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Voiced palatal fricative
The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) that represents this sound is ⟨ʝ⟩ (crossed-tail j), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is j\. It is the non-sibilant equivalent of the voiced alveolo-palatal sibilant.
Voiced palatal fricative
ʝ
IPA Number139
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʝ
Unicode (hex)U+029D
X-SAMPAj\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
In broad transcription, the symbol for the palatal approximant, ⟨j⟩, may be used for the sake of simplicity.
The voiced palatal fricative is a very rare sound, occurring in only 7 of the 317 languages surveyed by the original UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database. In Kabyle, Margi, Modern Greek, and Scottish Gaelic, the sound occurs phonemically, along with its voiceless counterpart, and in several more, the sound occurs a result of phonological processes.
There is also the voiced post-palatal fricative[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical voiced palatal fricative but not as back as the prototypical voiced velar fricative. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, but it can be transcribed as ⟨ʝ̠⟩, ⟨ʝ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ʝ⟩), ⟨ɣ̟⟩ or ⟨ɣ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɣ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are j\_- and G_+, respectively.
Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal fricative may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar fricative (⟨ɣʲ⟩ in the IPA, G' or G_j in X-SAMPA).
Features
Features of the voiced palatal fricative:
Occurrence
Palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Asturianfrayar[fɾäˈʝär]'to destroy'
CatalanMajorcan[2]
figuera
[fiˈʝeɾə]'fig tree'Occurs in complementary distribution with [ɟ]. Corresponds to [ɣ] in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
DanishStandard[3]
talg
[ˈtsʰælˀʝ]'tallow'Possible word-final allophone of /j/ when it occurs after /l/.[3] See Danish phonology
DutchStandard[4]
ja
[ʝaː]'yes'Frequent allophone of /j/, especially in emphatic speech.[4] See Dutch phonology
GermanStandard[5][6]
Jacke
[ˈʝäkə]'jacket'Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨j⟩; also described as an approximant [j][7][8] and a sound variable between a fricative and an approximant.[9] See Standard German phonology
GreekStandardγεια[ʝɐ]'hi'
Cypriot[10]ελιά[e̞ˈʝːɐ]'olive'Allophone of /ʎ/
Hungarian[11]
dobj be
[dobʝ bɛ]'throw in'An allophone of /j/. See Hungarian phonology
Irish[12]
an ghrian
[ənʲ ˈʝɾʲiən̪ˠ]'the sun'See Irish phonology
ItalianSouthern dialects
figlio
[ˈfiʝːo]'son'Corresponds to /ʎ/ in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Kabyle
cceǥ
[ʃʃəʝ]'to slip'
Korean사향노루 / sahyangnoru[sɐʝɐŋnoɾu]'Siberian musk deer'The sound is sometimes heard by people when /h/ is between voiced and combined with /i/, /t/ and /j/, See Korean phonology
Lithuanian[13][14]
ji
[ʝɪ]'she'Most often transcribed in IPA with ⟨j⟩; also described as an approximant [j].[15] See Lithuanian phonology
Mapudungun[16]
kayu
[kɜˈʝʊ]'six'May be an approximant [j] instead.[16]
Myanmar[ʝ]Allophone of /j/, particularly word initially.
NorwegianUrban East[17][18]
gi
[ʝiː]'to give'Allophone of /j/, especially before and after close vowels and in energetic speech.[18] See Norwegian phonology
PashtoGhiljidialect[19]موږ[muʝ]'we'
Wardak dialect[19]
Ripuarianzeije[ˈt͡sɛʝə]'to show'
Russian[20]
яма
[ˈʝämə]'pit'Allophone of /j/ in emphatic speech.[20] See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[21]
dhiubh
[ʝu]'of them'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Slovak[22]
prijímať
[ˈpɾɪʝɪːmäc̟]'to receive'Possible allophone of /j/ between close front vowels.[22] See Slovak phonology
Spanish[23]
sayo
[ˈsäʝo̞]'smock'More often an approximant; may also be represented by ⟨ll⟩ in many dialects. See Spanish phonology and Yeísmo
Swedish[24]
jord
[ʝɯᵝːɖ] (help·info)'soil'Allophone of /j/. See Swedish phonology
Post-palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Belarusian
геаграфія
[ɣ̟e.äˈɣɾäfʲijä]'geography'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. See Belarusian phonology
DutchStandard Belgian[25]
gaan
[ɣ̟aːn]'to go'May be velar [ɣ] instead.[25] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[25]
GermanStandard[26]
Riese
[ˈɣ̟iːzə]'giant'Allophone of the fricative /ʁ/ before and after front vowels.[26] See Standard German phonology
GreekStandard Modern[27][28]
γένος
[ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s̠] (help·info)'gender'See Modern Greek phonology
LimburgishWeert dialect[29]gèr[ɣ̟ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊]'gladly'Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[29]
Lithuanian[15][30]
Hiustonas
[ˈɣ̟ʊs̪t̪ɔn̪ɐs̪]'Houston'Very rare;[31] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. See Lithuanian phonology
RussianStandard[20]
других гимнов
[d̪rʊˈɡ̟ɪɣ̟ ˈɡ̟imn̪əf]'of other anthems'Allophone of /x/ before voiced soft consonants;[20] typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩. The example also illustrates [ɡ̟]. See Russian phonology
Southern
гимн
[ɣ̟imn̪]'anthem'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɣʲ⟩; corresponds to [ɡʲ] in standard Russian. See Russian phonology
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Mapudungun[32][example needed]Allophone of /ɣ/ before the front vowels /ɪ, e/.[32]
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  2. ^ Wheeler (2005:22–23)
  3. ^ a b Basbøll (2005:212)
  4. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:198)
  5. ^ Mangold (2005:51)
  6. ^ Krech et al. (2009:83)
  7. ^ Kohler (1999:86)
  8. ^ Moosmüller, Schmid & Brandstätter (2015:340)
  9. ^ Hall (2003:48)
  10. ^ Arvaniti (2010:116–117)
  11. ^ Gósy (2004:77, 130)
  12. ^ Ó Sé (2000:17)
  13. ^ Augustaitis (1964:23)
  14. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997:46–47)
  15. ^ a b Mathiassen (1996:22–23)
  16. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013:91)
  17. ^ Strandskogen (1979:33)
  18. ^ a b Vanvik (1979:41)
  19. ^ a b Henderson (1983:595)
  20. ^ a b c d Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015:223)
  21. ^ Oftedal (1956:?)
  22. ^ a b Pavlík (2004:106)
  23. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  24. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  25. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:191)
  26. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:85)
  27. ^ Nicolaidis (2003:?)
  28. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  29. ^ a b Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:108)
  30. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997:36)
  31. ^ Ambrazas et al. (1997:35)
  32. ^ a b Sadowsky et al. (2013:89)
References
External links
List of languages with [ʝ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 21 December 2020, at 13:32
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