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Voiceless alveolar affricate
A voiceless alveolar affricate is a type of affricate consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
This article discusses the first two.
Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
ts
IPA Number103 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʦ
Unicode (hex)U+02A6
X-SAMPAts
Audio sample
The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡s⟩ or ⟨t͜s⟩ (formerly with ⟨ʦ⟩ or ⟨ƾ⟩). The voiceless alveolar affricate occurs in many Indo-European languages, such as German, Kashmiri, Marathi, Pashto, Russian and most other Slavic languages such as Polish and Serbo-Croatian; also, among many others, in Georgian, in Japanese, in Mandarin Chinese, and in Cantonese. Some international auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.
Features
Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate:
Occurrence
The following sections are named after the fricative component.
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
GermanStandard[2]
Zeit
[t͡säɪ̯t]'time'The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[2] See Standard German phonology
ItalianStandard[3]
grazia
[ˈɡrät̚t͡sjä]'grace'The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[3] See Italian phonology
Dentalized laminal alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArmenianEastern[4]ցանց/tshantsh[t̻͡s̪ʰan̪t̻͡s̪ʰ]'net'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Basque[5]
hotz
[o̞t̻͡s̪]'cold'Contrasts with a sibilant affricate with an apical fricative component.[5]
Belarusian[6]цётка/cyotka[ˈt̻͡s̪ʲɵtka]'aunt'Contrasting palatalization. See Belarusian phonology
ChineseStandard[7][8]早餐/zao can/tsau ts'an[t̻͡s̪ɑʊ˨˩ t̻͡s̪ʰan˥]'breakfast'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Standard Chinese phonology
Czech[9]
co
[t̻͡s̪o̝]'what'See Czech phonology
Hungarian[10]
cica
[ˈt̻͡s̪it̻͡s̪ɒ]'kitten'See Hungarian phonology
Japanese津波/tsunami[t̻͡s̪ɯ̟ᵝnämi]'Tsunami'Allophone of /t/ before /u/. See Japanese phonology
Kashmiriژاس/tsās[t͡saːs]'cough'
Kashubian[11][example needed]
Kazakh[12]инвести​ц​ия​/investitsiya[əjnvestəjt̻͡s̪əja'price'Only in loanwords from Russian[12][13] See Kazakh phonology and Kyrgyz phonology
Kyrgyz[13]
Latvian[14]
cena
[ˈt̻͡s̪en̪ä]'price'See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[15]цвет/cvet[t̻͡s̪ve̞t̪]'flower'See Macedonian phonology
Pashtoڅــلور/tsalor[ˌt͡səˈlor]'four'See Pashto phonology
Polish[16]
co
[t̻͡s̪ɔ] (help·info)'what'See Polish phonology
Romanian[17]
preț
[pre̞t̻͡s̪]'price'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]царь/car'[t̻͡s̪ärʲ]'Tsar'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19][20]
cilj
[t̻͡s̪îːʎ]'target'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak
cisár
[t̻͡s̪isaːr]'emperor'See Slovak phonology
Slovene[21]
cvet
[t̻͡s̪ʋéːt̪]'bloom'See Slovene phonology
Tyaptsa[t͡sa]'to begin'
Ukrainian[22]цей/cej[t̻͡s̪ɛj]'this one'See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[23]cybla[ˈt̻͡s̪ɪblä]'onion'See Upper Sorbian phonology
Uzbek[24][example needed]
Non-retracted alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArabicNajdi[25]ك‍‍لب/tsalb[t͡salb]'dog'Corresponds to /k/ and /t͡ʃ/ in other dialects
AsturianSome dialects[26]otso[ˈot͡so]'eight'Corresponds to standard /t͡ʃ/
Ḷḷena, Mieres, and othersḷḷuna[ˈt͡sunɐ]'moon'Alveolar realization of che vaqueira instead of normal retroflex [ʈ͡ʂ]
Basque[5]
hots
[ot̻͡s̺]'sound'The fricative component is apical. Contrasts with a laminal affricate with a dentalized fricative component.[5]
Catalan[27]
potser
[puˈtt̻͡s̺e]'maybe'The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik[28]cetaman[t͡səˈtaman]'four'Allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before schwa
Chamorro[29]CHamoru[t͡sɑˈmoːɾu]'Chamorro'Spelled Chamoru in the orthography used in the Northern Mariana Islands.
Cherokee[30]ᏣᎳᎩ tsalagi[t͡salaɡi]'Cherokee'
DanishStandard[31]
to
[ˈt̻͡s̺ʰoːˀ]'two'The fricative component is apical.[31] In some accents, it is realized as [tʰ].[31] Usually transcribed /tˢ/ or /t/. Contrasts with the unaspirated stop [t], which is usually transcribed /d̥/ or /d/. See Danish phonology
DutchOrsmaal-Gussenhoven dialect[32]mat[ˈmät͡s]'market'Optional pre-pausal allophone of /t/.[32]
EnglishBroad Cockney[33]
tea
[ˈt͡səˑi̯]'tea'Possible word-initial, intervocalic and word-final allophone of /t/.[34][35] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[35][ˈt͡sɪˑi̯]
New York[36]Possible syllable-initial and sometimes also utterance-final allophone of /t/.[36] See English phonology
New Zealand[37]Word-initial allophone of /t/.[37] See English phonology
North Wales[38][ˈt͡siː]Word-initial and word-final allophone of /t/; in free variation with a strongly aspirated stop [tʰ].[38] See English phonology
Scouse[39]Possible syllable-initial and word-final allophone of /t/.[39] See English phonology
General South African[40]
wanting
[ˈwɑnt͡sɪŋ]'wanting'Possible syllable-final allophone of /t/.[40]
Filipino
tsokolate
[t͡sokɔlate]'chocolate'
FrenchQuebectu[t͡sy]'you'Allophone of /t/ before /i, y/.
Georgian[41]კა/k'atsi[kʼɑt͡si]'man'
Luxembourgish[42]Zuch[t͡suχ]'train'See Luxembourgish phonology
Marathiचा/tsāpa['t͡sapə]'clip'Represented by /च/, which also represents [t͡ʃ]. It is not a marked difference.
Nepaliचा/tsāp[t͡säp]'pressure'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated versions. The unaspirated is represented by /च/. The aspirated sound is represented by /छ/. See Nepali phonology
PortugueseEuropean[43]
parte sem vida
[ˈpaɾt͡sẽj ˈviðɐ]'lifeless part'Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/, or assimilation due to the deletion of /i ~ ɨ ~ e/. Increasingly used in Brazil.[44]
Brazilian[43][44]
participação
[paʁt͡sipaˈsɜ̃w̃]'participation'
Most speakers[45]
shiatsu
[ɕiˈat͡su]'shiatsu'Marginal sound. Many Brazilians might break the affricate with epenthetic [i], often subsequently palatalizing /t/, specially in pre-tonic contexts (e.g. tsunami [tɕisuˈnɜ̃mʲi]).[46] See Portuguese phonology
SpanishMadrid[47]
ancha
[ˈänʲt͡sʲä]'wide'Palatalized;[47] with an apical fricative component. It corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Chilean
Some Rioplatense dialects
tía
['t͡sia̞]'aunt'
Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate
Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate
tɹ̝̊
tθ̠
tθ͇
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishGeneral American[48]
tree
[tɹ̝̊ʷɪi̯]'tree'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/; more commonly postalveolar [t̠ɹ̠̊˔].[48] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[48]
ItalianSicily[49]
straniero
[stɹ̝̊äˈnjɛɾo]'foreign'Apical. Regional realization of the sequence /tr/; may be a sequence [tɹ̝̊] or [tɹ̝] instead.[50] See Italian phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ a b Mangold (2005), pp. 50 and 52.
  3. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  4. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 6.
  5. ^ a b c d Hualde, Lujanbio & Zubiri (2010:1). Although this paper discusses mainly the Goizueta dialect, the authors state that it has "a typical, conservative consonant inventory for a Basque variety".
  6. ^ Padluzhny (1989), pp. 48-49.
  7. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109–110.
  8. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17–25.
  9. ^ Palková (1994), pp. 234–235.
  10. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  11. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  12. ^ a b Kara (2002), p. 10.
  13. ^ a b Kara (2003), p. 11.
  14. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  15. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  16. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 160.
  17. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013.[permanent dead link]
  18. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  19. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  20. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  21. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  22. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  23. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38).
  24. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  25. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  26. ^ "Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana" (PDF) (in Asturian). p. 14. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-03-23.
  27. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007), p. 144.
  28. ^ Jacobson (1995), p. 2.
  29. ^ Chung (2020), p. 645.
  30. ^ Uchihara, Hiroto (2016). Tone and Accent in Oklahoma Cherokee. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-873944-9.
  31. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005), p. 120.
  32. ^ a b Peters (2010), p. 240.
  33. ^ Wells (1982), pp. 322–323.
  34. ^ Wells (1982), p. 323.
  35. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 172.
  36. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  37. ^ a b Bauer et al. (2007), p. 100.
  38. ^ a b Penhallurick (2004), pp. 108–109.
  39. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 372.
  40. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2013), p. 194.
  41. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  42. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  43. ^ a b Alice Telles de Paula. "Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS"(PDF) (in Portuguese). p. 14.
  44. ^ a b Camila Tavares Leite. "Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  45. ^ Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis. "Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro"(PDF) (in Portuguese).
  46. ^ Aline Aver Vanin. "A influência da percepção inferencial na formação de vogal epentética em estrangeirismos" (in Portuguese).
  47. ^ a b Klaus Kohler. "Castilian Spanish – Madrid".
  48. ^ a b c Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  49. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  50. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 64–65.
References
External links
List of languages with [ts] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 02:45
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