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Voiced palatal lateral approximant
The voiced palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʎ⟩, a rotated lowercase letter ⟨y⟩ (not to be confused with lowercase lambda, ⟨λ⟩), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is L.
Voiced palatal lateral approximant
ʎ
IPA Number157
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʎ
Unicode (hex)U+028E
X-SAMPAL
Braille
Image
Audio sample
Voiced alveolo-palatal lateral approximant
l̠ʲ
ʎ̟
ȴ
Many languages that were previously thought to have a palatal lateral approximant actually have a lateral approximant that is, broadly, alveolo-palatal; that is to say, it is articulated at a place in-between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate (excluded), and it may be variously described as alveolo-palatal, lamino-postalveolar,​[1] or postalveolo-prepalatal.​[2] None of the 13 languages investigated by Recasens (2013), many of them Romance, has a 'true' palatal.[3] That is likely the case for several other languages listed here. Some languages, like Portuguese and Catalan, have a lateral approximant that varies between alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[4]
There is no dedicated symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolo-palatal lateral approximant. If precision is desired, it may be transcribed ⟨l̠ʲ⟩ or ⟨ʎ̟⟩; they are essentially equivalent because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȴ⟩ ("l", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.
The voiced palatal lateral approximant contrasts phonemically with its voiceless counterpart /ʎ̥/ in the Xumi language spoken in China.[5][6]
Features
Features of the voiced palatal lateral approximant:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Aragoneseagulla[a̠ˈɣuʎa̠]'needle'
Aromanianljepuri[ˈʎe̞puri]'rabbit'
Astur-LeoneseAsturianllingua[ˈʎĩŋɡwa̝]'language'Where /ʎ/ is absent due to a yeísmo-like merger, it is replaced by different sounds (depending on dialect) and spelled ⟨ḷ⟩.
Leonese
Mirandeselhéngua[ˈʎɛ̃ɡwɐ]
Aymarallaki[ʎaki]'sad'
Basque
bonbilla
[bo̞mbiʎa̠]'bulb'
Bretonfamilh[fa̠miʎ]'family'
Bulgarian
любов
[l̠ʲubof]'love'Alveolo-palatal.[citation needed]
CatalanStandard
ull
[ˈuʎ̟]'eye'Alveolo-palatal.[2] See Catalan phonology
Eastern Aragon
clau
[ˈkʎ̟a̠w]'key'Allophone of /l/ in consonant clusters.
EnglishAustralian
million
[ˈmɪʎən]'million'A frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/
Canadian (Atlantic and Newfoundland)
County Donegal[7]Allophone of the sequence /lj/.[7]
General American[8]A frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/; sometimes realized as [jj].[8] See English phonology
Hiberno-EnglishA frequent allophone of the sequence /lj/
New England
New Zealand
Received Pronunciation
South African
Southern American
Enindhilyagwaangalya[aŋal̠ʲa]'place'Laminal post-alveolar
Faroese[9]
telgja
[ˈtʰɛʎt͡ʃa]'to carve'Allophone of /l/ before palatal consonants.[9] Sometimes voiceless [ʎ̥].[9] See Faroese phonology
Franco-Provençalbalyi[baʎi]'give'
FrenchSome dialects[10]papillon[papiʎɒ̃]'butterfly'Corresponds to /j/ in modern standard French. See French phonology
GalicianStandardillado[iˈʎa̠ðo̝]'insulated'Many Galician speakers are nowadays yeístas because of influence from Spanish
Greek
ήλιος
[ˈiʎos] (help·info)'sun'Postalveolar.[11] See Modern Greek phonology
HungarianNorthern dialects[12]
lyuk
[ʎuk]'hole'Alveolo-palatal.[13] Modern Standard Hungarian has undergone a phenomenon akin to Spanish yeísmo, merging /ʎ/ into /j/. See Hungarian ly and Hungarian phonology
Irish
duille
[ˈd̪ˠɪl̠ʲə]'leaf'Alveolo-palatal. Some dialects contrast it with palatalized alveolar /lʲ/. See Irish phonology
Italian[2]
figlio
[ˈfiʎːo] (help·info)'son'Alveolo-palatal.[2] Realized as fricative [ʎ̝] in a large number of accents.[14] See Italian phonology
IvilyuatIviuɂat[ʔivɪʎʊʔat]'the speaking [Ivilyuat]' ('Ivilyuat language')
Mapudungunaylla[ˈɐjʎɜ]'nine'See Mapuche_language
NorwegianNorthern and central dialects[15]
alle
[ɑʎːe]'all'See Norwegian phonology
OccitanStandardmiralhar[miɾa̠ˈʎa̠]'to reflect'See Occitan phonology
PaiwanStandardveljevelj[vəʎəvəʎ]'banana'See Paiwan language
PortugueseStandard
ralho
[ˈʁaʎu]'I scold'Alveolo-palatal in European Portuguese.[16] May instead be [lʲ], [l] (Northeast) or [j] (Caipira), especially before unrounded vowels.[17][18] See Portuguese phonology
Many dialects[19]
sandália
[sɐ̃ˈda̠l̠ʲɐ]'sandal'Possible realization of post-stressed /li/ plus vowel.
Quechua[20]qallu[qaʎʊ]'tongue'
RomanianTransylvanian dialects[21]
lingură
[ˈʎunɡurə]'spoon'Corresponds to [l][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[22]
till
[tʲʰiːʎ]'return'Alveolo-palatal.[citation needed] See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23]љуљaшка / ljuljaška[ʎ̟ǔʎ̟äːʂkä]'swing (seat)'Palato-alveolar.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Sissanopiyl[piʎ]'fish'
Slovak
ľúbiť
[ˈʎu̞ːbi̞c̟] (help·info)'to love'Merges with /l/ in western dialects. See Slovak phonology
Spanish[24]Andean
caballo
[ka̠ˈβa̠ʎö]'horse'Found in traditional speakers in Peninsular Spanish. Also found in Andean countries and Paraguay. For most speakers, this sound has merged with /ʝ/, a phenomenon called yeísmo. See Spanish phonology
Castilian[25]
Chavacano Creole
Central areas in Extremadura
Eastern and southwestern Manchego
Murcian
Paraguayan[26]
Philippine Spanish
Very few areas in Andalusia
XumiLower[5][ᴿʎ̟o][clarification needed]'musk deer'Alveolo-palatal; contrasts with the voiceless /ʎ̥/.[5][6]
Upper[6][ᴴʎ̟ɛ][clarification needed]'correct, right'
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Recasens (2013:2), citing Ladefoged (1997:602)
  2. ^ a b c d Recasens et al. (1993), p. 222.
  3. ^ Recasens (2013), p. 11.
  4. ^ Recasens (2013), pp. 10–13.
  5. ^ a b c Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  6. ^ a b c Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
  7. ^ a b Stenson (1991), cited in Hickey (2004:71)
  8. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 490.
  9. ^ a b c Árnason (2011), p. 115.
  10. ^ Grevisse & Goosse (2011, §33, b), Fagyal, Kibbee & Jenkins (2006:47)
  11. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  12. ^ Benkő (1972), p. ?.
  13. ^ Recasens (2013), p. 10.
  14. ^ Ashby (2011:64): "(...) in a large number of Italian accents, there is considerable friction involved in the pronunciation of [ʎ], creating a voiced palatal lateral fricative (for which there is no established IPA symbol)."
  15. ^ Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  16. ^ Teixeira et al. (2012), p. 321.
  17. ^ Stein (2011), p. 223.
  18. ^ Aragão (2009), p. 168.
  19. ^ "Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
  20. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 149.
  21. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  22. ^ Oftedal (1956), p. ?.
  23. ^ a b Jazić (1977:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:188)
  24. ^ [1] Archived 2015-11-20 at the Wayback Machine ALPI
  25. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  26. ^ Lipski (1996) and Alvar (1996). [dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/5120313.pdf Yeísmo en el español de América]
References
Last edited on 10 June 2021, at 09:30
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