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Voiceless glottal fricative
For consonants followed by the superscript ʰ, see Aspirated consonant.
The voiceless glottal fricative, sometimes called voiceless glottal transition, and sometimes called the aspirate,[1][2] is a type of sound used in some spoken languages that patterns like a fricative or approximant consonant​phonologically​, but often lacks the usual phonetic characteristics of a consonant. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨h⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is h, although [h] has been described as a voiceless vowel because in many languages, it lacks the place and manner of articulation of a prototypical consonant as well as the height and backness of a prototypical vowel:
Voiceless glottal fricative
h
IPA Number146
Encoding
Entity (decimal)h
Unicode (hex)U+0068
X-SAMPAh
Braille
Audio sample
[h and ɦ] have been described as voiceless or breathy voiced counterparts of the vowels that follow them [but] the shape of the vocal tract […] is often simply that of the surrounding sounds. […] Accordingly, in such cases it is more appropriate to regard h and ɦ as segments that have only a laryngeal specification, and are unmarked for all other features. There are other languages [such as Hebrew and Arabic] which show a more definite displacement of the formant frequencies for h, suggesting it has a [glottal] constriction associated with its production.[3]
Lamé contrasts voiceless and voiced glottal fricatives.[4]
Features
Features of the "voiceless glottal fricative":
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AdygheShapsugхыгь/khyg'[həɡʲ]'now'Corresponds to [x] in other dialects.
Albanian
hire
[hiɾɛ][stress?]'the graces'
ArabicModern Standard[5]هائل‎/haa'il[ˈhaːʔɪl]'enormous'See Arabic phonology
AssyrianEasternܗܝܡܢܘܬܐ hèmanūta[heːmaːnuːta]'faith'
Westernܗܪܟܗ harcë[hεrcɪ]'here'
ArmenianEastern[6]հայերեն/hayeren[hɑjɛɾɛn] (help·info)'Armenian'
AsturianSouth-central dialects
uerza
[ˈhweɾθɐ]'force'F- becomes [h] before -ue/-ui in some south-central dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Oriental dialects
acer
[haˈθeɾ]"to do"F- becomes [h] in oriental dialects. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Avar
гьа
[ha]'oath'
Azeri
hin
[hɪn]'chicken coop'
BasqueNorth-Eastern dialects[7]hirur[hiɾur]'three'Can be voiced [ɦ] instead.
Bengaliহাওয়া/haoua[hao̯a]'wind'
Berberaherkus[ahərkus]'shoe'
Cantabrianmuer[muˈheɾ]'woman'F- becomes [h]. In most dialects, -LJ- and -C'L- too. May be also realized as [ħ, ʕ, ɦ, x, χ]
Chechenхӏара / hara[hɑrɐ]'this'
ChineseCantonese / hói[hɔːi̯˧˥]'sea'See Cantonese phonology
Taiwanese Mandarin / hǎi[haɪ̯˨˩˦]A velar fricative [x] for Standard Chinese. See Standard Chinese phonology
Danish[4]
hus
[ˈhuːˀs]'house'Often voiced [ɦ] when between vowels.[4] See Danish phonology
English
high
[haɪ̯]'high'See English phonology and H-dropping
Esperanto
hejmo
[ˈhejmo]'home'See Esperanto phonology
Eastern LombardVal CamonicaBresa[ˈbrɛha]'Brescia'Corresponds to /s/ in other varieties.
Estonian
hammas
[ˈhɑmˑɑs]'tooth'See Estonian phonology
Faroesehon[hoːn]'she'
Finnish
hammas
[ˈhɑmːɑs]'tooth'See Finnish phonology
FrenchBelgian
hotte
[hɔt]'pannier'Found in the region of Liège. See French phonology
GalicianOccidental, central, and some oriental dialects
gato
[ˈhätʊ]'cat'Realization of [g] in some dialects. May be also realized as
[ɦ, ʕ, x, χ, ʁ, ɡʰ]. See gheada.
Georgian[8]ავა/hava[hɑvɑ]'climate'
German[9]
Hass
[has]'hatred'See Standard German phonology
GreekCypriot[10]μαχαζί/mahazi[mahaˈzi]'shop'Allophone of /x/ before /a/.
Hawaiian[11]
haka
[ˈhɐkə]'shelf'See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrewהַר‎/har[har]'mountain'See Modern Hebrew phonology
HindiStandard[5]हम/ham[ˈhəm]'we'See Hindustani phonology
Hmong
hawm
[haɨ̰]'to honor'
Hungarian
helyes
[ˈhɛjɛʃ]'right'See Hungarian phonology
Irish
shroich
[hɾˠɪç]'reached'Appears as the lenited form of 'f', 's' and 't', as well as occasionally word-initial as 'h' in borrowed words. See Irish phonology.
ItalianTuscan[12]
i capitani
[iˌhäɸiˈθäːni]'the captains'Intervocalic allophone of /k/.[12] See Italian phonology
Japaneseすはだ / suhada[sɨᵝhada]'bare skin'See Japanese phonology
Korean하루 / haru[hɐɾu]'day'See Korean phonology
Kabardianтхылъхэ/ tkhyl"khė[tχɪɬhɑ]'books'
Lakotaho[ho]'voice'
Laoຫ້າ/haa[haː˧˩]'five'
Leoneseguaje[ˈwahe̞]'boy'
Lezgianгьек/g'ek[hek]'glue'
LimburgishSome dialects[13][14]hòs[hɔːs]'glove'Voiced [ɦ] in other dialects. The example word is from the Weert dialect.
Luxembourgish[15]hei[hɑ̝ɪ̯]'here'See Luxembourgish phonology
Malay
hari
[hari]'day'
Mutsunhučekniš[hut͡ʃɛkniʃ]'dog'
Navajohastiin[hàsd̥ìːn]'mister'
Norwegian
hatt
[hɑtː]'hat'See Norwegian phonology
Pashtoهو‎/ho[ho]'yes'
Persianهفت‎/haft[hæft]'seven'See Persian phonology
Pirahãhi[hì]'he'
PortugueseMany Brazilian dialects[16]
marreta
[maˈhetɐ]'sledgehammer'Allophone of /ʁ/. [h, ɦ] are marginal sounds to many speakers, particularly out of Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects
Honda
[ˈhõ̞dɐ]'Honda'
Minas Gerais (mountain dialect)
arte
[ˈahtʃ]'art'
Colloquial Brazilian[17][18]
chuvisco
[ɕuˈvihku]'drizzle'Corresponds to either /s/ or /ʃ/ (depending on dialect) in the syllable coda. Might also be deleted.
Romanian
hăț
[həts]'bridle'See Romanian phonology
Scottish Gaelic
ro-sheòl
[ɾɔˈhɔːɫ]'topsail'[19]Lenited form of /t/, /s/, see Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianCroatian[20]
hmelj
[hmê̞ʎ̟]'hops'Allophone of /x/ when it is initial in a consonant cluster.[20] See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[21]Andalusian and Extremaduran Spanish
higo
[ˈhiɣo̞]'fig'Corresponds to Old Spanish /h/, which was developed from Latin /f/ but muted in other dialects.
Many dialects
obispo
[o̞ˈβ̞ihpo̞]'bishop'Allophone of /s/ at the end of a syllable. See Spanish phonology
Some dialects
jaca
[ˈhaka]'pony'Corresponds to /x/ in other dialects.
Swedish
hatt
[ˈhatː]'hat'See Swedish phonology
Sylhetiꠢꠣꠝꠥꠇ/hamukh[hamux]'snail'
Thaiห้า/haa[haː˥˩]'five'
Turkish
halı
[häˈɫɯ]'carpet'See Turkish phonology
Ubykhдуаха[dwaha]'prayer'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian
кігті
[ˈkiht⁽ʲ⁾i]'claws'Sometimes when [ɦ] is devoiced. See Ukrainian phonology
UrduStandard[5]ہم‎/ham[ˈhəm]'we'See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Vietnamese[22]
hiểu
[hjew˧˩˧]'understand'See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh
haul
[ˈhaɨl]'sun'See Welsh orthography
West Frisianhoeke[ˈhukə]'corner'
Yi / hxa[ha˧]'hundred'
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Smyth (1920, §16: description of stops and h)
  2. ^ Wright & Wright (1925, §7h: initial h)
  3. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:325–326)
  4. ^ a b c Grønnum (2005:125)
  5. ^ a b c Thelwall (1990:38)
  6. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  7. ^ Hualde & Ortiz de Urbina (2003:24)
  8. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  9. ^ Kohler (1999:86–87)
  10. ^ Arvaniti (1999:175)
  11. ^ Ladefoged (2005:139)
  12. ^ a b Hall (1944:75)
  13. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998:107)
  14. ^ Peters (2006:117)
  15. ^ Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  16. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:5–6)
  17. ^ (in Portuguese) Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty
  19. ^ "ro-sheòl". www.faclair.com. Retrieved 1 April 2021.
  20. ^ a b Landau et al. (1999:68)
  21. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
  22. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
References
External links
List of languages with [h] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 16:30
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