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Voiced dental and alveolar plosives
  (Redirected from Voiced dental plosive)
The voiced alveolar, dental and postalveolarplosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in many spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiced dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨d⟩ (although the symbol ⟨d̪⟩ can be used to distinguish the dental plosive, and ⟨d̠⟩ the postalveolar), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is d.
Voiced alveolar plosive
d
IPA Number104
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d
Unicode (hex)U+0064
X-SAMPAd
Braille
Audio sample
Voiced dental plosive
IPA Number104 408
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d​̪
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+032A
X-SAMPAd_d
Braille
Audio sample
There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda being a few of them.
Features
Features of the voiced alveolar stop:
Occurrence
Dental or denti-alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArmenianEastern[1]դեմք / demk’[d̪ɛmkʰ] (help·info)'face'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Western[d̪ɑl]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bashkirдүрт / dürt[dʏʷrt] (help·info)'four'
Basque
diru
[d̪iɾu]'money'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Belarusian[2]па​д​арожжа​/padarožža[päd̪äˈroʐʐä]'travel'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Bengaliদু/dūdh[d̪ud̪ʱ]'milk'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[3]
dit
[ˈd̪it̪]'finger'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
ChineseWu/da[d̪ɑ̃]'the Tang dynasty'
Dinka[4]
dhek
[d̪ek]'distinct'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with alveolar /d/.
DutchBelgian
ding
[d̪ɪŋ]'thing'Laminal denti-alveolar.
EnglishDublin[5]
then
[d̪ɛn]'then'Laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to [ð] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [d͡ð] instead.[5] See English phonology
Southern Irish[6]
Geordie[7]Word-initial allophone of /ð/; may be realized as [ð] instead.[7]
Ulster[8]
dream
[d̪ɹim]'dream'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /d/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto
mondo
[ˈmondo]'world'See Esperanto phonology
French[9]
dais
[d̪ɛ]'canopy'Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Georgian[10]
კუ
[ˈkʼud̪i]'tail'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Georgian phonology
Hindustani[11]दू / دودھ‎/dūdh[d̪uːd̪ʱ]'milk'Laminal denti-alveolar. Hindustani contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Irish
dorcha
[ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəxə]'dark'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Irish phonology
Italian[12]
dare
[ˈd̪äːre]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Japanese[13]男性的 / danseiteki[d̪ä̃ɰ̃se̞ːt̪e̞kʲi]'masculine'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
Kashubian[14][example needed]Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[15]
дос
[d̪os̪]'friend'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[16]
drudzis
[ˈd̪rud̪͡z̪is̪]'fever'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Marathiगड/dagaḍ[d̪əɡəɖ]'stone'Laminal denti-alveolar. Marathi contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms. See Marathi phonology
Nepaliदि/din[d̪in]'daytime'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali Phonology
Odia/daśa[d̪ɔsɔ]'ten'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Pashtoﺪﻮﻩ‎/dwa[ˈd̪wɑ]'two'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Polish[17]
dom
[d̪ɔm] (help·info)'home'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[18]Many dialects
dar
[ˈd̪aɾ]'to give'Laminal denti-alveolar. May palatalize or lenite in certain environments, depending on dialect. See Portuguese phonology
PunjabiGurmukhiਦਾਲ/dāl[d̪ɑːl]'lentils'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Shahmukhiدال/dāl
Russian[19]два/ dva[ˈd̪wɑ]'two'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with a palatalized alveolar variant. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[20]дуга / duga[d̪ǔːgä]'rainbow'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[21]
danes
[ˈd̪àːnəs̪]'today'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Spanish[22]
hundido
[ũn̪ˈd̪ið̞o̞]'sunken'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Turkish
dal
[d̪äɫ]'twig'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[23][24]дерево/derevo[ˈd̪ɛrɛβ̞ɔ]'tree'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[25]sifatida[siɸætidæ]'as'Laminal denti-alveolar.
ZapotecTilquiapan[26]dan[d̪aŋ]'countryside'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheдахэ/daahė[daːxa]'pretty'
Assyrianܘܪܕܐ werda[wεrda]'flower'Predominant in the Urmia, Jilu, Baz, Gawar and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [ð̞] in other varieties.
Bengaliডা/ḍab[d̠ab]'green coconut'True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. Usually transcribed in IPA as [ɖ]. See Bengali phonology.
Czech
do
[do]'into'See Czech phonology
Dutch[27]
dak
[dɑk]'roof'See Dutch phonology
EnglishMost speakers
dash
[ˈdæʃ]'dash'See English phonology
Finnish
sidos
[ˈsido̞s]'bond'See Finnish phonology
Greekντροπή / dropí[dro̞ˈpi]'shame'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrewדואר‎/ do'ar[ˈdo̞.äʁ̞]'mail'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian
adó
[ˈɒdoː]'tax'See Hungarian phonology
Kabardianдахэ/ daahė[daːxa]'pretty'
Korean아들 / adeul[ɐdɯl]'son'See Korean phonology
KurdishNorthern
diran
[dɪɾä:n]'tooth'See Kurdish phonology
Centralددان/ dadân[dædä:n]
Southernدیان/dîân[diːä:n]
Luxembourgish[28]brudder[ˈb̥ʀudɐ]'brother'More often voiceless [t].[28] See Luxembourgish phonology
MalayStandard (incl. Malaysian)
dahan
[dähän]'branch'See Malay phonology
Indonesian[29]
Kelantan-Pattani[dahɛː]See Kelantan-Pattani Malay
Maltese
dehen
[den]'wit'
Thaiดาว/ dāw[daːw]'star'
Welshdiafol[djavɔl]'devil'See Welsh phonology
West Frisiandoarp[ˈdwɑrp]'village'
Yi/dda[da˧]'competent'
Yonaguni与那国 / dunan[dunaŋ]'Yonaguni'
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Arabicدين‎/diin[diːn]'religion'Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the dialect. See Arabic phonology.
EnglishBroad South African[30]
dawn
[doːn]'dawn'Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[30][31][32]
Scottish[31][dɔn]
Welsh[32][dɒːn]
GermanStandard[33]
oder
[ˈoːdɐ]'or'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[33] See Standard German phonology
NorwegianUrban East[34]
dans
[d̻ɑns]'dance'Partially voiced or fully voiceless [t]. Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[34] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[35]اداره‎/edāre[edaːre]'office'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[35] See Persian phonology
Slovak[36][37]
do
[d̻ɔ̝]'into'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[36][37] See Slovak phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[38]
dag
[dɑːɡ]'day'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[38] May be an approximant in casual speech. See Swedish phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  2. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  3. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  4. ^ Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115, 121.
  5. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  6. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  7. ^ a b Watt & Allen (2003), p. 270.
  8. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  12. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  13. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  14. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  15. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  16. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  17. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  19. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  22. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  23. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  24. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  25. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  26. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  27. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  28. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  29. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  30. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 120.
  31. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  32. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  33. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  34. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000:22)
  35. ^ a b Mahootian (2002:287–289)
  36. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 72.
  37. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 98–99.
  38. ^ a b Riad (2014:46)
References
External links
List of languages with [d] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 13:42
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