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Voiced postalveolar fricative
A voiced postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spokenlanguages. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound.[citation needed] There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
This article discusses the first two.
International Phonetic Association uses term voiced postalveolar fricative only for sound [ʒ].[1]
Voiced palato-alveolar fricative
Voiced postalveolar fricative
ʒ
IPA Number135
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʒ
Unicode (hex)U+0292
X-SAMPAZ
Braille
Image
Audio sample
The voiced palato-alveolar fricative or voiced domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages.
Transcription
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is the lower case form of the letter Ezh ⟨Ʒ ʒ⟩ (/
ɛʒ
/), and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Z. An alternative symbol used in some older and American linguistic literature is ⟨ž⟩, a z with a caron. In some transcriptions of alphabets such as the Cyrillic, the sound is represented by the digraph zh.
palato-alveolar fricative [ʃ, ʒ]
Although present in English, the sound is not represented by a specific letter or digraph, but is formed by yod-coalescence of [z] and [j] in words such as measure. It also appears in some loanwords, mainly from French (thus written with ⟨g⟩ and ⟨j⟩).
The sound occurs in many languages and, as in English and French, may have simultaneous lip rounding ([ʒʷ]), although this is rarely indicated in transcription.
Features
Features of the voiced palato-alveolar fricative:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adyghe
жакӀэ
[ʒaːtʃʼa] (help·info)'beard'
Albanian
zhurmë
[ʒuɾm]'noise'
ArabicMaghrebi[2]زوج[zuʒ]'husband'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[3]
ժամ
[ʒɑm] (help·info)'hour'
Assyrianܐܘܪܡܓ̰ܢܝܐ Ūrmıǰnaya[urmɪʒnaɪja]'Assyrian from Urmia'
Avar
жакъа
[ˈʒaqʼːa]'today'
Azerbaijani
jalüz
[ʒalyz]'blinds'
Berta[ŋɔ̀nʒɔ̀ʔ]'honey'
Bulgarian
мъжът
[mɐˈʒɤ̞t̪]'the man'See Bulgarian phonology
CatalanEastern catalangel[ˈʒel]'ice'
Chechenжий / ƶiy[ʒiː]'sheep'
ChineseQuzhou dialect[ʒɑ̃]'bed'
Corsican
ghjesgia
[ˈjeːʒa]'church'Also in Gallurese
Czech
muži
[ˈmuʒɪ]'men'See Czech phonology
Dutch
garage
[ɣäˈräːʒə]'garage'See Dutch phonology
EmilianBolognesechè[ˈkɛːð̠]'case'Apical; not labialized; may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʐ] instead.
English
vision
[ˈvɪʒən]'vision'See English phonology
Esperanto
manĝaĵo
[mänˈd͡ʒäʒo̞]'food'See Esperanto phonology
French[4]
Jour
[ʒuʁ]'day'See French phonology
GermanStandard[5]
Garage
[ɡaˈʁaːʒʷə]'garage'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[5] Some speakers may merge it with /ʃ/. See Standard German phonology
Georgian[6]
ურნალი
[ʒuɾnali]'magazine'
Goemaizhiem[ʒiem]'sickle'
GreekCypriot
γαλάζ̌ο
[ɣ̞ɐˈlɐʒːo̞]'sky blue'
Gwich’inzhòh[ʒôh]'wolf'
Hänzhùr[ʒûr]'wolf'
Hebrew
ז׳אנר
[ʒaneʁ]'genre'Phoneme present in loanwords only. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi
झ़दहा
[əʒd̪əhaː]'dragon'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian
zsa
[ˈr̪oːʒɒ]'rose'See Hungarian phonology
Ingushжий/žii[ʒiː]'sheep'
ItalianTuscan
pigiare
[piˈʒäːre]'press'See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanishmujer[muˈʒɛr]'woman'
Juǀ'hoanju[ʒu]'person'
Kabardian
жыг
[ʒəɣʲ]'tree'
Kabyle
jeddi
[ʒəddi]'my grandfather'
Kashubian[7]żdi rôz[kʷʒdi rɞz]'constantly'
Kazakh
жеті/jeti
[ʒeti]'seven'
Latvian
žāvēt
[ˈʒäːveːt̪]'to dry'See Latvian phonology
Ligurianxe['ly:ʒe]'light'
LimburgishMaastrichtian[8]zjuweleer[ʒy̠β̞əˈleːʀ̝̊]'jeweller'Laminal post-alveolar with an unclear amount of palatalization.[9]
Lithuanian
žmona
[ʒmoːˈn̪ɐ]'wife'See Lithuanian phonology
Livonianž[kuːʒ]'six'
LombardWesternresgiôra[reˈʒu(ː)ra]'matriarch'
Macedonian
жaбa
[ˈʒaba]'toad'See Macedonian phonology
Megrelian
ირი
[ʒiɾi]'two'
Navajołizh[ɬiʒ]'urine'
Neapolitansbattere[ˈʒbαttərə]'to slam'
Ngaszhaam[ʒaːm]'chin'
NgweMmockngie dialect[ʒíá]'to split'
OccitanAuvergnatargent[aʀʒẽ]'money'Southern dialects
Gascon[arʒen]
Pashtoژوول[ʒowul]'chew'
Persianمژه[moʒe]'eyelash'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebna
zielony
[ʒɛˈlɔn̪ɘ]'green'/ʐ/ and /ʑ/ merge into [ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex sibilant.
Lubawa dialect[10]
Malbork dialect[10]
Ostróda dialect[10]
Warmia dialect[10]
Portuguese[11][12]
loja
[ˈlɔʒɐ]'shop'Also described as alveolo-palatal [ʑ].[13][14][15] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian
jar
[ʒär]'embers'See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatianжут / žut[ʒûːt̪]'yellow'May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
SilesianGmina Istebna[16][example needed]These dialects merge /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ into [ʒ].
Jablunkov[16][example needed]
SiouxLakotawaŋži[wãˈʒi]'one'
Slovenian
žito
[ˈʒìːtɔ]'cereal'See Slovene phonology
SpanishRioplatense, Ecuadorian (lleísta dialect)[17][18]yo (Rioplatense), ellos (Ecuadorian, Rioplatense)[ʒo̞][eʒos]'I', 'they'Some dialects.[17] See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Tadaksahak[ˈʒɐwɐb]'to answer'
Tagish[ʒé]'what'
Turkish
jale
[ʒäːˈlɛ]'dew'See Turkish phonology
Turkmen
žiraf
[ʒiraf]'giraffe'
TutchoneNorthernzhi[ʒi]'what'
Southernzhǜr[ʒɨ̂r]'berry'
Ukrainian
жaбa
[ˈʒɑbɐ]'frog'See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu
اژدہا
[əʒd̪ahaː]'dragon'See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Vepsž[viːʒ]'five'
Welayta[aʒa]'bush'
West Frisian
bagaazje
[bɑˈɡaʒə]'luggage'See West Frisian phonology
Yiddish
אָראַנזש
[ɔʀanʒ]'orange'See Yiddish phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[19]llan[ʒaŋ]'anger'
The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ж⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.
Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
ɹ̠˔
ɹ̝˗
IPA Number151 414 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\_-_r
Audio sample
The voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ⟨ɹ̠˔⟩ (retracted constricted [ɹ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_r.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Dutch[20]
meer
[meːɹ̠˔]'lake'A rare post-vocalic allophone of /r/.[21] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
ThaiKrungthepยี[ɹ̠˔īː][citation needed]'to crush, to mash'Contrast with Ayutthaya accent (Standard accent) which use [j] instead.
MandarinTainan[ɹ̠˔ôʊ]'meat'Contrast with Taipei Mandarin (Standard accent) which use [ɹ̠] instead.
Manx
mooar
[muːɹ̠˔]'lake'In free variation with other coda allophones of /r/.[22]
See also
Notes
  1. ^ "IPA i-charts (2018)". International Phonetic Association. Retrieved 5 June 2020.
  2. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:18)
  4. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  5. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51)
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  7. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2013-11-18.
  8. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  9. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:156). The authors state that /ʒ/ is "pre-palatal, articulated with the blade of the tongue against the post-alveolar place of articulation". This makes it unclear whether this sound is palato-alveolar (somewhat palatalized post-alveolar) or alveolo-palatal (strongly palatalized post-alveolar).
  10. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  11. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  12. ^ Medina (2010)
  13. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000)
  14. ^ Silva (2003:32)
  15. ^ Guimarães (2004)
  16. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  17. ^ a b Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
  18. ^ Argüello, Fanny M. (1980-03-10). "El rehilamiento en el español hablado en la región andina del Ecuador". Lexis (in Spanish). 4 (2): 151–155. ISSN 0254-9239.
  19. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  20. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:94–98 and 101–102)
  21. ^ Goeman & van de Velde (2001:95–97 and 102)
  22. ^ Broderick (1986:17-8)
References
External links
List of languages with [ʒ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 08:26
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