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Voiceless bilabial plosive
The voiceless bilabial plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound used in most spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨p⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is p.
Voiceless bilabial plosive
p
IPA Number101
Encoding
Entity (decimal)p
Unicode (hex)U+0070
X-SAMPAp
Braille
Audio sample
Features
Features of the voiceless bilabial stop:
Varieties
IPADescription
pplain p
aspirated p
velarized p
palatalized p
labialized p
p with no audible release
voiced p
tense p
ejective p
Occurrence
The stop [p] is missing from about 10% of languages that have a [b]. (See voiced velar stop for another such gap.) This is an areal feature of the "circum-Saharan zone" (Africa north of the equator, including the Arabian peninsula). It is not known how old this areal feature is, and whether it might be a recent phenomenon due to Arabic as a prestige language (Arabic lost its /p/ in prehistoric times), or whether Arabic was itself affected by a more ancient areal pattern. It is found in other areas as well; for example, in Europe, Proto-Celtic and Old Basque are both reconstructed as having [b] but no [p].
Nonetheless, the [p] sound is very common cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [p], and some distinguish more than one variety. Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between the aspirated [pʰ] and the plain [p] (also transcribed as [p˭] in extensions to the IPA).
Examples
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheпаӏо/paio[paːʔʷa] (help·info)'hat'
ArabicAlgerianپاپيش‎/pāpīš[paːpiːʃ]'beautiful girls'
Hejaziإسپانيا‎‎/ispānya[ɪspaːnja]'Spain'Only used in loanwords, transcribed and pronounced as ⟨b⟩ by many speakers.
ArmenianEastern[1]պապիկ/papik[pɑpik] (help·info)'grandpa'Contrasts with aspirated form
Assyrianܦܬܐ pata[pata]'face'
Basque
harrapatu
[(h)arapatu]'to catch'
BengaliEasternপানি/panī[paniː]'water'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
ChineseCantonese爆炸 / baauja[paːu˧ t͡saː˧]'explosion'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology
Mandarin爆炸 / bàozhà[pɑʊ˥˩ tʂa˥˩]Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Catalan[2]
parlar
[pərˈɫa]'to speak'See Catalan phonology
Chuvashпутене/putene[put̬ʲɛ'nɛ]'quail'
Czech
pes
[pɛs]'dog'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[3]
bog
[ˈpɔ̽ʊ̯ˀ]'book'Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨b̥⟩ or ⟨b⟩. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨pʰ⟩ or ⟨p⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch[4]
plicht
[plɪxt]'duty'See Dutch phonology
English
pack
[pʰæk]'pack'See English phonology
Esperanto
tempo
[ˈtempo]'time'See Esperanto phonology
Filipino
pato
[paˈto]'duck'
Finnish
pappa
[ˈpɑpːɑ]'grandpa'See Finnish phonology
French[5]
pomme
[pɔm]'apple'See French phonology
German
Pack
[pʰak]'pile'See Standard German phonology
Greekπόδι / pódi[ˈpo̞ði]'leg'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati/pag[pəɡ]'foot'See Gujarati phonology
Hebrewפּקיד‎/pakid[pakid]'clerk'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniपल / پل/pal[pəl]'moment'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
pápa
[ˈpaːpɒ]'pope'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[6]
papà
[paˈpa]'dad'See Italian phonology
Japanese[7]ポスト / posuto[posɯto]'mailbox'See Japanese phonology
Kabardianпэ/pė[pa] (help·info)'nose'
Korean / bit[pit̚]'light'See Korean phonology
KurdishNorthern
por
[ˈpʰoːɾ]'hair'See Kurdish phonology
Centralپیرۆزە/píroze[pʰiːɾoːzæ]'lammergeier'
Southernپۊنگه/pûûnga[pʰʉːŋa]'pennyroyal'
Lakotapúza[ˈpʊza]'dry'
Lithuanianpastatas[ˈpaːstɐtɐs]'building'See Lithuanian phonology
Luxembourgish[8]bëlleg[ˈpələɕ]'cheap'Less often voiced [b]. It is usually transcribed /b/, and contrasts with voiceless aspirated form, which is usually transcribed /p/.[8] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonianпее/pee[pɛː]'sing'See Macedonian phonology
Malay
panas
[pänäs]'hot'
Maltese
aptit
[apˈtit]'appetite'
Marathiपाऊस/paa'uus/pā'ūs[pɑːˈuːs]'rain'See Marathi phonology
Mutsunpo·čor[poːt͡ʃor]'a sore'
Nepaliपिता/pitā[pit̪ä]'father'See Nepali phonology
Norwegian
pappa
[pɑpːɑ]'dad'See Norwegian phonology
Odiaଥର/pathara[pɔʈʰɔrɔ]'stone'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Pashtoپانير‎/pa'nir[pɑˈnir]'cheese'
Persianپول/pul[pul]'money'
Pirahãpibaóí[ˈpìbàóí̯]'otter'
Polish[9]
pas
[päs] (help·info)'belt'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[10]
pai
[paj]'father'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਪੱਤਾ/pattaa/pattā[pət̪ːäː]'leaf'
Romanian
pas
[pas]'step'See Romanian phonology
Russian[11]плод/plod[pɫot̪]'fruit'Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[12]пиће / piće[pǐːt͡ɕě]'drink'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak
pes
[pɛ̝s]'dog'
Spanish[13]
peso
[ˈpe̞so̞]'weight'See Spanish phonology
Swahilipombe[ˈpoᵐbɛ]'beer'
Swedish
apa
[ˈɑːˌpa]'monkey'See Swedish phonology
Thaiป้/paeng[pɛ̂ːŋ]'powder'See Thai phonology
Tsezпу/pu[pʰu]'side'Contrasts with ejective form.
Turkish
kap
[kʰäp]'pot'See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[14]павук/pavuk[pɐˈβ̞uk]'spider'See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[15]
nhíp
[ɲip˧ˀ˥]'tweezers'See Vietnamese phonology
Welshsiop[ʃɔp]'shop'See Welsh phonology
West Frisianpanne[ˈpɔnə]'pan'
Yi / ba[pa˧]'exchange'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Central Alaskan Yup'ikpanik[panik]'daughter'
ZapotecTilquiapan[16]pan[paŋ]'bread'
See also
List of phonetics topics
Notes
  1. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:17)
  2. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992:53)
  3. ^ Basbøll (2005:61)
  4. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993:73)
  6. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  7. ^ Okada (1999:117)
  8. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  9. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  10. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  11. ^ Padgett (2003:42)
  12. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  13. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  14. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  15. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  16. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
References
External links
List of languages with [p] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 01:39
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