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Voiceless dental and alveolar plosives
  (Redirected from Voiceless alveolar plosive)
The voiceless alveolar, dental and postalveolar plosives (or stops) are types of consonantal sounds used in almost all spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents voiceless dental, alveolar, and postalveolar plosives is ⟨t⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is t. The voiceless dental plosive can be distinguished with the underbridge diacritic, ⟨t̪⟩ and the postalveolar with a retraction line, ⟨t̠⟩, and the Extensions to the IPA have a double underline diacritic which can be used to explicitly specify an alveolar pronunciation, ⟨t͇⟩.
Voiceless alveolar plosive
t
IPA Number103
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t
Unicode (hex)U+0074
X-SAMPAt
Braille
Audio sample
Voiceless dental plosive
IPA Number103 408
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t​̪
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+032A
X-SAMPAt_d
Braille
Audio sample
The [t] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically;[1] the most common consonant phonemes of the world's languages are [t], [k] and [p]. Most languages have at least a plain [t], and some distinguish more than one variety. Some languages without a [t] are colloquial Samoan (which also lacks an [n]), Abau, and Nǁng of South Africa.[citation needed]
There are only a few languages which distinguishes dental and alveolar stops, Kota, Toda, Venda being a few of them.
Features
Here are features of the voiceless alveolar stop:
Varieties
IPADescription
tplain t
dental t
aspirated t
palatalized t
labialized t
t with no audible release
voiced t
tense t
ejective t
Occurrence
Dental or denti-alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Aleut[2]tiistax̂[t̪iːstaχ]'dough'Laminal denti-alveolar.
ArmenianEastern[3]
տուն
[t̪un] (help·info)'house'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Assyrianܬܠܬ̱ܐ ţlo[t̪lɑ]'three'<ţ> has shifted to <c> for this word in Mandian dialect
Bashkirдүрт / dürt[dʏʷrt] (help·info)'four'Laminal denti-alveolar
Belarusian[4]
стагоддзе
[s̪t̪äˈɣod̪d̪͡z̪ʲe]'century'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Belarusian phonology
Basque
toki
[t̪oki]'place'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Bengali
তুমি
[t̪umi]'you'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Catalan[5]
tothom
[t̪uˈt̪ɔm]'everyone'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Catalan phonology
ChineseHakka[6] ta3[t̪ʰa˧]'he/she'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with an unaspirated form.
Chuvashут[ut]'horse'
Dinka[7]
th
[mɛ̀t̪]'child'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with alveolar /t/.
DutchBelgian
taal
[t̪aːl̪]'language'Laminal denti-alveolar.
EnglishDublin[8]
thin
[t̪ʰɪn]'thin'Laminal denti-alveolar, corresponds to [θ] in other dialects; in Dublin it may be [t͡θ] instead.[8] See English phonology
Indian
Southern Irish[9]
Ulster[10]
train
[t̪ɹeːn]'train'Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /t/ before /r/, in free variation with an alveolar stop.
Esperanto
Esperanto
[espeˈran̪t̪o]'Who hopes'See Esperanto phonology
Finnish
tutti
[ˈt̪ut̪ːi]'pacifier'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Finnish phonology
French[11]
tordu
[t̪ɔʁd̪y]'crooked'Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Hindustani[12]ती / تین[t̪iːn]'three'Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Indonesian[13]
tabir
[t̪abir]'curtain'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Italian[14]
tale
[ˈt̪ale]'such'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Italian phonology
Japanese[15]特別 / tokubetsu[t̪o̞kɯ̟ᵝbe̞t͡sɨᵝ]'special'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Japanese phonology
Kashubian[16][example needed]Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kyrgyz[17]
туз
[t̪us̪]'salt'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Latvian[18]
tabula
[ˈt̪äbulä]'table'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Mapudungun[19]
a
[ˈfɘt̪ɜ]'husband'Interdental.[19]
Marathi
बला
[t̪əbˈlaː]'tabla'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Nepali
ताली
[t̪äli]'clappinɡ'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali phonology
Nunggubuyu[20]darag[t̪aɾaɡ]'whiskers'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Odiaତାରା/tara[t̪ärä]'star'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form.
Pazeh[21][mut̪apɛt̪aˈpɛh]'keep clapping'Dental.
Polish[22]
tom
[t̪ɔm] (help·info)'volume'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[23]Many dialects
montanha
[mõˈt̪ɐɲɐ]'mountain'Laminal denti-alveolar. Likely to have allophones among native speakers, as it may affricate to [], [] and/or [ts] in certain environments. See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਤੇਲ / تیل[t̪eːl]'oil'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Russian[24]
толстый
[ˈt̪ʷo̞ɫ̪s̪t̪ɨ̞j]'fat'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[25]taigh[t̪ʰɤj]'house'
Serbo-Croatian[26]туга / tuga[t̪ǔːgä]'sorrow'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene[27]
tip
[t̪íːp]'type'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Slovene phonology
Spanish[28]
tango
[ˈt̪ãŋɡo̞]'tango'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Spanish phonology
Swedish[29]
tåg
[ˈt̪ʰoːɡ]'train'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
Temne[30][example needed]Dental.
Turkish
at
[ät̪]'horse'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[31][32]
брат
[brɑt̪]'brother'Laminal denti-alveolar. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[33][example needed]Laminal denti-alveolar. Slightly aspirated before vowels.[33]
Vietnamese[34]
tuần
[t̪wən˨˩]'week'Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with aspirated form. See Vietnamese phonology
ZapotecTilquiapan[35]tant[t̪ant̪]'so much'Laminal denti-alveolar.
Alveolar
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adyghe
тфы
[tfə] (help·info)'five'
ArabicEgyptianتوكةtōka[ˈtoːkæ]'barrette'See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Assyrianܒܝܬܐ bèta[beːta]'house'Most speakers. In the Tyari, Barwari and Southern dialects θ is used.
Bengali
টাকা
[t̠aka]'Taka'True alveolar in eastern dialects, apical post-alveolar in western dialects. Usually transcribed in IPA as [ʈ]. See Bengali phonology.
Czech
toto
[ˈtoto]'this'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[36]
dåse
[ˈtɔ̽ːsə]'can' (n.)Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨d̥⟩ or ⟨d⟩. Contrasts with the affricate [t͡s] or aspirated stop [tʰ] (depending on the dialect), which are usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨tˢ⟩ or ⟨t⟩.[37] See Danish phonology
Dutch[38]
taal
[taːɫ]'language'See Dutch phonology
EnglishMost speakers
tick
[tʰɪk]'tick'See English phonology
New York[39]Varies between apical and laminal, with the latter being predominant.[39]
Finnish
parta
[ˈpɑrtɑ]'beard'Allophone of the voiceless dental stop. See Finnish phonology
Hebrew
תמונה
[tmuˈna]'image'see Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[40]
tutaj
[ˈtutɒj]'raft'See Hungarian phonology
Kabardian
тхуы
[txʷə] (help·info)'five'
Korean대숲 / daesup[tɛsup̚]'bamboo forest'See Korean phonology
KurdishNorthern
tu
[tʰʊ]'you'See Kurdish phonology
Centralتەوێڵ[tʰəweːɫ]'forehead'
Southernتێوڵ[tʰeːwɨɫ]
Luxembourgish[41]dënn[tən]'thin'Less often voiced [d]. It is usually transcribed /d/, and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/.[41] See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay
tahun
[tähʊn]'year'See Malay phonology
Maltese
tassew
[tasˈsew]'true'
Mapudungun[19]
ta
[ˈfɘtɜ]'elderly'
Nunggubuyu[20]darawa[taɾawa]'greedy'
Nuosu[which?] da[ta˧]'place'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Portuguese[42]Some dialects
troço
[ˈtɾɔsu]'thing' (pejorative)Allophone before alveolar /ɾ/. In other dialects /ɾ/ takes a denti-alveolar allophone instead. See Portuguese phonology
Thai ta[taː˧]'eye'Contrasts with an aspirated form.
Vietnamese
ti
[ti]'flaw'See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisiantosk[ˈtosk]'tooth'See West Frisian phonology
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
ArabicModern Standardتينtīn[tiːn]'fig'Laminal denti-alveolar or alveolar, depending on the speaker's native dialect. See Arabic phonology
EnglishBroad South African[43]
talk
[toːk]'talk'Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[43][44][45]
Scottish[44][tʰɔk]
Welsh[45][tʰɒːk]
GermanStandard[46]
Tochter
[ˈtɔxtɐ]'daughter'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[46] See Standard German phonology
Greek[47]τρίαtria[ˈtɾiä]'three'Varies between dental, laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, depending on the environment.[47] See Modern Greek phonology
NorwegianUrban East[48]
dans
[t̻ɑns]'dance'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar. It is usually transcribed /d/. It may be partially voiced [], and it contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /t/.[48] See Norwegian phonology
Persian[49]توت[t̪ʰuːt̪ʰ]'berry'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar.[49] See Persian phonology
Slovak[50][51]
to
[t̻ɔ̝]'that'Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[50][51] See Slovak phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Liberman et al. (1967), p. ?.
  2. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  3. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 17.
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  5. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  6. ^ Lee & Zee (2009), p. 109.
  7. ^ Remijsen & Manyang (2009), pp. 115 and 121.
  8. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 302.
  9. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999), p. 24.
  10. ^ "Week 18 (ii). Northern Ireland" (PDF).
  11. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  12. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 141.
  13. ^ Soderberg & Olson (2008), p. 210.
  14. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  15. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  16. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  17. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  18. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  19. ^ a b c Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88–89.
  20. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005), p. 158.
  21. ^ Blust (1999), p. 330.
  22. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  23. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  24. ^ Jones & Ward (1969), p. 99.
  25. ^ Bauer, Michael. Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Gaelic Pronunciation. Glasgow: Akerbeltz, 2011.
  26. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  27. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  28. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  29. ^ Engstrand (1999), p. 141.
  30. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. ?.
  31. ^ S. Buk; J. Mačutek; A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Glottometrics. 16: 63–79. arXiv:0802.4198.
  32. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  33. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 10.
  34. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  35. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  36. ^ Basbøll (2005), p. 61.
  37. ^ Grønnum (2005), p. 120.
  38. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  39. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 515.
  40. ^ Szende (1994), p. 91.
  41. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013), pp. 67–68.
  42. ^ Palatalization in Brazilian Portuguese revisited (in Portuguese)
  43. ^ a b Lass (2002), p. 120.
  44. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  45. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  46. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 47.
  47. ^ a b Arvaniti (2007), p. 10.
  48. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 22.
  49. ^ a b Mahootian (2002:287–289)
  50. ^ a b Kráľ (1988), p. 72.
  51. ^ a b Pavlík (2004), pp. 98–99.
References
External links
List of languages with [t] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 07:29
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