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Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
The voiceless pharyngeal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is an h-bar, ⟨ħ⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is X\. In the transcription of Arabic, Hebrew and a few other scripts, it is often written ⟨Ḥ⟩, ⟨ḥ⟩.
Voiceless pharyngeal fricative
ħ
IPA Number144
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ħ
Unicode (hex)U+0127
X-SAMPAX\
Braille
Image
Audio sample
Typically characterized as a fricative in the upper pharynx, it is often characterized as a whispered[h].
Features
Features of the voiceless pharyngeal fricative:
Occurrence
This sound is the most commonly cited realization of the Semitic letter hēth, which occurs in all dialects of Arabic, Classical Syriac, as well as Biblical and Tiberian Hebrew but only a minority of speakers of Modern Hebrew. It has also been reconstructed as appearing in Ancient Egyptian, a related Afro-Asiatic language. Modern non-Oriental Hebrew has merged the voiceless pharyngeal fricative with the voiceless velar (or uvular) fricative. However, phonetic studies have shown that the so-called voiceless pharyngeal fricatives of Semitic languages are often neither pharyngeal (but rather epiglottal) nor fricatives (but rather approximants).[1]
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AbazaхIахъвы/kh'akh"vy[ħaqʷə]'stone'
Abkhazҳара/khara[ħaˈra]'we'See Abkhaz phonology
Adygheтхьэ/tkh'ė[tħa] (help·info)'god'
AgulмухI/mukh'[muħ]'barn'
Arabic[2]ح‍‍ال‎/al[ħaːl] (help·info)'situation'See Arabic phonology
ArchiхIал/kh'al[ħal]'state'
AssyrianWesternܡܫܝܚܐ mšìa[mʃiːħɔ]'Christ'Corresponds with [x] in most other dialects.
AvarxIебецI/kh'ebets'[ħeˈbetsʼ]'earwax'
Azerbaijani
əhdaş
[æħd̪ɑʃ]'instrument'
Chechenач / [ħatʃ] (help·info)'plum'
EnglishSome speakers, mostly of Received Pronunciation[3]
hat
[ħæʔt]'hat'Glottal [h] for other speakers.[3] See English phonology
Galician[4]Some dialectsgato[ˈħatʊ]'cat'Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other dialects. See gheada
Hebrewחַשְׁמַל‎/chashemal[ħaʃˈmal] (help·info)'electricity'Oriental dialects only. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Jarawaहवावा/hwꝍwꝍ[ħʷəwə]'wild boar'
Kabardianкхъухь/kkh"ukh'[q͡χʷəħ] (help·info)'ship'
Kabyleⴻⴼⴼⴰⴼ
aeffaf
احفاف
[aħəfːaf]'hairdresser'
KurdishMost speakersol[ħol] (help·info)'environment'Corresponds to /h/ in some Kurdish dialects
MalteseStandard
wieħed
[wiħːet]'one'
Nuu-chah-nulthʔaap-ii[ʔaːpˈħiː]'friendly'
SiouxNakotahaxdanahâ[haħdanahã]'yesterday'
Somalixood[ħoːd] (help·info)'cane'See Somali phonology
Ukrainian[5]нігті/nigti[ˈnʲiħtʲi]'fingernails'Allophone of /ʕ/ (which may be transcribed /ɦ/) before voiceless consonants;[5] can be fronted to [x] in some "weak positions".[5] See Ukrainian phonology
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167–168)
  2. ^ Watson (2002:19)
  3. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003), p. 148.
  4. ^ Regueira (1996:120)
  5. ^ a b c Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:12)
References
External links
List of languages with [ħ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 28 April 2021, at 22:30
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