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Voiceless palatal plosive
The voiceless palatal plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound used in some vocal languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨c⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is c.
Voiceless palatal plosive
c
IPA Number107
Encoding
Entity (decimal)c
Unicode (hex)U+0063
X-SAMPAc
Braille
Audio sample
Voiceless alveolo-palatal stop
t̠ʲ
ȶ
If distinction is necessary, the voiceless alveolo-palatal plosive may be transcribed as ⟨c̟⟩ (advanced ⟨c⟩) or ⟨t̠ʲ⟩ (retracted and palatalized ⟨t⟩), but these are essentially equivalent, because the contact includes both the blade and body (but not the tip) of the tongue. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are c_+ and t_-' or t_-_j, respectively. There is also a non-IPA letter ⟨ȶ⟩ ("t", plus the curl found in the symbols for alveolo-palatal sibilant fricatives ⟨ɕ, ʑ⟩), used especially in sinological circles.
It is common for the phonetic symbol ⟨c⟩ to be used to represent voiceless postalveolar affricate[t͡ʃ] or other similar affricates, for example in the Indic languages. This may be considered appropriate when the place of articulation needs to be specified and the distinction between plosive and affricate is not contrastive.
There is also the voiceless post-palatal plosive[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more back compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical palatal consonant, though not as back as the prototypical velar consonant. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨c̠⟩ (retracted ⟨c⟩) or ⟨k̟⟩ (advanced ⟨k⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are c_- and k_+, respectively.
Especially in broad transcription, the voiceless post-palatal plosive may be transcribed as a palatalized voiceless velar plosive (⟨kʲ⟩ in the IPA, k' or k_j in X-SAMPA).
Features
Features of the voiceless palatal stop:
Occurrence
Palatal or alveolo-palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Albanian[2]
shqip
[ʃcip]'Albanian'Merged with [t͡ʃ] in Gheg Albanian and some speakers of Tosk Albanian.[3]
AsturianWestern dialects [es][4]muyyer[muˈceɾ]'woman'Alternate evolution of -lj-, -c'l-, pl-, cl- and fl- in the Brañas Vaqueiras area of Western Asturias. May be also realized as [c͡ç] or [ɟ͡ʝ]
Basque
ttantta
[cäɲcä]'droplet'
Blackfootᖳᖽᖳᐡ / akikoan[aˈkicoan]'girl'Allophone of /k/ after front vowels.
BulgarianBanat dialectkaćétu (каќету or какьету)[kacetu]'as'See Bulgarian phonology
CatalanMajorcan[5]
qui
[ˈci̞]'who'Simultaneous dento-alveolo-palatal and palatal.[6] Corresponds to /k/ in other varieties. See Catalan phonology
ChineseTaiwanese Hokkien機車 / ki-tshia[ciː˧ t͡ɕʰia˥]'motorcycle'
Corsican
chjodu
[ˈcoːdu]'nail'Also present in the Gallurese dialect
Croatian
već
[vec]'already'Dialect of the Croatian Littoral
Czech
čeština
[ˈt͡ʃɛʃc̟ɪna]'Czech'Alveolar and alveolo-palatal.[6] See Czech phonology
Dawsahak[cɛːˈnɐ]'small'
Dinka
car
[car]'black'
Ega[7][cá]'understand'
French[6]
qui
[ci]'who' (int.)Ranges from alveolar to palatal with more than one closure point. See French phonology
Friuliancjase[case]'house'
Gandacaayi[caːji]'tea'
Gweno[ca]'to come'
Hungarian[8]
tyúk
[c̟uːk]'hen'Alveolo-palatal.[6] See Hungarian phonology
Icelandic
gjóla
[ˈc̟ouːlä]'light wind'Alveolo-palatal.[6] See Icelandic phonology
Indonesiancari[cari]'to find'Allophone of /tʃ/. See Malay phonology
Irish
ceist
[cɛʃtʲ]'question'Simultaneous alveolo-palatal and palatal.[6] See Irish phonology
Khasiboit[bɔc]'dwarf'
Khmerចាប[caap]'bird'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
Kinyarwandaikintu[iciːnɦuʰ]'thing'
KurdishNorthernkîso[cʰiːsoː]'tortoise'Allophone of /kʰ/ before /ɨ/, /ɛ/, /iː/, and /eː/. See Kurdish phonology
Centralکیسەڵ[cʰiːsæɫ]
Southern[cʰiːsaɫ]
Latvian
ķirbis
[ˈcirbis]'pumpkin'See Latvian phonology
Low GermanPlautdietschkjoakj[coac]'church'Corresponds to [kʲ] in all other dialects.[clarification needed]
Macedonian
вреќа
[ˈvrɛca]'sack'See Macedonian phonology
MalayKelantan-Pattanicita[ci.tɔʔ]'feeling'See Kelantan-Pattani phonology
NorwegianCentral dialects[9]
fett
[fɛcː]'fat'See Norwegian phonology
Northern dialects[9]
OccitanLimousintireta[ciˈʀetɒ]'drawer'
Auvergnattirador[ciʀaˈdu]
Romanian[10]
chin
[cin]'torture'Allophone of /k/ before /i/ and /e/. See Romanian phonology. Also in some northern dialects
RomanshSursilvan[11]notg[nɔc]'night'
Sutsilvan[12]tgàn[caŋ]'dog'
Surmiran[13]vatgas[ˈvɑcɐs]'cows'
Puter[14]cher[ˈtsycər]'sugar'
Vallader[15]müs-chel[ˈmyʃcəl]'moss'
Slovak[6]
deväť
[ˈɟ̟ɛ̝ʋæc̟]'nine'Alveolar.[6] See Slovak phonology
Turkish
köy
[cʰœj]'village'See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese[16]
ch
[ci˧ˀ˨ʔ]'elder sister'May be slightly affricated [tᶝ ]. See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian
tjems
[cɛms]'strainer'See West Frisian phonology
Western Desertkutju[kucu]'one'
Post-palatal
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Belarusian
кіслы
[ˈk̟is̪ɫ̪ɨ]'acidic'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨kʲ⟩. See Belarusian phonology
Catalan[17]
qui
[k̟i]'who'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels.[17] See Catalan phonology
DanishStandard[18]
gidsel
[ˈk̟isəl]'hostage'Allophone of /ɡ/ before front vowels.[18] See Danish phonology
GermanStandard[19][20]
Kind
[k̟ʰɪnt]'child'Allophone of /k/ before and after front vowels.[19][20] See Standard German phonology
Greek[21]
Μακεδνός
[mɐc̠e̞ˈðno̞s̠] (help·info)'Makedon'See Modern Greek phonology
ItalianStandard[22]
chi
[k̟i] (help·info)'who'Allophone of /k/ before /i, e, ɛ, j/.[22] See Italian phonology
Polish
kiedy
[ˈk̟ɛdɨ]'when'See Polish phonology
Portuguese
qui
[k̟i]'Chi'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[23]
ochi
[o̞k̟]'eye'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨kʲ⟩. See Romanian phonology
RussianStandard[24]кит / kit[k̟it̪]'whale'Typically transcribed in IPA with ⟨kʲ⟩. See Russian phonology
Spanish[25]
kilo
[ˈk̟ilo̞]'kilo(gram)'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels.[25] See Spanish phonology
Tidoreyaci[jaci]'to rip'
Ukrainianкінчик/kinčyk[ˈk̟int͡ʃek] (help·info)'tip'Can also be transcribed in IPA with ⟨kʲ⟩, but is an allophone of /k/ before front vowels. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[example needed]Final allophone of /c/. See Vietnamese phonology
Variable
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
English[26][27]
keen
[k̟ʰiːn]'keen'Allophone of /k/ before front vowels and /j/. Varies between post-palatal and palatal.[26][27] See English phonology
See also
Index of phonetics articles
Notes
  1. ^ Instead of "post-palatal", it can be called "retracted palatal", "backed palatal", "palato-velar", "pre-velar", "advanced velar", "fronted velar" or "front-velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "post-palatal".
  2. ^ Newmark, Hubbard & Prifti (1982), p. 10.
  3. ^ Kolgjini (2004).
  4. ^ "Tinéu. Mapa del conceyu | El Teixu" (in Asturian). Archived from the original on 2019-08-29. Retrieved 2019-11-24.
  5. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2005), p. 1.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Recasens (2013), pp. 11–13.
  7. ^ Connell, Ahoua & Gibbon (2002), p. 100.
  8. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 164.
  9. ^ a b Skjekkeland (1997), pp. 105–107.
  10. ^ DEX Online: [1][permanent dead link]
  11. ^ Menzli (1993), p. 92.
  12. ^ Liver (1999), pp. 53–54.
  13. ^ Liver (1999), pp. 56–57.
  14. ^ Liver (1999), pp. 59–60.
  15. ^ Liver (1999), pp. 63–64.
  16. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  17. ^ a b Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  18. ^ a b Grønnum (2005), p. 124.
  19. ^ a b Wiese (1996), p. 271.
  20. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009), pp. 49, 92.
  21. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 20.
  22. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 62.
  23. ^ Sarlin (2014), p. 17.
  24. ^ Yanushevskaya & Bunčić (2015), p. 223.
  25. ^ a b Canellada & Madsen (1987), p. 20.
  26. ^ a b Gimson (2014), p. 181.
  27. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
References
External links
List of languages with [c] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 13 June 2021, at 02:10
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