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Voiced postalveolar affricate
The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant affricate, voiced post-alveolar affricate or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant affricate, is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨d͡ʒ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʤ⟩), or in some broad transcriptions ⟨ɟ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA representation is dZ. Alternatives commonly used in linguistic works, particularly in older or American literature, are ⟨ǰ⟩, ⟨ǧ⟩, ⟨ǯ⟩, and ⟨dž⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the pronunciation of ⟨j⟩ in jump.
Voiced postalveolar affricate
d̠ʒ
IPA Number104 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal)d​͡​ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0064 U+0361 U+0292
X-SAMPA
dZ or d_rZ
Image
Audio sample
Features
Features of the voiced postalveolar affricate:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhaz
аџыр
[ad͡ʒər]'steel'See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe
джанэ
[d͡ʒaːna] (help·info)'dress'
Albanian
xham
[d͡ʒam]'glass'
Amharic
እን
[ɨnd͡ʒəra]'injera'
ArabicModern Standard[1]جَرَس[d͡ʒaras]'bell'In other standards and dialects, corresponds to [ɡ] or [ʒ]. See Arabic phonology
Hejaziجَزْمَة[d͡ʒazma]'shoes'Pronounced [ʒ] by some speakers. See Hejazi Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[2]
ջուր
[d͡ʒuɾ]'water'
Western
ճանճ
[d͡ʒɑnd͡ʒ]'musca (fly)'
Assyrianܓ̰ܝܪܐ ǧyoro[d͡ʒjɑɾɑ]'to pee'Used in native terminology. Used predominantly in Urmia and some Jilu dialects. [ɟ] is used in other varieties.
Azerbaijani
ağac
[ɑɣɑd͡ʒ]'tree'
Bengali
[d͡ʒɔl]'water'Contrasts with the aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian
джудже
[ˈd͡ʒʊd͡ʒɛ]'dwarf'See Bulgarian phonology
Chechenджерво / dzhyerwo[d͡ʒjerwo]'previously married woman'
ChineseQuzhou dialect[d͡ʒõ]'heavy'
Coptic
ϫ
[d͡ʒe]'that'
Czech
čba
[lɛːd͡ʒba]'treatment'See Czech phonology
English
jump
[ˈd͡ʒʌmp]'jump'See English phonology
Esperanto
manĝaĵo
[manˈd͡ʒaʒo̞]'food'See Esperanto phonology
French
adjonction
[ad͡ʒɔ̃ksjɔ̃]'addition'Rare. See French phonology
Georgian[3]
იბე
[d͡ʒibɛ]'pocket'
GermanStandard[4]
Dschungel
[ˈd͡ʒʊŋəl]'jungle'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] Some speakers may merge it with /t͡ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Goemai[d͡ʒaːn]'twins'
Hebrew
ג׳וק
[d͡ʒuk]'cockroach'Only used in loanwords. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniजाना / جانا[d͡ʒäːnäː]'to go'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
lándzsa
[laːnd͡ʒɒ]'spear'Rare, mostly in loanwords. See Hungarian phonology
Indonesian
jarak
[ˈd͡ʒaraʔ]'distance'
Italian[5]
gemma
[ˈd͡ʒɛmma]'gem'See Italian phonology
Kabyle
lǧiran
[ld͡ʒiræn]'the neighbors'
Kashubian[6][example needed]
KurdishNorthern
cîger
[d͡ʒiːˈɡɛɾ]'lung'See Kurdish phonology
Centralجەرگ[d͡ʒɛɾg]'liver'
Southern[d͡ʒæɾg]
Kyrgyz
жаман
[d͡ʒaman]'bad'See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian
dai
[dad͡ʒi]'thistles'See Latvian phonology
LimburgishHasselt dialect[7]djèn[d͡ʒɛːn²]'Eugene'
Lithuanian
iaugsmingas
[d͡ʒɛʊɡʲsʲˈmʲɪnɡɐs]'gladsome'See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian
џемпер
[ˈd͡ʒɛmpɛr]'sweater'See Macedonian phonology
Malay
jahat
[d͡ʒahat]'evil'
Manchuᠵᡠᠸᡝ[d͡ʒuwe]'two'
Marathi
[d͡ʒəj]'victory'See Marathi phonology
OccitanLanguedocienjove[ˈd͡ʒuβe]'young'See Occitan phonology
Provençal[ˈd͡ʒuve]
Odiaମି/jami[d͡ʒɔmi]'land'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Ojibwe
ᑭᐌᐦ / iicikiwee
[iːd͡ʒikiwẽːʔ]'brother'See Ojibwe phonology
Pashtoجګ[d͡ʒeɡ]'high'
Persianکجا[kod͡ʒɒ]'where'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebna
dziwny
[ˈd͡ʒivn̪ɘ]'strange'/ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ merge into [d͡ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /d͡ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
PortugueseMost Brazilian dialects[9]
grande
[ˈɡɾɐ̃d͡ʒi]'big'Allophone of /d/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when the vowel is elided) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise.
Most dialects
jambalaya
[d͡ʒɐ̃bɐˈlajɐ]'jambalaya'In free variation with /ʒ/ in a few recent loanwords. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian
ger
[ˈd͡ʒɛ̝r]'frost'See Romanian phonology
SardinianCampidanesegéneru[ˈd͡ʒɛneru]'son-in-law'
Scottish Gaelic
Dia
[d͡ʒia]'God'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersџем / em[d͡ʒê̞m]'jam'May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Bosnianђаво / đavo[d͡ʒâ̠ʋo̞ː]'devil'Most Croatian and some Bosnian speakers merge /d͡ʒ/ and /d͡ʑ/, either to [d͡ʒ] or laminal [ɖ͡ʐ].
Croatian
SilesianGmina Istebna[10][example needed]These dialects merge /ɖ͡ʐ/ and /d͡ʑ/ into [d͡ʒ].
Jablunkov[10][example needed]
Somalijoog[d͡ʒoːɡ]'stop'See Somali phonology
Spanish
pijama
[piˈd͡ʒama]'pajamas'See Spanish phonology
Tagalog
diyan
[d͡ʒän]'there'Used to pronounce the multigraphs ⟨dy⟩ and ⟨diy⟩ in native words and ⟨j⟩ in loanwords outside Spanish. For more information, see Tagalog phonology.
Turkish
acı
[äˈd͡ʒɯ]'pain'See Turkish phonology
Turkmen
jar
[d͡ʒär]'ravine'
Tyapjem[d͡ʒem]'hippopotamus'
Ubykh[amd͡ʒan]'?'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[11]
джерело
[d͡ʒɛrɛˈlɔ]'source'See Ukrainian phonology
Uyghurجوزا[d͡ʒozɑ]'desk'See Uyghur phonology
West Frisian
siedzje
[ˈʃɪd͡ʒə]'to sow'See West Frisian phonology
Yiddishדזשוכע[d͡ʒʊxə]'insect'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[12]dxan[d͡ʒaŋ]'god'
Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
d̠ɹ̠˔
dɹ̝˗
Audio sample
source · help
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustralian[13]
dream
[d̠͡ɹ̠˔ʷɪi̯m]'dream'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /dr/.[13][14][15][16] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [d͡ɹ̝].[14] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[14][15]
Received Pronunciation[14][15]
Port Talbot[16][d̠͡ɹ̠˔iːm]
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  11. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  12. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  13. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  14. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  15. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  16. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.
References
External links
List of languages with [d̠ʒ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 07:42
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