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Voiced palatal approximant
For consonants followed by superscript ʲ, see Palatalization.
The voiced palatal approximant, or yod, is a type of consonant used in many spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨j⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j, and in the Americanist phonetic notation it is ⟨y⟩. Because the English name of the letter J, jay, starts with [d͡ʒ] (voiced palato-alveolar affricate), the approximant is sometimes instead called yod (jod), as in the phonological history terms yod-dropping and yod-coalescence.
Voiced palatal approximant
j
IPA Number153
Encoding
Entity (decimal)j
Unicode (hex)U+006A
X-SAMPAj
Braille
Audio sample
The palatal approximant can often be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close front unrounded vowel [i]. They alternate with each other in certain languages, such as French, and in the diphthongs of some languages as ⟨j⟩ and ⟨i̯⟩, with the non-syllabic diacritic used in different phonetic transcription systems to represent the same sound.
Some languages, however, have a palatal approximant that is unspecified for rounding and so cannot be considered the semivocalic equivalent of either [i] or its rounded counterpart, [y], which would normally correspond to [ɥ]. An example is Spanish, which distinguishes two palatal approximants: an approximant semivowel [j], which is always unrounded, and an unspecified for rounding approximant consonant [ʝ̞]. Eugenio Martínez Celdrán describes the difference between them as follows (with audio examples added):[1]
[j] is shorter and is usually a merely transitory sound. It can only exist together with a full vowel and does not appear in syllable onset. [On the other hand,] [ʝ̞] has a lower amplitude, mainly in F2. It can only appear in syllable onset. It is not noisy either articulatorily or perceptually. [ʝ̞] can vary towards [ʝ] in emphatic pronunciations, having noise (turbulent airstream). (...) There is a further argument through which we can establish a clear difference between [j] and [ʝ̞]: the first sound cannot be rounded, not even through co-articulation, whereas the second one is rounded before back vowels or the back semi-vowel. Thus, in words like viuda [ˈbjuða] 'widow', Dios [ˈdjos] 'God', vio [ˈbjo] 's/he saw', etc., the semi-vowel [j] is unrounded; if it were rounded a sound that does not exist in Spanish, [ɥ], would appear. On the other hand, [ʝ̞] is unspecified as far as rounding is concerned and it is assimilated to the labial vowel context: rounded with rounded vowels, e.g. ayuda [aˈʝ̞ʷuð̞a] 'help', coyote [koˈʝ̞ʷote] 'coyote', hoyuelo [oˈʝ̞ʷwelo] 'dimple', etc., and unrounded with unrounded vowels: payaso [paˈʝ̞aso] 'clown', ayer [aˈʝ̞eɾ] 'yesterday'.
He also considers that "the IPA shows a lack of precision in the treatment it gives to approximants, if we take into account our understanding of the phonetics of Spanish. [ʝ̞] and [j] are two different segments, but they have to be labelled as voiced palatal approximant consonants. I think that the former is a real consonant, whereas the latter is a semi-consonant, as it has traditionally been called in Spanish, or a semi-vowel, if preferred. The IPA, though, classifies it as a consonant."[2]
There is a parallel problem with transcribing the voiced velar approximant.
The symbol ⟨ʝ̞⟩ may not display properly in all browsers. In that case, ⟨ʝ˕⟩ should be substituted.
In the writing systems used for most languages in Central, Northern, and Eastern Europe, the letter j denotes the palatal approximant, as in GermanJahr 'year'. That is followed by IPA although it may be counterintuitive for English-speakers although words occur with that sound in a few loanwords in English like Hebrew "hallelujah" and German "Jägermeister".
In grammars of Ancient Greek, the palatal approximant, which was lost early in the history of Greek, is sometimes written as ⟨ι̯⟩, an iota with the inverted breve below, which is the nonsyllabic diacritic or marker of a semivowel.[3]
There is also the post-palatal approximant[4] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical palatal approximant but less far back than the prototypical velar approximant. It can be considered the semivocalic equivalent of the close central unrounded vowel [ɨ]The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨j̠⟩, ⟨j˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨j⟩), ⟨ɰ̟⟩ or ⟨ɰ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɰ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j_- and M\_+, respectively. Other possible transcriptions include a centralized ⟨j⟩ (⟨j̈⟩ in the IPA, j_" in X-SAMPA), a centralized ⟨ɰ⟩ (⟨ɰ̈⟩ in the IPA, M\_" in X-SAMPA) and a non-syllabic ⟨ɨ⟩ (⟨ɨ̯⟩ in the IPA, 1_^ in X-SAMPA).
For the reasons mentioned above and in the article velar approximant, none of those symbols are appropriate for languages such as Spanish, whose post-palatal approximant consonant (not a semivowel) appears as an allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels and is best transcribed ⟨ʝ̞˗⟩, ⟨ʝ˕˗⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and retracted ⟨ʝ⟩), ⟨ɣ̞˖⟩ or ⟨ɣ˕˖⟩ (both symbols denote a lowered and advanced ⟨ɣ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_o_- and G_o_+.
Especially in broad transcription, the post-palatal approximant may be transcribed as a palatalized velar approximant (⟨ɰʲ⟩, ⟨ɣ̞ʲ⟩ or ⟨ɣ˕ʲ⟩ in the IPA, M\', M\_j, G'_o or G_o_j in X-SAMPA).
Features
Features of the voiced palatal approximant:
Occurrence
Palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheятӀэ/jăṭă[jatʼa] (help·info)'dirt'
Afrikaansja[jɑː]'yes'See Afrikaans phonology
ArabicStandardيوم‎/yawm[jawm]'day'See Arabic phonology
Aragonese[5]caye[ˈkaʝ̞e̞]'falls'Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel (which may replace /ʝ̞/ before /e/).[5]
ArmenianEastern[6]յուղ/yolġ[juʁ]'fat'
Assameseমানৱী​য়​তা​/manowiyota[manɔwijɔta]'humanity'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
yama
[jaːma]'ocean'
Azerbaijani
yuxu
[juχu]'dream'
Basque
bai
[baj]'yes'
Bengaliয়/noyon[nɔjon]'eye'See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianмайка / majka[ˈmajkɐ]'mother'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[7]
seient
[səˈjen]'seat'See Catalan phonology
Chechenялх / yalx[jalx]'six'
ChineseCantonese / jat9[jɐt˨ʔ]'day'See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin / yā[ja˥]'duck'See Mandarin phonology
Chuvashйывăç/yıvăș[yɯʋəɕ̬]'tree'
Czech
je
[jɛ]'is'See Czech phonology
Danish
jeg
[jɑ]'I'See Danish phonology
DutchStandard[8]
ja
[jaː]'yes'Frequently realized as a fricative [ʝ], especially in emphatic speech.[8] See Dutch phonology
English
you
[juː]'you'See English phonology
Esperanto
jaro
[jaro]'year'See Esperanto phonology
Estonian
jalg
[ˈjɑlɡ]'leg'See Estonian phonology
Finnish
jalka
[ˈjɑlkɑ]'leg'See Finnish phonology
French
yeux
[jø]'eyes'See French phonology
GermanStandard[9][10]
Jacke
[ˈjäkə]'jacket'Also described as a fricative [ʝ][11][12] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[13] See Standard German phonology
GreekAncient Greekεη/éjjē[ějːɛː]'s/he shall come'See Ancient Greek phonology
Hebrewילד‎/yeled[ˈjeled]'boy'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniया / یان/yaan[jäːn]'vehicle'See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
játék
[jaːteːk]'game'See Hungarian phonology
Irish[14]
ghearrfadh
[ˈjɑːɾˠhəx]'would cut'See Irish phonology
Italian[15]
ione
[ˈjoːne]'ion'See Italian phonology
Jalapa Mazatec[16][example needed]Contrasts voiceless //, plain voiced /j/ and glottalized voiced /ȷ̃/ approximants.[16]
Japanese焼く / yaku[jaku͍]'to bake'See Japanese phonology
Kabardianйи/yi[ji]'game'
Korean여섯 / yeoseot[jʌsʌt̚]'six'See Korean phonology
Latiniacere[ˈjakɛrɛ]'to throw'See Latin spelling and pronunciation
Lithuanian[17]
ji
[jɪ]'she'Also described as a fricative [ʝ].[18][19] See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonianкрај/kraj[kraj]'end'See Macedonian phonology
Malay
sayang
[sajaŋ]'love'
Maltese
jiekol
[jɪɛkol]'he eats'
Mapudungun[20]
kayu
[kɜˈjʊ]'six'May be a fricative [ʝ] instead.[20]
Marathi/yaś[jəʃ]'success'
Nepaliया/jām[jäm]'season'See Nepali phonology
NorwegianUrban East[21][22]
gi
[jiː]'to give'May be a fricative [ʝ] instead.[22][23] See Norwegian phonology
Odiaସମ/samaya[sɔmɔjɔ]'time'
Persianیزد/jazd[jæzd]'Yazd'See Persian phonology
Polish[24]
jutro
[ˈjut̪rɔ] (help·info)'tomorrow'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[25]
boia
[ˈbɔj.jɐ]'buoy', 'float'Allophone of both /i/ and /ʎ/,[26] as well as a very common epenthetic sound before coda sibilants in some dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਯਾਰ/jaar/jār[jäːɾ]'friend'
Romanian
iar
[jar]'again'See Romanian phonology
Russian[27]яма/jama[ˈjämə]'pit'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[28]југ / jug[jȗɡ]'South'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[29]
jesť
[jɛ̝sc̟]'to eat'See Slovak phonology
Spanish[30]
ayer
[aˈʝ̞e̞ɾ] (help·info)'yesterday'Unspecified for rounding approximant consonant; the language also features an unrounded palatal approximant semivowel.[30] See Spanish phonology
Swedish
jag
[ˈjɑːɡ]'I'May be realized as a palatal fricative [ʝ] instead. See Swedish phonology
Turkish[31]
yol
[jo̞ɫ̪]'way'See Turkish phonology
Turkmen
ýüpek
[jypek]'silk'
Ubykhајәушқӏa/ayəwşq'a[ajəwʃqʼa]'you did it'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainianїжак / jižak[jiˈʒɑk]'hedgehog'See Ukrainian phonology
VietnameseSouthern dialects
de
[jɛ]'cinnamon'Corresponds to northern /z/. See Vietnamese phonology
Washodayáʔ[daˈjaʔ]'leaf'Contrasts voiceless // and voiced /j/ approximants.
Welshiaith[jai̯θ]'language'See Welsh phonology
West Frisianjas[jɔs]'coat'See West Frisian phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[32]yan[jaŋ]'neck'
Post-palatal
Voiced post-palatal approximant
ɰ˖
ɨ̯
Encoding
X-SAMPAj-
Audio sample
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Spanish[33]
seguir
[se̞ˈɣ̞˖iɾ]'to follow'Lenited allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels;[33] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣ⟩. See Spanish phonology
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
TurkishStandard prescriptive[34]
ğün
[ˈd̪y̠jy̠n̪]'marriage'Either post-palatal or palatal; phonetic realization of /ɣ/ (also transcribed as /ɰ/) before front vowels.[34] See Turkish phonology
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 208.
  2. ^ Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 206.
  3. ^ Smyth (1920), p. 11.
  4. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  5. ^ a b Mott (2007), pp. 105–106.
  6. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  7. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 198.
  9. ^ Kohler (1999), p. 86.
  10. ^ Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015), p. 340.
  11. ^ Mangold (2005), p. 51.
  12. ^ Krech et al. (2009), p. 83.
  13. ^ Hall (2003), p. 48.
  14. ^ Ó Sé (2000), p. 17.
  15. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  16. ^ a b Silverman et al. (1995), p. 83.
  17. ^ Mathiassen (1996), pp. 22–23.
  18. ^ Augustaitis (1964), p. 23.
  19. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997), pp. 46–47.
  20. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013), p. 91.
  21. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), pp. 22 and 25.
  22. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 41.
  23. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 74.
  24. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  25. ^ (in Portuguese) Delta: Documentation of studies on theoric and applied Linguistics – Problems in the tense variant of carioca speech.
  26. ^ (in Portuguese) The acoustic-articulatory path of the lateral palatal consonant's allophony. Pages 223 and 228.
  27. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  28. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 67.
  29. ^ Pavlík (2004), p. 106.
  30. ^ a b Martínez Celdrán (2004), p. 205.
  31. ^ Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 154.
  32. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  33. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 21.
  34. ^ a b Zimmer & Organ (1999), p. 155.
References
External links
List of languages with [j] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 23 April 2021, at 16:36
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