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Voiced labialized-velar approximant
  (Redirected from Voiced labial–velar approximant)
"w (IPA)" redirects here. For consonants followed by superscript ʷ, see Labialization.
The voiced labialized velar approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in certain spoken languages, including English. It is the sound denoted by the letter ⟨w⟩ in the English alphabet;[1] likewise, the symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨w⟩, or rarely [ɰʷ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is w. In most languages it is the semivocalic counterpart of the close back rounded vowel [u]. In inventory charts of languages with other labialized velar consonants, /w/ will be placed in the same column as those consonants. When consonant charts have only labial and velar columns, /w/ may be placed in the velar column, (bi)labial column, or both. The placement may have more to do with phonological criteria than phonetic ones.[2]
Voiced labialized velar approximant
w
IPA Number170
Encoding
Entity (decimal)w
Unicode (hex)U+0077
X-SAMPAw
Braille
Audio sample
Compressed velar approximant
ɰᵝ
Some languages have a voiced labialized prevelar approximant,[a] which is more fronted than the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced labialized velar approximant, though not as front as the prototypical labialized palatal approximant.
Features
Features of the voiced labialized velar approximant:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazауаҩы/auaòy[awaˈɥə]'human'See Abkhaz phonology
Adygheоды/ody[wadə] (help·info)'thin'
ArabicModern Standard[3]وَرْد‎/ward[ward]'rose'See Arabic phonology
Assameseৱাশ্বিংটন​/washington[waʃiŋtɔn]'Washington'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
ktawa
[kta:wa]'book'Most speakers. [v] and [ʋ] are used in the Urmia dialects.
Basque
lau
[law]'four'
Belarusianвоўк/voŭk[vɔwk]'wolf'See Belarusian phonology
Bengaliওয়াদা/uada[wada]'promise'Allophone of [o] and [u] when preceding a vowel word-initially. See Bengali phonology
Berberⴰⵍ/awal[æwæl]'speech'
Catalan[4]
creuar
[kɾəˈwa]'to cross'See Catalan phonology
ChineseCantonese/waat[wɑːt̚˧]'dig'See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin/wā[wa̠˥]See Mandarin phonology
DutchColloquial
kouwe
[ˈkʌu̯wə]'cold'Lenited allophone of /d/ after /ʌu̯/. See Dutch phonology
Standard Surinamese
welp
[wɛɫp]'cub'Corresponds to [ʋ] in the Netherlands and to [β̞] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English
weep
[wiːp]'weep'See English phonology
Esperanto
aŭto
['awto]'car'See Esperanto phonology
French[5]
oui
[wi]'yes'See French phonology
Hawaiian[6]
wikiwiki
[wikiwiki]'fast'May also be realized as [v]. See Hawaiian phonology
HebrewOrientalכּוֹחַ‎/kowaḥ[ˈkowaħ]'power'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani[7]विश्वास[ʋɪʃwaːs]'believe'See Hindustani phonology
Irish
vóta
[ˈwoːt̪ˠə]'vote'See Irish phonology
Italian[8]
uomo
[ˈwɔːmo]'man'See Italian phonology
Kabardianуэ/wǎ[wa] (help·info)'you'
Korean왜가리/waegari[wɛɡɐɾi]'heron'See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[9]zwee[t͡swe̝ː]'two'Allophone of /v/ after /k, t͡s, ʃ/.[10] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay
wang
[waŋ]'money'
MayanYucatecwitz[wit͡s]'mountain'
Nepali
कील
[wʌkːil]'lawyer'See Nepali phonology
Odia[11]ଅଗ୍ରୱାଲ୍/agrawāl[ɔgɾɔwäl]'Agrawal'
Pashtoﻭﺍﺭ‎/war[wɑr]'one time'
Polish[12]
łaska
[ˈwäskä] (help·info)'grace'See Polish phonology. Corresponds to [ɫ] in older pronunciation and eastern dialects
Portuguese[13]Most dialects
quando
[ˈkwɐ̃du]'when'Post-lexically after /k/ and /ɡ/. See Portuguese phonology
boa
[ˈbow.wɐ]'good' (f.)Epenthetic glide or allophone of /u/, following a stressed rounded vowel and preceding an unrounded one.[14]
General Brazilian
qual
[ˈkwaw]'which'Allophone of /l/ in coda position for most Brazilian dialects.[13]
Romanian
dulău
[d̪uˈl̪əw]'mastiff'Typically transcribed as [u̯] See Romanian phonology
Serbo-CroatianCroatian[15]
vuk
[wûːk]'wolf'Allophone of /ʋ/ before /u/.[15] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Seri
cmiique
[ˈkw̃ĩːkːɛ]'person'Allophone of /m/
Slovene[16][17]
cerkev
[ˈt͡sèːrkəw]'church'Allophone of /ʋ/ in the syllable coda.[16][17] Voiceless [ʍ] before voiceless consonants. See Slovene phonology
Sothosewa[ˈsewa]'epidemic'See Sesotho phonology
Spanish[18]
cuanto
[ˈkwãn̪t̪o̞]'as much'See Spanish phonology
Swahilimwanafunzi[mwɑnɑfunzi]'student'
SwedishCentral Standard[19][example needed]Labialized approximant consonant; allophone of /ɡ/ in casual speech before the protruded vowels /ɔ, oː/. See Swedish phonology
Tagalogaraw[ˈɐɾaw]'day'See Tagalog phonology
Thaiแห /waen[wɛn˩˩˦]'ring'
Ukrainianвовк/voŭk[vɔwk]'wolf'See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[20]
tuần
[t̪wən˨˩]'week'See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh
gwae
[ɡwaɨ]'woe'See Welsh phonology
West Frisianskowe[skoːwə]'to shove'
Compressed velar approximant
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Japaneseわたし/watashi[ɰᵝataɕi]'I'See Japanese phonology
SwedishCentral Standard[19][example needed]Labialized approximant consonant; allophone of /ɡ/ in casual speech before the compressed vowels /ɵ, ʉː, ʊ, uː/. See Swedish phonology
See also
Notes
^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  1. ^ Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels (PDF); see the examples on the fifth page.
  2. ^ Ohala & Lorentz (1977), p. 577.
  3. ^ Watson (2002), p. 13.
  4. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 55.
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 75.
  6. ^ Pukui & Elbert (1986), p. xvii.
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  8. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  9. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67, 69.
  10. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), p. 69.
  11. ^ Masica (1991), p. 107.
  12. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  13. ^ a b Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 230.
  14. ^ France (2004).
  15. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999), p. 68.
  16. ^ a b Šuštaršič, Komar & Petek (1999), p. 136.
  17. ^ a b Greenberg (2006), p. 18.
  18. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 256.
  19. ^ a b Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  20. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
References
External links
List of languages with [w] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 16:01
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