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Voiced labiodental fricative
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The voiced labiodental fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨v⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is v.
Voiced labiodental fricative
v
IPA Number129
Encoding
Entity (decimal)v
Unicode (hex)U+0076
X-SAMPAv
Braille
Audio sample
The sound is similar to voiced alveolar fricative /z/ in that it is familiar to most European speakers, but cross-linguistically it is a fairly uncommon sound, being only a quarter as frequent as [w]. Moreover, Most languages that have /z/ also have /v/ and similarly to /z/, the overwhelming majority of languages with [v] are languages of Europe, Africa, or Western Asia, although the similar labiodental approximant /ʋ/ is also common in India. The presence of [v] and absence of [w], is a very distinctive areal feature of European languages and those of adjacent areas of Siberia and Central Asia.[citation needed] Speakers of East Asian languages that lack this sound may pronounce it as [b] (Korean and Japanese), or [f]/[w] (Cantonese and Mandarin), and thus be unable to distinguish between a number of English minimal pairs.[citation needed]
In certain languages, such as Danish,[1]Faroese,[2] Icelandic or Norwegian[3] the voiced labiodental fricative is in a free variation with the labiodental approximant.
Features
Features of the voiced labiodental fricative:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhaz
европа
[evˈropʼa]'Europe'See Abkhaz phonology
Afrikaans
wees
[vɪəs]'to be'See Afrikaans phonology
Albanian
valixhe
[vaˈlidʒɛ]'case'
ArabicAlgerian[4]كاڥي[kavi]'ataxy'See Arabic phonology
Hejaziڤيروس[vajˈruːs]'virus'Only used in loanwords, transcribed and pronounced as ⟨f⟩ by many speakers.
Siirt[4]ذهب[vaˈhab]'gold'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[5]
վեց
[vɛtsʰ] (help·info)'six'
Assyrianܟܬܒ̣ܐ ctava[ctaːva]'book'Only in the Urmia dialects. [ʋ] is also predominantly used. Corresponds to [w] in the other varieties.
BaiDali?[ŋv˩˧]'fish'
Bulgarian
вода
[vɔda]'water'See Bulgarian phonology
CatalanBalearic[6]
viu
[ˈviw]'live'See Catalan phonology
Southern Catalonia[7]
Valencian[7]
Chechenвашa / vaṣa[vaʃa]'brother'
ChineseWu[vɛ]'cooked rice'
Sichuanese[v]'five'
Czech
voda
[ˈvodä]'water'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[8]
véd
[ve̝ːˀð̠˕ˠ]'know(s)'Most often an approximant [ʋ].[1] See Danish phonology
DutchAll dialects
wraak
[vraːk]'revenge'Allophone of /ʋ/ before /r/. See Dutch phonology
Most dialects
vreemd
[vreːmt]'strange'Often devoiced to [f] by speakers from the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
Standard[9]
EnglishAll dialects
valve
[væɫv]'valve'See English phonology
African American[10]
breathe
[bɹiːv]'breathe'Does not occur word-initially. See th-fronting
Cockney[11][bɹəi̯v]
Esperanto
vundo
[ˈvundo]'wound'See Esperanto phonology
Ewe[12]
evlo
[évló]'he is evil'
Faroese[2]
veður
[ˈveːʋuɹ]'speech'Word-initial allophone of /v/, in free variation with an approximant [ʋ].[2] See Faroese phonology
French[13]
valve
[valv]'valve'See French phonology
Georgian[14]
იწრო
[ˈvitsʼɾo]'narrow'
German
Wächter
[ˈvɛçtɐ]'guard'See Standard German phonology
Greekβερνίκιverníki[ve̞rˈnici]'varnish'See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew
גב
[ɡav]'back'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi[15]
व्र
[vrət̪]'fast'See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
veszély
[vɛseːj]'danger'See Hungarian phonology
Irish
bhaile
[vaːlə]'home'See Irish phonology
Italian[16]
avare
[aˈvare]'miserly' (f. pl.)See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanishmueve[ˈmwɛvɛ]'nine'
Kabardian
вагъуэ
[vaːʁʷa] (help·info)'star'Corresponds to [ʒʷ] in Adyghe
Macedonian
вода
[vɔda]'water'See Macedonian phonology
Maltese
iva
[iva]'yes'
NorwegianUrban East[3]
venn
[ve̞nː]'friend'Allophone of /ʋ/ before a pause and in emphatic speech.[3] See Norwegian phonology
OccitanAuvergnatvol[vɔl]'flight'See Occitan phonology
Limousin
Provençal
PersianWestern
ورزش
[varzeʃ]'sport'See Persian phonology
Polish[17]
wór
[vur] (help·info)'bag'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[18]
vila
[ˈvilɐ]'town'See Portuguese phonology
Romanian
val
[väl]'wave'See Romanian phonology
Russian[19][20]
волосы
[ˈvʷo̞ɫ̪əs̪ɨ̞]'hair'Contrasts with palatalized form; may be an approximant [ʋ] instead.[20] See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian
voda
[vɔ'da]'water'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[21]
vzrast
[vzräst]'height'Appears only in syllable onset before voiced obstruents; the usual realization of /v/ is an approximant [ʋ].[21] See Slovak phonology
Slovene[22]filozof'philosopher'Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants.[22] See Slovene phonology
Spanish[23]
afgano
[ävˈɣ̞äno̞]'Afghan'Allophone of /f/ before voiced consonants. See Spanish phonology
Swedish
vägg
[ˈvɛɡː]'wall'See Swedish phonology
Turkish[24]
vade
[väːˈd̪ɛ]'due date'The main allophone of /v/; realized as bilabial [β ~ β̞] in certain contexts.[24] See Turkish phonology
Tyapvak[vag]'road'
Urdu
ورزش
[vəɾzɪʃ]‘exercise’See Hindustani phonology
Vietnamese[25]
và
[vaː˨˩]'and'In southern dialects, is in free variation with [j]. See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisianweevje[ˈʋeɪ̯vjə]'to weave'Never occurs in word-initial positions. See West Frisian phonology
Welsh
fi
[vi]'I'See Welsh phonology
Yi/vu[vu˧]'intestines'
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:66)
  2. ^ a b c Árnason (2011:115)
  3. ^ a b c Kristoffersen (2000:74)
  4. ^ a b Watson (2002:15)
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:18)
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  7. ^ a b Wheeler (2002:13)
  8. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  9. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  10. ^ McWhorter (2001), pp. 148.
  11. ^ Wells (1982), p. 328.
  12. ^ Ladefoged (2005:156)
  13. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  14. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  15. ^ Janet Pierrehumbert, Rami Nair, Volume Editor: Bernard Laks (1996), Implications of Hindi Prosodic Structure (Current Trends in Phonology: Models and Methods) (PDF), European Studies Research Institute, University of Salford Press, 1996, ISBN 978-1-901471-02-1
  16. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  17. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  18. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  19. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  20. ^ a b Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:223)
  21. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  22. ^ a b Herrity (2000:16)
  23. ^​http://www.uclm.es/profesorado/nmoreno/compren/material/2006apuntes_fonetica.pdf​; http://plaza.ufl.edu/lmassery/Consonantes%20oclusivasreviewlaurie.doc
  24. ^ a b Göksel & Kerslake (2005:6))
  25. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
References
External links
List of languages with [v] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 04:01
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