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Voiceless postalveolar fricative
A voiceless postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spokenlanguages. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are several types with significant perceptual differences:
This article discusses the first two.
Voiceless palato-alveolar fricative
Voiceless postalveolar fricative
ʃ
IPA Number134
Encoding
Entity (decimal)ʃ
Unicode (hex)U+0283
X-SAMPAS
Braille
Image
Audio sample
A voiceless palato-alveolar fricative or voiceless domed postalveolar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in many languages, including English. In English, it is usually spelled ⟨sh⟩, as in ship.
Postalveolar fricative [ʃ, ʒ]
The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ʃ⟩, the letter esh introduced by Isaac Pitman (not to be confused with the integral symbol ⟨∫⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is S.
An alternative symbol is ⟨š⟩, an s with a caron or háček, which is used in the Americanist phonetic notation and the Uralic Phonetic Alphabet, as well as in the scientific and ISO 9 transliterations of Cyrillic. It originated with the Czech orthography of Jan Hus and was adopted in Gaj's Latin alphabet and other Latin alphabets of Slavic languages. It also features in the orthographies of many Baltic, Finno-Samic, North American and African languages.
Features
Features of the voiceless palato-alveolar fricative:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Adyghe
шыд
[ʃəd]'donkey'
Albanian
shtëpi
[ʃtəˈpi]'house'
ArabicModern Standard[1]شَمْس[ʃams]'sun'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[2]
շուն
[ʃun]'dog'
Aromanianshi[ʃi]'and'
Asturian
xera
[ˈʃeɾa]'work'
Azerbaijani
şeir
[ʃeiɾ]'poem'
Assyrianܫܒܬܐ šebta[ʃεbta]'saturday'
Bashkirбиш / biš[bʲiʃ] (help·info)'five'
Basquekaixo[kajʃ̺o]'hello'
Bengali
[ʃɔb]'all'See Bengali phonology
Bretonchadenn[ˈʃadɛ̃n]'chain'
Bulgarian
юнашки
[juˈnaʃki]'heroically'See Bulgarian phonology
Chuvashшурă['ʃurə]'white'
Czech
kaše
[ˈkaʃɛ]'mash'See Czech phonology
Dutch[3]
sjabloon
[ʃäˈbloːn]'template'May be [sʲ] or [ɕ] instead. See Dutch phonology
English
a sheep
[ə ˈʃiːp]'a sheep'See English phonology
Esperanto
ŝelko
[ˈʃelko]'suspenders'See Esperanto phonology
Faroesesjúkrahús[ʃʉukrahʉus]'hospital'See Faroese phonology
French[4]
cher
[ʃɛʁ]'expensive'See French phonology
Finnish
šekki
[ʃekːi]'check'See Finnish phonology
Galicianviaxe[ˈbjaʃe]'trip'See Galician phonology
Georgian[5]
არი
[ˈʃɑɾi]'quibbling'
GermanStandard[6]
schön
[ʃøːn]'beautiful'Laminal or apico-laminal and strongly labialized.[6] See Standard German phonology
GreekCypriot
ασσιήμια
[ɐˈʃːimɲɐ]'ugliness'Contrasts with /ʃ/ and /ʒː/
Pontic
ςςον
[ʃo̞n]'snow'
Hebrewשָׁלוֹם[ʃaˈlom]'peace'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi
[ʃək]'doubt'See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
segítség
[ˈʃɛɡiːt͡ʃːeːɡ]'help'See Hungarian phonology
Ilocano
siák
[ʃak]'I'
Irish
sí
[ʃiː]'she'See Irish phonology
ItalianMarked accents of Emilia-Romagna[7]
sali
[ˈʃäːli]'you go up'Apical non-labialized; may be [s̺ʲ] or [ʂ] instead.[7] It corresponds to [s] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Standard[8]
fasce
[ˈfäʃːe]'bands'See Italian phonology
Kabardian
шыд
[ʃɛd]'donkey'Contrasts with a labialized form
Kabyle
ciwer
[ʃiwər]'to consult'
Kashubian[9]naszsee Kashubian language.
Kurdish
şev
[ʃɛv]'night'See Kurdish phonology
Latvian
šalle
[ˈʃalːe]'scarf'See Latvian phonology
LimburgishMaastrichtian[10]sjat[ʃɑ̽t]'darling'Laminal post-alveolar with an unclear amount of palatalization.[11]
Lingala
shakú
[ʃakú]'grey parrot'
Lithuanian
šarvas
[ˈʃɐrˑvɐs]'armor'See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian
што
[ʃtɔ]'what'See Macedonian phonology
Malay
syarikat
[ʃarikat]'company'
Maltese
x′jismek?
[ˈʃjɪsmɛk]'what is your name?'
Marathi
ब्द
[ˈʃəbd̪ə]'word'See Marathi phonology
MayanYucatecko'ox[koʔoʃ]'let's go'
Mopankax[kɑːʃ]'chicken'
Mutsunraṭmašte[ɾɑʈmɑʃtɛ]'having acne'
Neapolitanscugnizzo[ʃkuˈɲːitt͡sə]'urchin'
OccitanAuvergnatmaissant[meˈʃɔ̃]'bad'See Occitan phonology
Gasconmaishant[maˈʃan]
Limousinson[ʃũ]'his'
Persianشاه[ʃɒːh]'king'See Persian phonology
PolishGmina Istebna
siano
[ˈʃän̪ɔ]'hay'/ʂ/ and /ɕ/ merge into [ʃ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /ʃ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiceless retroflex sibilant
Lubawa dialect[12]
Malbork dialect[12]
Ostróda dialect[12]
Warmia dialect[12]
Portuguese[13][14]
xamã
[ʃɐˈmɐ̃]'shaman'Also described as alveolo-palatal [ɕ].[15][16][17] See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਸ਼ੇਰ[ʃeːɾ]'lion'
RomaniVlaxdeš[deʃ]'ten'
Romanian
șefi
[ʃefʲ]'bosses'See Romanian phonology
Sahaptin
šíš
[ʃiʃ]'mush'
Scottish Gaelic
seinn
[ʃeiɲ]'sing'See Scottish Gaelic phonology
SilesianGmina Istebna[18][example needed]These dialects merge /ʂ/ and /ɕ/ into [ʃ]
Jablunkov[18][example needed]
Slovene
šola
[ˈʃóːlä]'school'See Slovene phonology
Somalishan[ʃan]'five'See Somali phonology
Spanish
New Mexican
echador
[e̞ʃäˈðo̞ɾ]'boastful'Corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in other dialects. See Spanish phonology
Northern Mexico[19]
Panamanian
Cuban
Southern Andalusia
Rioplatense
ayer
[äˈʃe̞ɾ]'yesterday'May be voiced [ʒ] instead. See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Swahilishule[ʃule]'school'
Tagalog
siya
[ʃa]'he/she'See Tagalog phonology
Toda[20][pɔʃ]'language'
Tunicašíhkali[ˈʃihkali]'stone'
Turkish
güneş
[ɟyˈne̞ʃ]'sun'See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[21]
шахи
['ʃɑxɪ]'chess'See Ukrainian phonology
Urduشکریہ[ʃʊkˈriːaː]'thank you'See Hindustani phonology
Uyghurشەھەر[ʃæhær]'city'
Uzbek
bosh
[bɒʃ]'head'
Walloon
texhou
[tɛʃu]'knit fabric'
WelshStandard
siarad
[ˈʃɑːrad]'speak'See Welsh phonology
Southern dialects
mis
[miːʃ]'month'
West Frisian
sjippe
[ˈʃɪpə]'soap'See West Frisian phonology
Western LombardCanzésfescia[feʃa]'nuisance'
Yiddish
וויסנשאַפֿטלעכע
[vɪsn̩ʃaftləχə]'scientific'See Yiddish phonology
Yorùbái[ʃi]'open'
ZapotecTilquiapan[22]xana[ʃana]'how?'
In various languages, including English and French, it may have simultaneous labialization, i.e. [ʃʷ], although this is usually not transcribed.
Classical Latin did not have [ʃ], though it does occur in most Romance languages. For example, ⟨ch⟩ in French chanteur "singer" is pronounced /ʃ/. Chanteur is descended from Latin cantare, where ⟨c⟩ was pronounced /k/. The ⟨sc⟩ in Latin scientia "science" was pronounced /sk/, but has shifted to /ʃ/ in Italian scienza.
Similarly, Proto-Germanic had neither [ʃ] nor [ʂ], yet many of its descendants do. In most cases, this [ʃ] or [ʂ] descends from a Proto-Germanic /sk/. For instance, Proto-Germanic *skipą ("hollow object, water-borne vessel larger than a boat") was pronounced /ˈski.pɑ̃/. The English word "ship" /ʃɪp/ has been pronounced without the /sk/ the longest, the word being descended from Old English "scip" /ʃip/, which already also had the [ʃ], though the Old English spelling etymologically indicated that the old /sk/ had once been present.
This change took longer to catch on in West Germanic languages other than Old English, though it eventually did. The second West Germanic language to undergo this sound shift was Old High German. In fact, it has been argued that Old High German's /sk/ was actually already [s̠k], because a single [s] had already shifted to []. Furthermore, by Middle High German, that /s̠k/ had shifted to [ʃ]. After High German, the shift most likely then occurred in Low Saxon. After Low Saxon, Middle Dutch began the shift, but it stopped shifting once it reached /sx/, and has kept that pronunciation since. Then, most likely through influence from German and Low Saxon, North Frisian experienced the shift.
Then, Swedish quite swiftly underwent the shift, which resulted in the very uncommon [ɧ] phoneme, which, aside from Swedish, is only used in Colognian, a variety of High German, though not as a replacement for the standard High German /ʃ/ but a coronalized /ç/. However, the exact realization of Swedish /ɧ/ varies considerably among dialects; for instance, in Northern dialects it tends to be realized as [ʂ]. See sj-sound for more details. Finally, the last to undergo the shift was Norwegian, in which the result of the shift was [ʃ].
The sound in Russian denoted by ⟨ш⟩ is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.[citation needed]
Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
Voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
ɹ̠̊˔
ɹ̝̊˗
IPA Number151 414 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPAr\_-_0_r
Audio sample
Voiceless postalveolar approximant
ɹ̠̊
The voiceless postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that are not palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ⟨ɹ̠̊˔⟩ (retracted constricted voiceless [ɹ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_0_r.
Some scholars also posit the voiceless postalveolar approximant distinct from the fricative. The approximant may be represented in the IPA as ⟨ɹ̠̊⟩. The distinction is not recognized by the International Phonetic Association.
Features
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Bengali[23]আবার[ˈäbäɹ̠̊]'again'Apical; possible allophone of /ɹ/ in the syllable coda.[24] See Bengali phonology
EnglishIrish[25]
tree
[tɹ̠̊˔iː]'tree'Realization of /r/ after word-initial /t/, unless it is preceded by /s/ within the same syllable.[25] See English phonology
Received Pronunciation[26]
crew
[kɹ̠̊˔ʊu̯]'crew'Only partially devoiced. It is a realization of /r/ after the word-initial fortis plosives /p, k/, unless they are preceded by /s/ within the same syllable.[27] See English phonology
ChineseTaipei Mandarin
[ɾɐo̞˨˩ɹ̠̊˔ɨː˨]'teacher'Corresponds with /ʂ/ in Standard Chinese
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 18.
  3. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 46.
  4. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  5. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  6. ^ a b Mangold (2005:51)
  7. ^ a b Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  8. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  9. ^ Treder, Jerzy. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Rastko. Archived from the original on 2014-11-02.
  10. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  11. ^ Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999:156). The authors state that /ʃ/ is "pre-palatal, articulated with the blade of the tongue against the post-alveolar place of articulation". This makes it unclear whether this sound is palato-alveolar (somewhat palatalized post-alveolar) or alveolo-palatal (strongly palatalized post-alveolar).
  12. ^ a b c d Dubisz, Karaś & Kolis (1995), p. 62.
  13. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  14. ^ Medina (2010).
  15. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000).
  16. ^ Silva (2003), p. 32.
  17. ^ Guimarães (2004).
  18. ^ a b Dąbrowska (2004:?)
  19. ^ Cotton & Sharp (2001:15)
  20. ^ Ladefoged (2005:168)
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  23. ^ Khan (2010), p. 224.
  24. ^ Khan (2010), pp. 223–224.
  25. ^ a b "Irish English and Ulster English" (PDF). Uni Stuttgart. p. 3. Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 April 2014.
  26. ^ Roach (2004), pp. 240–241.
  27. ^ Roach (2004), p. 240.
References
External links
List of languages with [ʃ] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 12:24
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