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Voiced palatal plosive
The voiced palatal plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɟ⟩, a barred dotless ⟨j⟩ that was initially created by turning the type for a lowercase letter ⟨f⟩. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is J\.
Voiced palatal plosive
ɟ
IPA Number108
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɟ
Unicode (hex)U+025F
X-SAMPAJ\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
Voiced alveolo-palatal stop
ɟ̟
d̠ʲ
ȡ
If the distinction is necessary, the voiced alveolo-palatal plosive may be transcribed ⟨ɟ̟⟩, ⟨ɟ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɟ⟩) or ⟨d̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalized ⟨d⟩), but they are essentially equivalent since the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_+ and d_-' or d_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȡ⟩ ("d" with the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in Sinological circles.
[ɟ] is a less common sound worldwide than the voiced postalveolar affricate [d͡ʒ] because it is difficult to get the tongue to touch just the hard palate without also touching the back part of the alveolar ridge.[1] It is also common for the symbol ⟨ɟ⟩ to be used to represent a palatalized voiced velar plosive or palato-alveolar/alveolo-palatal affricates, as in Indic languages. That may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified, and the distinction between plosive and affricate is not contrastive.
There is also the voiced post-palatal plosive[2] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back than the place of articulation of the prototypical palatal consonant but not as back as the prototypical velar consonant. The IPA does not have a separate symbol, which can be transcribed as ⟨ɟ̠⟩, ⟨ɟ˗⟩ (both symbols denote a retracted ⟨ɟ⟩), ⟨ɡ̟⟩ or ⟨ɡ˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨ɡ⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are J\_- and g_+, respectively.
Especially in broad transcription, the voiced post-palatal plosive may be transcribed as a palatalized voiced velar plosive (⟨ɡʲ⟩ in the IPA, g' or g_j in X-SAMPA).
Features
Features of the voiced palatal stop:
Occurrence
Palatal or alveolo-palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanian[3]
gjuha
[ˈɟuha]'tongue'Also pronounced and transcribed as affricate [ɟ͡ʝ]. Merged with [d͡ʒ] in Gheg Albanian
ArabicSome Northern Yemeni dialects[4]جمل[ˈɟamal]'camel'Corresponds to [d͡ʒ ~ ʒ ~ ɡ] in other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Some Sudanese speakers[4]
Upper Egypt[4]
Basque
anddere
[äɲɟe̞ɾe̞]'doll'
Assyrian/Syriacsome Urmian & Koine speakersܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ‎ / gavrɑ[ɟoːrɑ]'husband'Corresponds to /ɡ/ or /d͡ʒ/ in other dialects.
some Northern speakersܓܲܒ݂ܪܵܐ‎ / gavrɑ[ɟaʊrɑ]'husband'Corresponds to /ɡ/ or /d͡ʒ/ in other dialects.
CatalanMajorcan[5][6]
guix
[ˈɟi̞ɕ]'chalk'Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
ChineseTaiwanese Hokkien攑手 / gia̍h-tshiú[ɟiaʔ˧ʔ t͡ɕʰiu˥˩]'(to) raise a hand'
Taizhou dialect / gòng[ɟyoŋ]'together'
Corsican
fighjulà
[viɟɟuˈla]'to watch'
Czech
dělám
[ˈɟɛlaːm]'I do'See Czech phonology
Dinka
jir
[ɟir]'blunt'
Ega[7][ɟé]'become numerous'
Friuliangjat[ɟat]'cat'
Gandajjajja[ɟːaɟːa]'grandfather'
Hungarian[8]
gyám
[ɟäːm]'guardian'See Hungarian phonology
Irish
Gaeilge
[ˈɡeːlʲɟə]'Irish language'See Irish phonology
Latvian
ģimene
[ˈɟime̞ne̞]'family'See Latvian phonology
Macedonian
раѓање
[ˈraɟaɲɛ]'birth'See Macedonian phonology
MalayKelantan-Pattaniterajang[tə.ɣa.ɟɛː]'kick'See Kelantan-Pattani Malay
NorwegianCentral[9]
fadder
[fɑɟːeɾ]'godparent'See Norwegian phonology
Northern[9]
OccitanAuvergnatdiguèt[ɟiˈɡɛ]'said' (3rd pers. sing.)See Occitan phonology
Limousindissèt[ɟiˈʃɛ]
PortugueseSome Brazilian speakers
pedinte
[piˈɟ̟ĩc̟i̥]'beggar'Corresponds to affricate allophone of /d/ before /i/ that is common in Brazil.[10] See Portuguese phonology
Siciliantravagghju[ʈɽɑ̝ˈväɟ.ɟʊ̠] or [ʈ͡ʂɑ̝ˈväɟ.ɟʊ̠]'job, task'
Slovak[11]
ďaleký
[ˈɟ̟äɫɛ̝kiː]'far'Alveolo-palatal.[11] See Slovak phonology
Turkish
güneş
[ɟyˈne̞ʃ]'sun'See Turkish phonology
VietnameseNorth-central dialect
da
[ɟa˧]'skin'See Vietnamese phonology
Post-palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Catalan[12]
guix
[ˈɡ̟i̞ɕ]'chalk'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[12] See Catalan phonology
Greek[13]μετάγγιση / metággisi[me̞ˈtɐŋ̟ɟ̠is̠i]'transfusion'Post-palatal.[13] See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianStandard[14]
ghianda
[ˈɡ̟jän̪ːd̪ä]'acorn'Post-palatal; allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/.[14] See Italian phonology
Portuguese
amiguinho
[ɐmiˈɡ̟ĩɲu]'little buddy'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[15]
ghimpe
[ˈɡ̟impe̞]'thorn'Both an allophone of /ɡ/ before /i, e, j/ and the phonetic realization of /ɡʲ/.[15] See Romanian phonology
RussianStandard[16]герб / gerb[ɡ̟e̞rp]'coat of arms'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɡʲ⟩. See Russian phonology
Spanish[17]
guía
[ˈɡ̟i.ä]'guidebook'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[17] See Spanish phonology
Yanyuwa[18][ɡ̠uɡ̟uɭu]'sacred'Post-palatal.[18] Contrasts plain and prenasalized versions.
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
English[19][20]
geese
[ɡ̟iːs]'geese'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels and /j/. Varies between post-palatal and palatal.[19][20] See English phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 162.
  2. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  3. ^ Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  4. ^ a b c Watson (2002), p. 16.
  5. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  6. ^ Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
  7. ^ Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  9. ^ a b Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  10. ^ "Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited". Archived from the original on 2014-04-07. Retrieved 2014-04-06.
  11. ^ a b Hanulíková & Hamann (2010), p. 374.
  12. ^ a b Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  13. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  14. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  15. ^ a b Sarlin (2014), p. 17.
  16. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  17. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 20.
  18. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 34-35.
  19. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 181.
  20. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
References
External links
List of languages with [ɟ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 04:15
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