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Voiced pharyngeal fricative
For consonants followed by superscript ˤ, see Pharyngealization.
The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is [ʕ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharyngeal.
Voiced pharyngeal fricative
ʕ
IPA Number145
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʕ
Unicode (hex)U+0295
X-SAMPA?\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
Voiced pharyngeal approximant
ʕ̞
ɑ̯
Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, [ʕ] is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as [ʕ̞] or as [ɑ̯], because it is the semivocalic equivalent of [ɑ].
Features
Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:
Occurrence
Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /ʕ/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew – Israelis generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant,[1] or a pharyngealized glottal stop.[2]
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AbazaгӀ​апынхъамыз​/g'apynkh"amyz[ʕaːpənqaːməz]'March'
Arabicعَقْرَب‎‎/'aqrab[ʕaqrab]'scorpion'See Arabic phonology
AssyrianEasternܬܪܥܐtäroa[tʌrʕɑ]'door'The majority of the speakers will pronounce the word as [tʌrɑ].
Western[tʌrʕɔ]
AvarгӀоркь/g'ork'[ʕortɬʼː]'handle'
ChechenӀан / jan[ʕan] (help·info)'winter'
Coeur d'Alenestʕin/stʕin/'antelope'[3]
DanishStandard[4]ravn[ʕ̞ɑ̈wˀn]'raven'An approximant;[4] also described as uvular [ʁ].[5] See Danish phonology
DutchLimburg[6]
rad
[ʕ̞ɑt]'wheel'An approximant; a possible realization of /r/.[6] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
GermanSome speakers[7]
Mutter
[ˈmutɔʕ̞]'mother'An approximant; occurs in East Central Germany, Southwestern Germany, parts of Switzerland and in Tyrol.[7] See Standard German phonology
Swabian dialect[8]ändard[ˈend̥aʕ̞d̥]'changes'An approximant.[8] It's an allophone of /ʁ/ in nucleus and coda positions;[8] pronounced as a uvular approximant in onsets.[8]
HebrewIraqiעברית‎/i'vrit[ʕibˈriːθ]'Hebrew language'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Sephardi[ʕivˈɾit]
Yemenite[ʕivˈriːθ] (help·info)
Kabyle[9]
ɛemmi
[ʕəmːi]'my (paternal) uncle'
MalayKedahباکر / bakar[ba.kaʕ]'burn'Allophone of /r/ at word-final position. Could be voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ for some speakers.[10]
OccitanSouthern Auvergnatpala[ˈpaʕa]'shovel'See Occitan phonology
Somalicunto[ʕuntɔ]'food'See Somali phonology
SiouxStoneymarazhud[maʕazud]'rain'
See also
Citations
  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  2. ^ Thelwall (1990)
  3. ^ Doak, I. G. (1997). Coeur d'Alene grammatical relations (Doctorate dissertation). Austin, TX: University of Texas at Austin.
  4. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:323)
  5. ^ Basbøll (2005:62)
  6. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:201)
  7. ^ a b Dudenredaktion, Kleiner & Knöbl (2015:51)
  8. ^ a b c d Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality" (PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. Archived from the original(PDF) on 2014-05-28. Retrieved 2015-02-24.
  9. ^ Bonafont (2006:9)
  10. ^ Mohamed, N. (2009). The Malay Chetty Creole Language of Malacca: A Historical and Linguistic Perspective. Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 82(1 (296)), 55-70. Retrieved May 9, 2021, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/41493734
General references
External links
List of languages with [ʕ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 9 May 2021, at 23:44
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