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Voiceless uvular plosive
The voiceless uvular plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spokenlanguages. It is pronounced like a voiceless velar plosive [k], except that the tongue makes contact not on the soft palate but on the uvula. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨q⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is q.
Voiceless uvular plosive
q
IPA Number111
Encoding
Entity (decimal)q
Unicode (hex)U+0071
X-SAMPAq
Braille
Audio sample
There is also the voiceless pre-uvular plosive[1] in some languages, which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical uvular consonant, though not as front as the prototypical velar consonant. The International Phonetic Alphabet does not have a separate symbol for that sound, though it can be transcribed as ⟨q̟⟩ or ⟨q˖⟩ (both symbols denote an advanced ⟨q⟩) or ⟨k̠⟩ (retracted ⟨k⟩). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbols are q_+ and k_-, respectively.
Features
Features of the voiceless uvular stop:
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
AbazaхъацӀа/kh"atsḥa[qat͡sʼa]'man'
Adygheатакъэ/ataq"ė[ataːqa] (help·info)'rooster'
Aleut[2]ҟи́гаҟъ / qiighax̂[qiːɣaχ]'grass'
ArabicModern Standard[3]قط‎/qit't[qitˤtˤ] (help·info)'cat'See Arabic phonology
Hejaziقِمَّة/qimma[qɪmːa]'peak'Allophone of /g/. See Hejazi Arabic phonology
Gulf[4]غداً‎/qadun[qədæn]'tomorrow'Corresponds to /ɣ/ in other dialects.
Algerian
Assyrianܩܐ qa[qa]'for'Often realized as a tense /k/ rather than uvular /q/.
Archiхъал/kh"àl[qaːl]'human skin'
Bashkirҡаҙ / q[qɑð] (help·info)'goose'
Chechenкхоъ / qo’[qɔʔ]'three'
Dawsahak[qoq]'dry'
EnglishAustralian[5]
caught
[ḵʰoːt]'caught'Pre-uvular; allophone of /k/ before /ʊ oː ɔ oɪ ʊə/.[5] See Australian English phonology
Multicultural London[6][7]
cut
[qʌt]'cut'Allophone of /k/ before back vowels.[7]
Non-local Dublin[8]
back
[bɑq]'back'Allophone of /k/ after /æ/ for some speakers.[8]
Eyaku.jih[quːtʃih]'wolf'
GermanChemnitz dialect[9]
Rock
[qɔkʰ]'skirt'In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [ʀ̥].[9] Does not occur in the coda.[9]
Greenlandicilloqarpoq[iɬːoqɑʁpɔq]'he has a house'
HebrewIraqiקול‎/kol[qol]'voice'See Biblical Hebrew phonology
HindustaniHindiबर्क़/barq[bərq]'lightning'Mostly in loanwords from Arabic, pronounced mainly in Urdu - Hindi speakers tend to pronounce it as a ⟨k⟩. See Hindustani phonology
Urduبَرق‎/barq
Inuktitutᐃ"ᐃᑉᕆᐅᖅᑐᖅ / ihipqiuqtuq[ihipɢiuqtuq]'explore'Represented by a ⟨ᖅ⟩. See Inuit phonology
Iraqwqeet[qeːt]'break'
Kabardianкъэбэрдей/k"ėbėrdey[qabardej] (help·info)'Kabardian'
Kabyle
ⵜⴰⴲⴰⵢⵍⵉⵜ
[taqβæjliθ] (help·info)'Kabyle language'May be voiced [ɢ].
taqbaylit
ثاقبيليث
Kavalanqaqa[qaqa]'elder brother'
KazakhҚазақстан/Qazaqstan[qɑzɑqˈstɑn]'Kazakhstan'An allophone of /k/ before back vowels
Ket
қан
[qan]'begin'
Klallamqəmtəm[qəmtəm]'iron'
Kutenaiqaykiťwu[qajkitʼwu]'nine'
Hanakialehké[ləqə:]'easy, light'
Lishan DidanUrmi Dialectאקלא/aqla[aqlɑ]'foot, leg'
Nez Perceʔaw̓líwaaʔinp​q​awtaca[ʔawˀɪlwaːʔinpqawtat͡sa]'I go to scoop him up in the fire'
Nivkhтяқр̆/tyaqrh[tʲaqr̥]'three'
OssetianIronДзæуджы​хъ​æу/džæudžiq"æu[ˈzə̹ʊ̯d͡ʒɪ̈qə̹ʊ̯]'Vladikavkaz'
Persianقورباغه‎/quurbaghe[quːrbɒɣe]'frog'See Persian phonology
Quechua[10]qallu[qaʎu]'tongue'
Sahaptinqu[qu]'heavy'
SeediqSeediq[ˈsəːdʑɪq]'Seediq'
Seereer-Siin[11][example needed]
Shor
қам
[qɑm]'shaman'
Somaliqaab[qaːb]'shape'See Somali phonology
St’át’imcetsteq[təq]'to touch'
Tajikқошуқ/qošuq[qɔʃuq]'spoon'
Tlingit
ghagw
[qɐ́kʷ]'tree spine'Tlingit contrasts six different uvular stops
Tsimshiangwildma̱p'a[ɡʷildmqɑpʼa]'tobacco'
Turkmenak[ɑ:q]'white'Contrasts with /k/
Ubykh[qʰɜ]'grave'One of ten distinct uvular stop phonemes. See Ubykh phonology
Uyghurئاق‎ / aq[ɑq]'white'
Uzbek[12]
qo'l
[q̟oɫ]'arm'Pre-uvular; sometimes realized as an affricate [q͡χ˖].[12]
Western Neo-AramaicBakh'a[example needed]Pre-uvular, though in Ma'loula it is slightly more front.
Ma'loula[example needed]
Yup'ikmeq[məq]'fresh water'
YukaghirNorthernмаарх/maarq[maːrq]'one'
Southernатахл/ataql[ataql]'two'
!Xóõ!qhàà[ǃ͡qʰɑ̀ː]'water'
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Instead of "pre-uvular", it can be called "advanced uvular", "fronted uvular", "post-velar", "retracted velar" or "backed velar". For simplicity, this article uses only the term "pre-uvular".
  2. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  3. ^ Watson (2002), p. 13.
  4. ^ Qafisheh (1977), p. 266.
  5. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  6. ^ Torgersen, Kerswill & Fox (2007).
  7. ^ a b "John Wells's phonetic blog: k-backing". 27 July 2010. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  8. ^ a b "Glossary". Retrieved 10 February 2015.
  9. ^ a b c Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  10. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 149.
  11. ^ Mc Laughlin (2005), p. 203.
  12. ^ a b Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
References
External links
List of languages with [q] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 7 May 2021, at 05:41
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