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Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives
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The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral fricatives is [ɬ], and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is K. The symbol [ɬ] is called "belted l" and is distinct from "l with tilde", [ɫ], which transcribes a different sound, the velarized alveolar lateral approximant.
Voiceless alveolar lateral fricative
ɬ
IPA Number148
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ɬ
Unicode (hex)U+026C
X-SAMPAK
Image
Audio sample
Voiceless alveolar lateral approximant
IPA Number155 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPAl_0
Some scholars also posit the voiceless alveolar lateral approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ⟨l̥⟩. The distinction is not recognized by the International Phonetic Association.[1]
Features
Features of the voiceless alveolar lateral fricative:[citation needed]
Occurrence
The sound is fairly common among indigenous languages of the Americas such as Nahuatl and Navajo;[2] and in North Caucasian languages, such as Avar.[3] It is also found in African languages including Zulu; Asian languages such as Chukchi and some Yue dialects like Taishanese; the Hlai languages of Hainan; and several Formosan languages and dialects in Taiwan.[4]
Rare among European languages outside the Caucasus, it is found notably in Welsh, in which it is written ⟨ll⟩.[5] Several Welsh names beginning with this sound (e.g. Llwyd [ɬʊɨd], Llywelyn [ɬəˈwɛlɨn]) have been borrowed into English, where they either retain the Welsh ⟨ll⟩ spelling but are pronounced with an /l/ (Lloyd, Llewellyn), or are substituted with ⟨fl⟩ (pronounced /fl/) (Floyd, Fluellen).
The phoneme /ɬ/ was also found in the most ancient Hebrew speech of the Ancient Israelites. Biblical Hebrew orthography, however, did not directly indicate the phoneme /ɬ/ since this and several other phonemes of Ancient Hebrew did not have a grapheme of their own. The phoneme /ɬ/, however, is clearly attested by later developments: /ɬ/ was written with ⟨ש‎‎⟩, but this letter was also used for the sound /ʃ/; later /ɬ/ merged with /s/, a sound which was previously written only with ⟨ס‎‎⟩. As a result, three etymologically distinct modern Hebrew phonemes can be distinguished: /s/ written ⟨ס‎‎⟩, /ʃ/ written ⟨ש‎‎⟩ (with later niqqud pointing שׂ), and /s/ which evolved from /ɬ/ and is written ⟨ש‎‎⟩ (with later niqqud pointing שׁ). The specific pronunciation of ⟨ש‎‎⟩ as /s/ evolved from [ɬ] is known based on comparative evidence, since /ɬ/ is the corresponding Proto-Semitic phoneme and /ɬ/ is still attested in Modern South Arabian languages[6] as well as early borrowings from Ancient Hebrew (e.g. balsam < Greek balsamon < Hebrew baśam). The phoneme /ɬ/ began merging with /s/ in Late Biblical Hebrew, as indicated by interchange of orthographic ⟨ש‎‎⟩ and ⟨ס‎‎⟩, possibly under the influence of Aramaic, and this became the rule in Mishnaic Hebrew.[7][8] In all Jewish reading traditions /ɬ/ and /s/ have merged completely; however in Samaritan Hebrew /ɬ/ has instead merged with /ʃ/.[7]
The [ɬ] sound is also found in two of the constructed languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien, Sindarin (inspired by Welsh) and Quenya (inspired by Finnish, Ancient Greek, and Latin).[9][10] In Sindarin it is written as ⟨lh⟩ initially and ⟨ll⟩ medially and finally; in Quenya it only appears initially and is written ⟨hl⟩.
Dental or denti-alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Mapudungun[11]
kagü
[kɜˈɣɘɬ̪]'phlegm that is spit'Interdental; possible utterance-final allophone of /l̪/.[11]
NorwegianTrondheim dialect[12]
lt
[s̪aɬ̪t̪]'sold'Laminal denti-alveolar; allophone of /l/. Also described as an approximant.[13] See Norwegian phonology
Turkish[14]
yol
[ˈjo̞ɫ̪̊]'way'Devoiced allophone of velarized dental /ɫ/, frequent finally and before voiceless consonants.[14] See Turkish phonology
Alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Ahtnadzeł[tsəɬ]'mountain'
AleutAtkan dialecthla[ɬɑχ]'boy'
AmisSouthern dialectkudiwis[kuɬiwis]'rabbit'
Avar
лъабго
[ˈɬabɡo]'three'
Basaylanum[ɬanum]'water'
BerberAit Seghrouchenaltu[æˈɬʊw]'not yet'Allophone of /lt/
BununIsbukunludun[ɬuɗun]'mountain'
Bura[15][example needed]Contrasts with [ɮ] and [ʎ̝̊].[15]
CherokeeSome speakers
[ə̃ʔɬa]'no'Corresponds to [tɬ] in the speech of most speakers
Chickasawlhinko[ɬiŋko]'to be fat'
ChineseTaishanese[16][ɬam˧]'three'Corresponds to [s] in Standard Cantonese
Pinghua
Pu-Xian Min[ɬua˥˧˧]'sand'
Chipewyanłue[ɬue]'fish'
Chukchi
ԓевыт
[ɬeβət]'head'
Circassian
плъыжь
[pɬəʑ] (help·info)'red'
Creek (Mvskoke)rakkē[ɬakkiː]'big'Historically transcribed thl or tl by English speakers
DanishStandard[17]
plads
[ˈpl̥æs]'square'Before /l/, aspiration of /p, t, k/ is realized as devoicing of /l/.[17] See Danish phonology
Dahalo[ʡáɬi]'fat'
Dogribło[ɬo]'smoke'
Estonian[18]
mahl
[mɑ̝hːl̥]'juice'Word-final allophone of /l/ after /t, s, h/.[18] See Estonian phonology
Eyakqeł[qʰɛʔɬ]'woman'
Fali[paɬkan]'shoulder'
Faroese
hjálp
[jɔɬp]'help'
Forest Nenets
хару
[xaɬʲu]'rain'Forest Nenets has both plain /ɬ/ and palatalized /ɬʲ/
Greenlandicillu[iɬːu]'house'Realization of geminated /l/
Hadzasleme[ɬeme]'man'
Haidatla'únhl[tɬʰʌʔʊ́nɬ]'six'
Halkomelemɬ'eqw[ɬeqw]'wet'
HebrewBiblicalשָׂטָן[ɬɑːtˤɑːn]'Satan'
Hla'aluahla[ɬɑ]'and'
HlaiHas Hlaihla'fish'
Hmong
hli
[ɬi] (help·info)'moon'
Icelandicsiglt[sɪɬt]'have sailed'Allophone of /l̥/. See Icelandic phonology.
Inuktitut
akłak
[akɬak]'grizzly bear'See Inuit phonology
Kabardian
лъы
[ɬə] (help·info)'blood'
Kaskatsį̄ł[tsʰĩːɬ]'axe'
KhamGamale Kham[19]ह्ला[ɬɐ]'leaf'
Lushootseedłukʷał[ɬukʷaɬ]'sun'
Mapudungun[11]
kaül
[kɜˈɘɬ]'a different song'Possible utterance-final allophone of /l/.[11]
Mochicapaxllær[paɬøɾ]Phaseolus lunatus
Molokosla[ɬa]'cow'
Mongolian
лхагва
[ɬaʁʷ]'Wednesday'Only in loanwords from Tibetan;[20] here from ལྷག་པ (lhag-pa)
Nahuatl
āltepētl
[aːɬˈtɛpɛːt͡ɬ]'city'Allophone of /l/
Navajoł[ɬaʔ]'some'See Navajo phonology
Nisga'ahloks[ɬoks]'sun'
NorwegianTrøndersk
tatl / tasl
[tʰɑɬ]'sissiness'See Norwegian phonology
Nuxalklhm[ɬm]'to stand'
SaanichȽNIṈEȽ[ɬníŋəɬ]'we, us'
Saaroarahli[raɬi]'chief'
Sahaptinłp’úł[ˈɬpʼuɬ]'tears'
Sandawelhaa[ɬáː]'goat'
Sassaresemorthu[ˈmoɬtu] (help·info)'dead'
Sawiɬo[ɬo]'three'Developed out of the earlier tr consonant clusters[21]
Shuswapɬept[ɬept]'fire is out'
Sothoho hlahloba[ho ɬɑɬɔbɑ]'to examine'See Sotho phonology
St’át’imcetslhésp[ɬə́sp]'rash'
SwedishJämtlandic
kallt
[kaɬt]'cold'See Swedish phonology
Taosłiwéna[ɬìˈwēnæ]'wife'See Taos phonology
Tera[22]tleebi[ɬè̞ːbi]'side'
Thaokilhpul[kiɬpul]'star'
Tlingitlingít[ɬɪ̀nkɪ́tʰ]'Tlingit'
Ukrainian[23]
смисл
[s̪mɪs̪l̥]'sense'Word-final allophone of /l/ after voiceless consonants.[23] See Ukrainian phonology
Tsez
лъи
[ɬi] (help·info)'water'
Welsh
llall
[ɬaːɬ]'(the) other'See Welsh phonology
Xhosasihlala[síˈɬaːla]'we stay'
XumiLower[24][RPʁul̥o]'head'Described as an approximant. Contrasts with the voiced /l/.[24][25]
Upper[25][EPbəl̥ɐ]'to open a lock'
Yiꆧꁨhlop-bbop[ɬo˧˩bo˧˩]'moon'
Yurok[26]kerhl[kɚɬ]'earring'
Zulu
isihlahla
[isíˈɬaːɬa]'tree'
Zuniasdemła[ʔastemɬan]'ten'
Semitic languages
The sound is conjectured as a phoneme for Proto-Semitic language, usually transcribed as ś; it has evolved into Arabic [ʃ], Hebrew [s]:
Proto-SemiticAkkadianArabicPhoenicianHebrewAramaicGe'ez
śشš
šשׂsܫsś
Amongst Semitic languages, the sound still exists in contemporary Soqotri[citation needed] and Mehri.[27] In Ge'ez, it is written with the letter Śawt.[citation needed]
Capital letter
Latin Capital Letter L with Belt
Since the IPA letter "ɬ" has been adopted into the standard orthographies for many native North American languages, a capital letter L with belt "Ɬ" was requested by academics and added to the Unicode Standard version 7.0 in 2014 at U+A7AD.[28][29]
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 326.
  2. ^ McDonough, Joyce (2003). The Navajo Sound System. Cambridge: Kluwer. ISBN 1-4020-1351-5.
  3. ^ Laver, John (1994). Principles of Phonetics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 0-521-45655-X.
  4. ^ Henry Y., Chang (2000). 噶瑪蘭語參考語法 [Kavalan Grammar]. Taipei: 遠流 (Yuan-Liou). pp. 43–45. ISBN 9573238985.
  5. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 203.
  6. ^ Blau (2010:77)
  7. ^ a b Blau (2010:69)
  8. ^ Rendsburg (1997:73)
  9. ^ Helge, Fauskanger. "Sindarin – the Noble Tongue". Ardalambion. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  10. ^ Helge, Fauskanger. "Quenya Course". Ardalambion. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b c d Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88, 91.
  12. ^ Kristoffersen (2000), p. 79.
  13. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 36.
  14. ^ a b Zimmer & Orgun (1999), pp. 154–155.
  15. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), pp. 154–155.
  16. ^ Taishanese Dictionary & Resources
  17. ^ a b Basbøll (2005), pp. 65–66.
  18. ^ a b Asu & Teras (2009), p. 368.
  19. ^ Wilde, Christopher P. (2016). "Gamale Kham phonology revisited, with Devanagari-based orthography and lexicon". Journal of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society. ISSN 1836-6821.
  20. ^ Svantesson et al. (2005), pp. 30–33.
  21. ^ Liljegren, Henrik (2009). "The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush". Acta Orientalia (70): 7–62.
  22. ^ Tench (2007), p. 228.
  23. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 10.
  24. ^ a b Chirkova & Chen (2013), pp. 365, 367–368.
  25. ^ a b Chirkova, Chen & Kocjančič Antolík (2013), pp. 382–383.
  26. ^ "Yurok consonants". Yurok Language Project. UC Berkeley. Retrieved 15 April 2021.
  27. ^ Howe, Darin (2003). Segmental Phonology. University of Calgary. p. 22.
  28. ^ Joshua M Jensen, Karl Pentzlin, 2012-02-08, Proposal to encode a Latin Capital Letter L with Belt
  29. ^ "Unicode Character 'LATIN CAPITAL LETTER L WITH BELT' (U+A7AD)". www.fileformat.info. FileFormat.Info. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
References
Further reading
External links
Last edited on 29 April 2021, at 08:26
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