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Voiced glottal fricative
For consonants followed by superscript ʱ, see voiced aspirate.
The voiced glottal fricative, sometimes called breathy-voiced glottal transition, is a type of sound used in some spoken languages which patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant​phonologically​, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɦ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h\.
Voiced glottal fricative
ɦ
IPA Number147
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɦ
Unicode (hex)U+0266
X-SAMPAh\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
In many languages, [ɦ] has no place or manner of articulation. Thus, it has been described as a breathy-voiced counterpart of the following vowel from a phonetic point of view. However, its characteristics are also influenced by the preceding vowels and whatever other sounds surround it. Therefore, it can be described as a segment whose only consistent feature is its breathy voice phonation in such languages.[1] It may have real glottal constriction in a number of languages (such as Finnish[2]), making it a fricative.
Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[3]
Features
Features of the voiced glottal fricative:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AzeriStandardhkəm[mœːɦcæm]'solid'
BasqueNortheastern dialects[5]hemen[ɦemen]'here'Can be voiceless [h] instead.
ChineseWu閒話/he hu[ɦɛɦʊ]'language'
Czech
hlava
[ˈɦlava]'head'See Czech phonology
Danish[3]
Mon det har regnet?
[- te̝ ɦɑ -]'I wonder if it has rained.'Common allophone of /h/ between vowels.[3] See Danish phonology
Dutch[6]
haat
[ɦaːt]'hate'See Dutch phonology
EnglishAustralian[7]
behind
[bəˈɦɑe̯nd]'behind'Allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds.[7][8] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
Received Pronunciation[8][bɪˈɦaɪ̯nd]
Broad South African
hand
[ˈɦɛn̪t̪]'hand'Some speakers, only before a stressed vowel.
Estonian
raha
[ˈrɑɦɑ]'money'Allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Estonian phonology and Finnish phonology
Finnish
FrenchQuebec[9]manger[mãɦe]'to eat'Limited to a minority of speakers. Can also be realized as a voiceless [h].
Hebrewמַהֵר[mäɦe̞r] (help·info)'fast'Occurs as an allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniहूँ / ہوں[ɦũː]'am'See Hindustani phonology
Kalabari[10]hóín[ɦóĩ́]'introduction'
Korean여행 / yeohaeng[jʌɦεŋ]'travel'Occurs as an allophone of /h/ between voiced sounds. See Korean phonology
LimburgishSome dialects[11][12]hart[ɦɑ̽ʀ̝t]'heart'Voiceless [h] in other dialects. The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lithuanianhumoras[ˈɦʊmɔrɐs̪]'humour'Often pronounced instead of [ɣ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Odia/ɦaḷa[hɔɭɔ]'plough'
Nepaliहल[ɦʌl]'solution'See Nepali phonology
PolishPodhale dialect
hydrant
[ˈɦɘ̟d̪rän̪t̪]'fire hydrant'Contrasts with /x/. Standard Polish possesses only /x/. See Polish phonology
Kresy dialect
PortugueseMany Brazilian dialects
esse rapaz
[ˈesi ɦaˈpajs]'this youth' (m.)Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology and guttural R
Many speakers
hashi
[ɦɐˈʃi]'chopsticks'
Some Brazilian[13][14] dialects
mesmo
[ˈmeɦmu]'same'Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Cearense dialect[15]
gente
[ˈɦẽnt͡ʃi]'people'Debuccalized from [ʒ], [v] or [z].
Mineiro dialect
dormir
[doɦˈmi(h)]'to sleep'Before other voiced consonants, otherwise realized as [h].
Punjabiਹਵਾ / ہوا[ɦə̀ʋä̌ː]'air'
RomanianTransylvanian dialects[16]
haină
[ˈɦajnə]'coat'Corresponds to [h] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Silesian
hangrys
[ˈɦaŋɡrɨs]'gooseberry'
SpanishCuban dialectvirgen[biɦhen]'virgin'
Slovakhora[ˈɦɔ̝rä] (help·info)'mountain'See Slovak phonology
SloveneLittoral dialects[ˈɦɔra]This is a general feature of all Slovene dialects west of the Škofja LokaPlanina line. Corresponds to [ɡ] in other dialects. See Slovene phonology
Rovte dialects
Rosen Valley dialect
Sylheti
ꠢꠥꠐꠇꠤ
[ɦuʈki]'dried fish'
Ukrainian
голос
[ˈɦɔlos]'voice'Also described as [ʕ]. See Ukrainian phonology
Zuluihhashi[iːˈɦaːʃi]'horse'
See also
Creaky-voiced glottal approximant
Notes
  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:325–326)
  2. ^ Laufer (1991:91)
  3. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005:125)
  4. ^ Ladefoged, Peter; Keith, Johnson (2011). A course in phonetics (Sixth ed.). Boston, MA: Wadsworth Publishing. p. 149. ISBN 9781428231269. OCLC 613523782.
  5. ^ Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003:24)
  6. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  7. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017:159)
  8. ^ a b Roach (2004:241)
  9. ^ April (2007)
  10. ^ Harry (2003:113)
  11. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:155)
  12. ^ Verhoeven (2007:219)
  13. ^ (in Portuguese) Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese
  14. ^ (in Portuguese) Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty
  15. ^ "A NEUTRALIZAÇÃO DOS FONEMAS / v – z - Z / NO FALAR DE FORTALEZA" (PDF). profala.ufc.br. Retrieved 23 April 2012.
  16. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɦ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 April 2021, at 08:18
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