog
nipis
[nipis]'thin'Tagalog phonology
Thai/non[nɔːn]'sleep'See Thai phonology
Turkish
neden
[ne̞d̪æn]'reason'See Turkish phonology
Tamilசு/manasu[mʌnʌsɯ]'mind', 'heart'See Tamil phonology
Vietnamese[32]
bạn đi
[ɓanˀ˧˨ʔ ɗi]'you're going'Occurs only before alveolar consonants. See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh
nain
[nain]'grandmother'See Welsh phonology
Western Apachenon[nòn] (help·info)'cache'
West Frisiannekke[ˈnɛkə]'neck'
Yi/na[na˧ ]'hurt'
ZapotecTilquiapan[33]nanɨɨ[nanɨˀɨ]'lady'contrasts with a fortis alveolar nasal that is not represented in the orthography.
Postalveolar
See also: Retroflex nasal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Catalan[4]
panxa
['pän̠ɕə][34]'belly'Allophone of /n/ before /ʃ, ʒ, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/, may be alveolo-palatal instead.[4] See Catalan phonology
Djeebbana[35]
barnmarramarlón̠a
[ban̠maramal̠ɔn̪a]'they two swam'Result of rhotic plus alveolar [n].[35]
EnglishAustralian[36]
enrol
[əṉˈɹ̠ɔo̯ɫ]'enrol'Allophone of /n/ before /r/.[36] See Australian English phonology
Italian[37]
angelo
[ˈän̠ʲːd͡ʒelo]'angel'Palatalized laminal; allophone of /n/ before /ʃ, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/.[37] See Italian phonology
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishScottish[38]
nice
[nəis]'nice'Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[38][39]
Welsh[39]
GermanStandard[40]
Lanze
[ˈlant͡sə]'lance'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[40] See Standard German phonology
NorwegianUrban East[41]
mann
[mɑn̻ː]'man'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[41] See Norwegian phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[42]
nu
[nʉ̟ː]'now'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[42] See Swedish phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Chadwick, Neil J. (1975). A descriptive study of the Djingili language. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  2. ^ Padluzhny (1989), pp. 49–50.
  3. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  4. ^ a b c d Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  6. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 15.
  7. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000), pp. 75–76.
  8. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 133.
  9. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 58.
  10. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  11. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  12. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  13. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  14. ^ a b c Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88–89.
  15. ^ a b Rocławski (1976), p. 136.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 230.
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Unesp's digital collection – The deleting of /d/ in the morpheme of the gerund in São José do Rio Preto's accent Archived 2012-12-31 at archive.today
  19. ^ (in Portuguese) The deletting of /d/ in the morpheme of the gerund in São José do Rio Preto's accent – PDF
  20. ^ Chițoran (2001), p. 10.
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 10.
  22. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  23. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  24. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  25. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  26. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 139.
  27. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  28. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  29. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  30. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  31. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  32. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  33. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  34. ^ Valencian pronunciation: ['pän̠t͡ɕä]. What are transcribed /ʃ, ʒ, t͡ʃ, d͡ʒ/ in Catalan are actually alveolo-palatal sibilants [ɕ, ʑ, t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ].
  35. ^ a b Dixon (2002), p. 585.
  36. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  37. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 58–59.
  38. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  39. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  40. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 49.
  41. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 22.
  42. ^ a b Riad (2014), p. 46.
References
External links
List of languages with [n] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 05:53
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