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Voiceless velar plosive
The voiceless velar plosive or stop is a type of consonantal sound used in almost all spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨k⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is k.
Voiceless velar plosive
k
IPA Number109
Encoding
Entity (decimal)k
Unicode (hex)U+006B
X-SAMPAk
Braille
Audio sample
The [k] sound is a very common sound cross-linguistically. Most languages have at least a plain [k], and some distinguish more than one variety. Most Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindi and Bengali, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [k]. Only a few languages lack a voiceless velar plosive, e.g. Tahitian.
Some languages have the voiceless pre-velar plosive,[1] which is articulated slightly more front compared with the place of articulation of the prototypical velar plosive, though not as front as the prototypical palatal plosive.
Conversely, some languages have the voiceless post-velar plosive,[2] which is articulated slightly behind the place of articulation of the prototypical velar plosive, though not as back as the prototypical uvular plosive.
Features
Features of the voiceless velar stop:
Varieties
IPADescription
kplain k
aspirated k
palatalized k
labialized k
k with no audible release
voiced k
tense k
ejective k
Occurrence
LanguageWordIPAMeaningNotes
Abkhazақалақь/ak̇halak̇h’[ˈakalakʲ]'the city'See Abkhaz phonology
AdygheShapsugкьэт/k′ėt[kʲat] (help·info)'chicken'Dialectal; corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in other dialects.
Temirgoyпскэн/pskėn[pskan]'to cough'
Ahtnagistaann[kɪstʰɐːn]'six'
Aleut[3]kiikax̂[kiːkaχ]'cranberry bush'
ArabicModern Standard[4]كتب‎/kutib[ˈkatabɐ]'he wrote'See Arabic phonology
ArmenianEastern[5]քաղաք/ k'aġak'/k'aghak[kʰɑˈʁɑkʰ]'town'Contrasts with unaspirated form.
Assamese/kom[kɔm]'less'
Assyrianܟܬܒ̣ܐ ctava[ktava]'book'Used in most varieties, with the exception of the Urmia and Nochiya dialects
where it corresponds to [t͡ʃ].
Basque
katu
[kat̪u]'cat'
Bengali/kom[kɔm]'less'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarianкак/kak[kak]'how'See Bulgarian phonology
Catalan[6]
quinze
[ˈkinzə]'fifteen'See Catalan phonology
ChineseCantonese / gā[kaː˥]'home'Contrasts with aspirated and or labialized forms. See Cantonese phonology
Hokkien koa[kua]'song'
Mandarin / gāo[kɑʊ˥]'high'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Chuvash
кукка
[ku'kːɑ]'mother's brother'
Czech
kost
[kost]'bone'See Czech phonology
DanishStandard[7]
gås
[ˈkɔ̽ːs]'goose'Usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨ɡ̊⟩ or ⟨ɡ⟩. Contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed in IPA with ⟨kʰ⟩ or ⟨k⟩. See Danish phonology
Dutch[8]
koning
[ˈkoːnɪŋ]'king'See Dutch phonology
English
kiss
[kʰɪs]'kiss'See English phonology
Esperanto
rakonto
[raˈkonto]'tale'See Esperanto phonology
Estonian
kõik
[kɤik]'all'See Estonian phonology
Esperanto
kato
[kato]'cat'
Filipino
kuto
[ˈkuto]'lice'
Finnish
kakku
[kɑkːu]'cake'See Finnish phonology
French[9]
cabinet
[kabinɛ]'office'See French phonology
Georgian[10]ვა/kva[kʰva]'stone'
German
Käfig
[ˈkʰɛːfɪç]'cage'See Standard German phonology
Greekκαλόγερος / kalógeros[kaˈlo̞ʝe̞ro̞s̠]'monk'See Modern Greek phonology
Gujaratiકાંદો/kaṃde[kɑːnd̪oː]'onion'See Gujarati phonology
Hebrewכסף / kesef[ˈkesef]'money'See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hiligaynonkadlaw[kad̪law]'laugh'
Hindustaniकाम / کام[kɑːm]'work'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian
akkor
[ɒkkor]'then'See Hungarian phonology
Italian[11]
casa
[ˈkäːzä]'house'See Italian phonology
Japanese[12] / kaban[kabaɴ]'handbag'See Japanese phonology
Kagayanen[13]kalag[kað̞aɡ]'spirit'
Korean감자 / kamja[kamdʐa]'potato'See Korean phonology
Lakotakimímela[kɪˈmɪmela]'butterfly'
Luxembourgish[14]geess[ˈkeːs]'goat'Less often voiced [ɡ]. It is usually transcribed in IPA as ⟨ɡ⟩, and it contrasts with aspirated form, which is usually transcribed ⟨k⟩.[14] See Luxembourgish phonology
Macedonian
кој
[kɔj]'who'See Macedonian phonology
Marathi
वच
[kəʋət͡s]'armour'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Marathi phonology
Malay
kaki
[käki]'leg'
Nepali
केरा
[keɾä]'banana'Contrasts with aspirated form. See Nepali phonology
Norwegian
kake
[kɑːkɛ]'cake'See Norwegian phonology
Odiaକା/kāma[kämɔ]'work'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Pashtoكال‎/kal[kɑl]'year'
Persianکیمچی/kimci[kimt͡ʃi]'kimchi'
Polish[15]
buk
[ˈbuk] (help·info)'beech tree'See Polish phonology
Portuguese[16]
corpo
[ˈkoɾpu]'body'See Portuguese phonology
Punjabiਕਰ/کر/kar[kəɾ]'do'Contrasts with aspirated form.
Romanian[17]
când
[ˈkɨnd]'when'See Romanian phonology
Russian[18]короткий/korotkiy[kɐˈrotkʲɪj] (help·info)'short'See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[19]кост / kost[kȏːs̪t̪]'bone'See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak
kosť
[kɔ̝sc̟]'bone'See Slovak phonology
Spanish[20]
casa
[ˈkäsä]'house'See Spanish phonology
Swedish
ko
[ˈkʰuː]'cow'See Swedish phonology
Sylhetiꠇꠤꠔꠣ/kita[kɪt̪à]'what'
Tamilகை/kai[kəɪ̯]'hand'See Tamil phonology
Teluguకాకి/kāki[kāki]'crow'
Thaiก่/kị̀[kaj˨˩]'chicken'Contrasts with an aspirated form.
Turkish
kulak
[kʰuɫäk]'ear'See Turkish phonology
Ubykhкауар/kawar[kawar]'slat'Found mostly in loanwords. See Ubykh phonology
Ukrainian[21]колесо/koleso[ˈkɔɫɛsɔ]'wheel'See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese[22]
cam
[kam]'orange'See Vietnamese phonology
Welshcalon[kalɔn]'heart'See Welsh phonology
West Frisiankeal[kɪəl]'calf'See West Frisian phonology
Yi / ge[kɤ˧]'foolish'Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms.
ZapotecTilquiapan[23]canza[kanza]'walking'
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Instead of "pre-velar", it can be called "advanced velar", "fronted velar", "front-velar", "palato-velar", "post-palatal", "retracted palatal" or "backed palatal".
  2. ^ Instead of "post-velar", it can be called "retracted velar", "backed velar", "pre-uvular", "advanced uvular" or "fronted uvular".
  3. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  4. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  5. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009), p. 13.
  6. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  7. ^ Basbøll (2005:61)
  8. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  9. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  10. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  11. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  12. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  13. ^ Olson et al. (2010), pp. 206–207.
  14. ^ a b Gilles & Trouvain (2013:67–68)
  15. ^ Jassem (2003), p. 103.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ DEX Online : [1]
  18. ^ Padgett (2003), p. 42.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 4.
  22. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  23. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
References
External links
List of languages with [k] on PHOIBLE
Last edited on 5 May 2021, at 23:27
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