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Voiceless postalveolar affricate
The voiceless palato-alveolar sibilant affricate or voiceless domed postalveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with ⟨t͡ʃ⟩, ⟨t͜ʃ⟩ or ⟨tʃ⟩ (formerly the ligature ⟨ʧ⟩). The alternative commonly used in American tradition is ⟨č⟩. It is familiar to English speakers as the "ch" sound in "chip".
Voiceless postalveolar affricate
t̠ʃ
IPA Number103 134
Encoding
Entity (decimal)t​͡​ʃ
Unicode (hex)U+0074 U+0361 U+0283
X-SAMPA
tS or t_rS
Image
Audio sample
Historically, this sound often derives from a former voiceless velar stop /k/ (as in Englishchurch; also in Gulf Arabic, Slavic languages, Indo-Iranian languages and Romance languages), or a voiceless dental stop /t/ by way of palatalization, especially next to a front vowel (as in English nature; also in Amharic, Portuguese, some accents of Egyptian, etc.).
Features
Features of the voiceless domed postalveolar affricate:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adygheчэмы/čėmy[t͡ʃamə] (help·info)'cow'Some dialects contrast labialized and non-labialized forms.
Albaniançelur[t͡ʃɛluɾ]'open'
AleutAtkan dialectchamĝul[t͡ʃɑmʁul]'to wash'
Amharicአንቺ/anite[ant͡ʃi]'you'
Arabic[1]Central Palestinianمكتبة (Normally unwritten)/maktaba[ˈmat͡ʃt̪abe]'library'Corresponds to [k] in Standard Arabic and other varieties. See Arabic phonology
Iraqiچتاب/kitaab[t͡ʃɪˈt̪ɑːb]'book'
Jordanianكتاب (Normally unwritten)/kitaab[t͡ʃɪˈt̪aːb]
ArmenianEastern[2]ճ​նճղուկ​č̣nč̣ġowk/chnchghowk[t͡ʃənt͡ʃʁuk] (help·info)'sparrow'
Assyrianܟ̰ܝܡܐ čyomo[t͡ʃjɑmɑ]'to turn off'Found in native terminology. Used in some Urmia and Nochiya dialects. Corresponds to [c] in other varieties.
Azerbaijani
Əkinçi
[æcint͡ʃʰi]'the ploughman'
Bengaliশমা/chôshma[t͡ʃɔʃma]'spectacles'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Basque
txalupa
[t͡ʃalupa]'boat'
Bulgarianчучулига/chuchuliga[t͡ʃʊt͡ʃuˈliɡɐ]'lark'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan
cotxe
[ˈkɔ.t͡ʃə]'car'See Catalan phonology.
Central Alaskan Yup'iknacaq[ˈnat͡ʃaq]'parka hood'
Choctawhakchioma[hakt͡ʃioma]'tobacco'
CopticBohairic dialectϭⲟϩ/coh[t͡ʃoh]'touch'
Czech
morče
[ˈmo̞rt͡ʃɛ]'guinea pig'See Czech phonology
EnglishReceived Pronunciation
church
[ˈt͡ʃəːt͡ʃ]'church'Slightly labialized[tʃʷ]. See English phonology
Esperanto
ĉar
[t͡ʃar]'because'See Esperanto phonology
Faroese
gera
[t͡ʃeːɹa]'to do'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Faroese phonology
FrenchStandard
caoutchouc
[kaut͡ʃu]'rubber'Relatively rare; occurs mostly in loanwords. See French phonology
Acadian
tiens
[t͡ʃɛ̃]'(I/you) keep'Allophone of /k/ and /tj/ before a front vowel.
Galiciancheo[ˈt͡ʃeo]'full'Galician-Portuguese​/t͡ʃ/ is conserved in Galician and merged with /ʃ/ in most Portuguese dialects. See Galician phonology
Georgian[3]იხი/ch'ikhi[t͡ʃixi]'impasse'
GermanStandard[4]
Tschinelle
[t͡ʃʷiˈnɛlə]'cymbal'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[4] See Standard German phonology
GreekCypriotτσ̌άι/chái[t͡ʃɑːiː]'tea'
Hebrewתשובה/čuva[t͡ʃuˈva]'answer'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustaniचा/چائے/chaay[t͡ʃɑːj]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Haitian Creolematch[mat͡ʃ]'sports match'
Hungarian
gyümölcs
[ˈɟymølt͡ʃleː]'juice'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[5]
ciao
[ˈt͡ʃaːo]'hi'See Italian phonology
K'iche'K'iche'[kʼiˈt͡ʃeʔ]'K'iche''Contrasts with ejective form
Kabardianчэнж/čėnž[t͡ʃanʒ] (help·info)'shallow'
Kashubian[6]czësto[əstɔ]
Kurdishhirç[hɪɾt͡ʃ]'bear'
Macedonian
чека
[t͡ʃɛka]'wait'See Macedonian phonology
Malay
cuci
[t͡ʃut͡ʃi]'wash'
Maltese
bliċ
[blit͡ʃ]'bleach'
Manxçhiarn[ˈtʃaːrn]'lord'
Marathiहा/cahā[t͡ʃəhɑː]'tea'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
MongolianKhalkha dialectнаргиж/nargij[ˈnargit͡ʃ]'laugh'
Nahuatlāyōtōchtli[aːjoːˈtoːt͡ʃt͡ɬi]'armadillo'
NorwegianSome dialects
kjøkken
[t͡ʃøkːen]'kitchen'See Norwegian phonology
Nunggubuyu[7]jaro[t͡ʃaɾo]'needle'
Occitan
chuc
[ˈt͡ʃyk]'juice'See Occitan phonology
Odia/caka[t͡ʃɔkɔ]'wheel'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Persianچوب/čhûb[t͡ʃʰuːb]'wood'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebna
ciemny
[ˈt͡ʃɛmn̪ɘ]'dark'/ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ merge into [t͡ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /t͡ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex affricate.
Lubawa dialect[8]
Malbork dialect[8]
Ostróda dialect[8]
Warmia dialect[8]
PortugueseMost northern and some central Portuguese dialects
chamar
[t͡ʃɐˈmaɾ]'to call'Archaic realization of etymological ⟨ch⟩. Its use is diminishing due to influence of the standard language, being replaced by [ʃ].
Most Brazilian dialects[9]
presente
[pɾe̞ˈzẽ̞t͡ʃi]'present'Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects
tchau
[ˈt͡ʃaw]'bye'In Standard European Portuguese it occurs only in recent loanwords.
Punjabiਚੌਲ/ چول‎/caul[t͡ʃɔːl]'rice'
Quechuachunka[t͡ʃʊŋka]'ten'
Romanian
cer
[ˈt͡ʃe̞r]'sky'See Romanian phonology
Rotuman[10]joni[ˈt͡ʃɔni]'to flee'
Scottish Gaelic
slàinte
[ˈsl̪ˠaːnʲt͡ʃə]'health'Southern dialects only; standard pronunciation is [tʲ]. See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-CroatianSome speakersčokoláda чоколада[t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠]'chocolate'In varieties that don't distinguish /ʈ͡ʂ/ from /t͡ɕ/.
SilesianGmina Istebna[11]szpańelsko[t̠ʃpaɲɛskɔ]'spanish'These dialects merge /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡ɕ/ into [t͡ʃ].
Jablunkov[11]szpańelsko[t̠ʃpaɲɛlskɔ]
Spanish[12]
chocolate
[t͡ʃo̞ko̞ˈlät̪e̞] (help·info)'chocolate'See Spanish phonology
Swahilijicho[ʄit͡ʃo]'eye'
SwedishFinland
tjugo
[t͡ʃʉːɡʉ]'twenty'See Swedish phonology
Some rural Swedish dialects
kärlek
[t͡ʃæːɭeːk]'love'
Tlingit
jinkaat
[ˈt͡ʃinkʰaːtʰ]'ten'
Turkish
çok
[t͡ʃok]'very'See Turkish phonology
Tyapcat[t͡ʃad]'love'
UbykhÇəbƹəja/çabjaya[t͡ʃəbʒəja]'pepper'See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[13]чотири/chotyry[t͡ʃo̞ˈtɪrɪ]'four'See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek
choʻl
[t͡ʃɵl]'desert'
ZapotecTilquiapan[14]chane[t͡ʃanɘ]
Mandarin Chinese, Russian, Japanese, Korean, Mongolian, Polish, Catalan, and Thai have a voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate /t͡ɕ/; this is technically postalveolar but it is less precise to use /t͡ʃ/.
Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant affricate
t̠ɹ̠̊˔
tɹ̝̊˗
Audio sample
source · help
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
EnglishAustralian[15]
tree
[t̠ɹ̠̊˔ʷɪi̯]'tree'Phonetic realization of the stressed, syllable-initial sequence /tr/.[15][16][17][18] In General American and Received Pronunciation, the less common alternative is alveolar [tɹ̝̊].[16] See Australian English phonology and English phonology
General American[16][17]
Received Pronunciation[16][17]
Port Talbot[18][t̠ɹ̠̊˔iː]
Notes
  1. ^ Watson (2002:17)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  3. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  4. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51–52)
  5. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  6. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-11-16.
  7. ^ Ladefoged (2005:158)
  8. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995:62)
  9. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
  10. ^ Blevins (1994:492)
  11. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  12. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  13. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  14. ^ Merrill (2008:108)
  15. ^ a b Cox & Fletcher (2017), p. 144.
  16. ^ a b c d Gimson (2014), pp. 177, 186–188, 192.
  17. ^ a b c Wells (2008).
  18. ^ a b Connolly (1990), p. 121.
References
External links
List of languages with [t̠ʃ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 22:22
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