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Voiced velar fricative
"ɣ (IPA)" redirects here. For consonants followed by superscript ˠ, see Velarization.
The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound that is used in various spokenlanguages. It is not found in Modern English but existed in Old English.[1] The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɣ⟩, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, ⟨γ⟩, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically-similar ⟨ɤ⟩, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel, which some writings[2] use for the voiced velar fricative.
Voiced velar fricative
ɣ
IPA Number141
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɣ
Unicode (hex)U+0263
X-SAMPAG
Braille
Image
Audio sample
The symbol ⟨ɣ⟩ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, which, however, is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ].
There is also a voiced post-velar fricative, also called pre-uvular, in some languages. For the voiced pre-velar fricative, also called post-palatal, see voiced palatal fricative.
Features
Features of the voiced velar fricative:
Occurrence
Some of the consonants listed as post-velar may actually be trill fricatives.
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abazaбгъьы/bg"'ı[bɣʲə]'leaf'
Adygheчъыгы/ch"'gy[t͡ʂəɣə] (help·info)'tree'
AlbanianArbëresh
Moresian (Pelloponesian) dialects of Arvanitika
gliata[ɣliɑtɑ]'tall'May sound like Greek γ in some Arvanitic/Arbereshe dialects.
Alekanogamó[ɣɑmɤʔ]'cucumber'
Aleutagiitalix[aɣiːtalix]'with'
Angorranihı[ɾɑniɣə]'brother'
Angasγür[ɣyr]'to pick up'
ArabicModern Standard[3]غريب‎/ġarīb[ɣæˈriːb]'stranger'May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[4] See Arabic phonology
Aromanian
ghini
[ˈɣi.ni]'well'Allophone of /ɡ/
AssyrianEasternܦܓ̣ܪܐpaġ[pʌɣrɑ]'body'Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.
Western[fʌɣrɔ]
Asturian
gadañu
[ɣaˈd̪ãɲʊ]'scythe'Allophone of /ɡ/ in almost all positions
Azerbaijani
ağac
[ɑɣɑd͡ʒ]'tree'
Basque[5]
hego
[heɣo]'wing'Allophone of /ɡ/
Belarusian
галава
[ɣalava]'head'
Catalan[6]
figuera
[fiˈɣeɾə]'fig tree'Allophone of /ɡ/. See Catalan phonology
ChechenгӀала / ġala[ɣaːla]'town'
ChineseXiang湖南‎/húnán[ɣu˩˧nia˩˧]'Hunan (province)'
Czech
bych byl
[bɪɣ bɪl]'I would be'Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Czech phonology
Dinka
ɣo
[ɣo]'us'
DutchStandard Belgian[7][8]
gaan
[ɣaːn]'to go'May be post-palatal [ʝ̠] instead.[8] See Dutch phonology
Southern accents[8]
Georgian[9]არიბი/ġaribi[ɣɑribi]'poor'May actually be post-velar or uvular
German[10][11][failed verification]Austrian
damalige
[ˈdaːmaːlɪɣə]'former'Intervocalic allophone of /ɡ/ in casual speech.[10][11] See Standard German phonology
Gharicheghe[tʃeɣe]'five'
Greekγάλα/gála[ˈɣɐlɐ]'milk'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiવા/vāghaṇ[ʋɑ̤̈ɣəɽ̃]'tigress'See Gujarati phonology
Gwenondeghe[ndeɣe]'bird'
Gwich’invideeghàn[viteːɣân]'his/her chest'
Haitian Creolediri[diɣi]'rice'
Händëgëghor[təkəɣor]'I am playing'
HebrewYemeniteמִגְדָּל‎/miǧdel[miɣdɔl]'tower'
HindustaniHindi[12]
ग़रीब
[ɣ̄əriːb]'poor'Post-velar.[12] See Hindustani phonology
Urduغریب
Iranian Turkicاوغول‎/oghul[oɣul]'son'
Icelandic
saga
[ˈsaːɣa]'saga'See Icelandic phonology
Irish
a dhorn
[ə ɣoːɾˠn̪ˠ]'his fist'See Irish phonology
Istro-Romanian[13]gură[ˈɣurə]'mouth'Corresponds to [ɡ][in which environments?] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology
Iwaidja[mulaɣa]'hermit crab'
Japanese[14]はげ/hage[haɣe]'baldness'Allophone of /ɡ/, especially in fast or casual speech. See Japanese phonology
Kabardianгын/gyn[ɣən] (help·info)'powder'
Lezgianгъел/ghel[ɣel]'sleigh'
Limburgish[15][16]gaw[ɣɑ̟β̞]'quick'The example word is from the Maastrichtian dialect.
Lishan DidanUrmi Dialectעוטג/otogh[ˠotʰoɣ]'room'Generally post-velar
Lithuanianhumoras[ˈɣʊmɔrɐs̪]'humor'Preferred over [ɦ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Low German[17]gaan[ˈɣɔ̃ːn]'to go'Increasingly replaced with High German [ɡ]
MalayStandard Malay
ghaib
[ɣai̯b]'unseen'Mostly in loanwords from Arabic. Indonesians tend to replace the sound with /ɡ/.
Kelantan dialect
ramai
[ɣamaː]'crowded (with people)'/r/ in Standard Malay is barely articulated in almost all of the Malay dialects in Malaysia. Usually it is uttered as guttural R at initial and medial position of a word. See Malay phonology
Terengganu dialect
Negeri Sembilan dialect[ɣamai̯]
Pahang dialect[ɣamɛ̃ː]
Sarawak dialect[ɣamɛː]
MacedonianBerovo accentдувна/duvna[ˈduɣna]'it blew'Corresponds to etymological /x/ of other dialects, before sonorants. See Maleševo-Pirin dialect and Macedonian phonology
Bukovo accentглава/glava[ˈɡɣa(v)a]'head'Allophone of /l/ instead of usual [ɫ]. See Prilep-Bitola dialect
MandarinDongping dialect俺/Ǎn[ɣän55]'I'
Navajo’aghá[ʔaɣa]'best'
Nepali
घाडी
[ʌɣäɽi]'before'Allophone of /ɡʱ/. See Nepali phonology
NgweMmockngie dialect[nøɣə̀]'sun'
Northern Qiang?[ɣnəʂ]'February'
NorwegianUrban East[18]
å ha
[ɔ ˈɣɑː]'to have'Possible allophone of /h/ between two back vowels; can be voiceless [x] instead.[18] See Norwegian phonology
OccitanGascondigoc[diˈɣuk]'said' (3rd pers. sg.)
Pashtoغاتر/ghutar[ɣɑtər]'mule'
Persianغلتیدن/ ġaltidan[ɣæltidæn]'rolling'
Polish
niechże
[ˈɲɛɣʐɛ]'let' (imperative particle)Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Polish phonology
PortugueseEuropean[19][20]
agora
[əˈɣɔɾə]'now'Allophone of /ɡ/. See Portuguese phonology
Some Brazilian dialects[21]
rmore
[ˈmaɣmuɾi]'marble', 'sill'Allophone of rhotic consonant (voiced equivalent to [x], itself allophone of /ʁ/) between voiced sounds, most often as coda before voiced consonants.
PunjabiGurmukhiਗ਼ਰੀਬ/ġarrīb[ɣ̄əriːb]'poor'
Shahmukhiغریب‎/ġarrīb
RipuarianColognian[citation needed]noch ein[en][ˈnɔɣ‿ən]'another one'Allophone of word-final /x/; occurs only immediately before a word that starts with a vowel.[citation needed] See Colognian phonology
Kerkrade dialect[22]vroage[ˈvʁoə̯ɣə]'to ask'Occurs only after back vowels.[22] See Kerkrade dialect phonology
Romaniγoines[ɣoines]'good'
RussianSouthernдорога/doroga[dɐˈro̞ɣə]'road'Corresponds to /ɡ/ in standard
Standardугу/ugu[ʊˈɣu]'uh-huh'Usually nasal, /ɡ/ is used when spoken. See Russian phonology
Sakhaаҕа/aǧa[aɣa]'father'
SardinianNuorese dialectghere[ˈsuɣɛrɛ]'to suck'Allophone of /ɡ/
Scottish Gaelic
laghail
[ɫ̪ɤɣal]'lawful'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[23]
ovih bi
[ǒ̞ʋiɣ bi]'of these would'Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants.[23] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
S'gaw Karenဂ့ၤ‎/ghei[ɣei]'good'
Sindhiغم‎/ghvmu[ɣəmʊ]'sadness'
Slovene
gajba
[ɣájba]'crate'Present in the Littoral dialect group
Spanish
amigo
[a̠ˈmiɣo̟]'friend'Ranges from close fricative to approximant.[24] Allophone of /ɡ/, see Spanish phonology
Swahili
ghali
[ɣali]'expensive'
SwedishWestrobothnianmeg[mɪːɣ]'me'Allophone of /ɡ/. Occurs between vowels and in word-final positions.[25] Here also /∅/ in Kalix.
Tadaksahakzog[zoɣ]'war'
Tajikғафс/ƣafs[ɣafs]'thick'
Tamazightaɣilas (aghilas)[aɣilas]'leopard'
TamilBrahmin Tamil (non-standard)முகம்[muɣəm]'face'Not very common
TurkishNon-standard
ağ
[aɣat͡ʃ]'tree'Deleted in most dialects. See Turkish phonology
TutchoneNorthernihghú[ihɣǔ]'tooth'
Southernghra[ɣra]'baby'
Tyapghan[ˈɣan]'to hurry'
UkrainianAllophone of /x/. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[26]ёмғир / yomir[ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪]'rain'Post-velar.[26]
Vietnamese[27]
ghế
[ɣe˧˥]'chair'See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiandrage[ˈdraːɣə]'to carry'Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yi/we[ɣɤ˧]'win'
ZhuangLwg roegbit[lɯ˧ ɣo˧pi˥]'Wild duckling'
Central Alaskan Yup'ikauga[ˈauːɣa]'his/her/its blood'Never occurs in word-initial positions.
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Baker, Peter Stuar (2012). Introduction to Old English (3rd ed.). pp. 15. ISBN 9781444354195. OCLC 778433078 – via Internet Archive. Between voiced sounds dotless g is pronounced [ɣ], a voiced velar spirant. This sound became [w] in Middle English, so English no longer has it.
  2. ^ Such as Booij (1999) and Nowikow (2012).
  3. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17 and 19-20.
  4. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  5. ^ Hualde (1991), pp. 99–100.
  6. ^ Wheeler (2005), p. 10.
  7. ^ Verhoeven (2005:243)
  8. ^ a b c Collins & Mees (2003:191)
  9. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  10. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  11. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis" (PDF). p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013.[failed verification]
  12. ^ a b Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  13. ^ Pop (1938), p. 30.
  14. ^ Okada (1999), p. 118.
  15. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:159)
  16. ^ Peters (2006:119)
  17. ^ R.E. Keller, German Dialects. Phonology and Morphology, Manchester 1960
  18. ^ a b Vanvik (1979), p. 40.
  19. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  20. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  21. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 228.
  22. ^ a b Stichting Kirchröadsjer Dieksiejoneer (1997:17)
  23. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:67)
  24. ^ Phonetic studies such as Quilis (1981) have found that Spanish voiced stops may surface as spirants with various degrees of constriction. These allophones are not limited to regular fricative articulations, but range from articulations that involve a near complete oral closure to articulations involving a degree of aperture quite close to vocalization
  25. ^ http://runeberg.org/nfaq/0347.html
  26. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.
  27. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
References
External links
List of languages with [ɣ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 19:54
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