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Volcanic Explosivity Index
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The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) is a relative measure of the explosiveness of volcanic eruptions. It was devised by Chris Newhall of the United States Geological Survey and Stephen Self at the University of Hawaii in 1982.
VEI and ejecta volume correlation
Volume of products, eruption cloud height, and qualitative observations (using terms ranging from "gentle" to "mega-colossal") are used to determine the explosivity value. The scale is open-ended with the largest eruptions in history given a magnitude of 8. A value of 0 is given for non-explosive eruptions, defined as less than 10,000 m3 (350,000 cu ft) of tephra ejected; and 8 representing a mega-colossal explosive eruption that can eject 1.0×1012 m3 (240 cubic miles) of tephra and have a cloud column height of over 20 km (66,000 ft). The scale is logarithmic, with each interval on the scale representing a tenfold increase in observed ejecta criteria, with the exception of between VEI-0, VEI-1 and VEI-2.[1]
Classification
With indices running from 0 to 8, the VEI associated with an eruption is dependent on how much volcanic material is thrown out, to what height, and how long the eruption lasts. The scale is logarithmic from VEI-2 and up; an increase of 1 index indicates an eruption that is 10 times as powerful. As such, there is a discontinuity in the definition of the VEI between indices 1 and 2. The lower border of the volume of ejecta jumps by a factor of one hundred, from 10,000 to 1,000,000 m3 (350,000 to 35,310,000 cu ft), while the factor is ten between all higher indices. In the following table, the frequency of each VEI indicates the approximate frequency of new eruptions of that VEI or higher.
 VEI Ejectavolume(bulk) Classification Description Plume Frequency Troposphericinjection Stratosphericinjection[2] Examples 0 < 104 m3 Hawaiian Effusive < 100 m continuous negligible none Hoodoo Mountain (c. 7050 BC),[3] Erebus (1963), Kīlauea (1977), Socorro Island (1993), Mawson Peak (2006), Dallol (2011), Piton de la Fournaise (2017) 1 > 104 m3 Hawaiian / Strombolian Gentle 100 m – 1 km daily minor none Stromboli (since Roman times), Nyiragongo (2002), Raoul Island (2006) 2 > 106 m3 Strombolian / Vulcanian Explosive 1–5 km every two weeks moderate none Unzen (1792), Cumbre Vieja (1949), Galeras (1993), Sinabung (2010), Whakaari (2019) 3 > 107 m3 Vulcanian / Peléan / Sub-Plinian Catastrophic 3–15 km 3 months substantial possible Lassen Peak (1915), Nevado del Ruiz (1985), Soufrière Hills (1995), Ontake (2014), Anak Krakatoa (2018) 4 > 0.1 km3 Peléan / Plinian/Sub-Plinian Cataclysmic > 10 km (Plinian or sub-Plinian) 18 months substantial definite Taal (1749, 2020), Laki (1783), Kīlauea (1790), Mayon (1814), Pelée (1902), Colima (1913), Sakurajima (1914), Katla (1918), Galunggung (1982), Eyjafjallajökull (2010), Mount Merapi (2010), Nabro (2011), Kelud (2014), Calbuco (2015) La Soufrière (2021) 5 > 1 km3 Peléan / Plinian Paroxysmic > 10 km (Plinian) 12 years substantial significant Mount Vesuvius (79), Mount Fuji (1707), Mount Tarawera (1886), Agung (1963), Mount St. Helens (1980), El Chichón (1982), Hudson (1991), Puyehue (2011) 6 > 10 km3 Plinian / Ultra-Plinian Colossal > 20 km 50–100 yrs substantial substantial Laacher See (c. 10,950 BC), Nevado de Toluca (8,550 BC), Veniaminof (c. 1750 BC), Lake Ilopango (450), Ceboruco (930), Quilotoa (1280), Bárðarbunga (1477), Huaynaputina (1600), Krakatoa (1883), Santa Maria (1902), Novarupta (1912), Mount Pinatubo (1991) 7 > 100 km3 Ultra-Plinian Super-colossal > 20 km 500–1,000 yrs substantial substantial Mesa Falls Tuff (1,300,000 BC), Valles Caldera (1,264,000 BC), Phlegraean Fields (37,000 BC), Aira Caldera (22,000 BC), Mount Mazama (c. 5,700 BC), Kikai Caldera (4,300 BC), Cerro Blanco (c. 2300 BC), Thera (c. 1620 BC), Taupo (180), Paektu (946), Samalas (1257), Mount Tambora (1815) 8 > 1000 km3 Ultra-Plinian Mega-colossal > 20 km > 50,000 yrs[4][5] vast vast Wah Wah Springs (30,000,000 BC), La Garita (26,300,000 BC), Ōdai Caldera (13,700,000 BC), Cerro Galán (2,200,000 BC), Huckleberry Ridge Tuff (2,100,000 BC), Yellowstone (630,000 BC), Whakamaru (in TVZ) (254,000 BC),[6] Toba (74,000 BC), Taupo (26,500 BC)
About 40 eruptions of VEI-8 magnitude within the last 132 million years (Mya) have been identified, of which 30 occurred in the past 36 million years. Considering the estimated frequency is on the order of once in 50,000 years,[4] there are likely many such eruptions in the last 132 Mya that are not yet known. Based on incomplete statistics, other authors assume that at least 60 VEI-8 eruptions have been identified.[7][8] The most recent is Lake Taupo's Oruanui eruption, more than 27,000 years ago, which means that there have not been any Holocene eruptions with a VEI of 8.[9]
There have been at least 10 eruptions of VEI-7 in the last 11,700 years. There are also 58 Plinian eruptions, and 13 caldera-forming eruptions, of large, but unknown magnitudes. By 2010, the Global Volcanism Program of the Smithsonian Institution had cataloged the assignment of a VEI for 7,742 volcanic eruptions that occurred during the Holocene (the last 11,700 years) which account for about 75% of the total known eruptions during the Holocene. Of these 7,742 eruptions, about 49% have a VEI of 2 or less, and 90% have a VEI of 3 or less.[10]
Limitations
Under the VEI, ash, lava, lava bombs, and ignimbrite are all treated alike. Density and vesicularity (gas bubbling) of the volcanic products in question is not taken into account. In contrast, the DRE (dense-rock equivalent) is sometimes calculated to give the actual amount of magma erupted. Another weakness of the VEI is that it does not take into account the power output of an eruption, which makes the VEI extremely difficult to determine with prehistoric or unobserved eruptions.
Although VEI is quite suitable for classifying the explosive magnitude of eruptions, the index is not as significant as sulfur dioxide emissions in quantifying their atmospheric and climatic impact, as a 2004 paper by Georgina Miles, Roy Grainger and Eleanor Highwood points out.
Tephra, or fallout sediment analysis, can provide an estimate of the explosiveness of a known eruption event. It is, however, not obviously related to the amount of SO2 emitted by the eruption. The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI) was derived to catalogue the explosive magnitude of historical eruptions, based on the order of magnitude of erupted mass, and gives a general indication as to the height of the eruptive column reached. The VEI itself is inadequate for describing the atmospheric effects of volcanic eruptions. This is clearly demonstrated by two eruptions, Agung (1963) and El Chichón (1982). Their VEI classification separates them by an order of magnitude in explosivity, although the volume of SO2 released into the stratosphere by each was measured to be broadly similar, as shown by the optical depth data for the two eruptions.[11]
Lists of large eruptions
Clickable imagemap of notable volcanic eruptions. The apparent volume of each bubble is linearly proportional to the volume of tephra ejected, colour-coded by time of eruption as in the legend. Pink lines denote convergent boundaries, blue lines denote divergent boundaries and yellow spots denote hotspots.
References
1. ^ Newhall, Christopher G.; Self, Stephen (1982). "The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): An Estimate of Explosive Magnitude for Historical Volcanism" (PDF). Journal of Geophysical Research. 87 (C2): 1231–1238. Bibcode​:​1982JGR....87.1231N​. doi​:​10.1029/JC087iC02p01231​. Archived from the original (PDF) on December 13, 2013.
2. ^ "Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI)". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. Archived from the original on November 10, 2011. Retrieved August 21, 2014.
3. ^ "Hoodoo Mountain: Eruptive History". Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
4. ^ a b Dosseto, A. (2011). Turner, S. P.; Van-Orman, J. A. (eds.). Timescales of Magmatic Processes: From Core to Atmosphere. Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-1-4443-3260-5.
5. ^ Rothery, David A. (2010), Volcanoes, Earthquakes and Tsunamis, Teach Yourself
6. ^ Froggatt, P. C.; Nelson, C. S.; Carter, L.; Griggs, G.; Black, K. P. (13 February 1986). "An exceptionally large late Quaternary eruption from New Zealand". Nature. 319 (6054): 578–582. Bibcode​:​1986Natur.319..578F​. doi:10.1038/319578a0. S2CID 4332421.
7. ^ BG, Mason (2004). "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth". Bull Volcanol. 66 (8): 735–748. Bibcode​:​2004BVol...66..735M​. doi​:​10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9​. S2CID 129680497.
8. ^ Bryan, S.E. (2010). "The largest volcanic eruptions on Earth" (PDF). Earth-Science Reviews. 102 (3–4): 207–229. Bibcode​:​2010ESRv..102..207B​. doi​:​10.1016/j.earscirev.2010.07.001​.
9. ^ Mason, Ben G.; Pyle, David M.; Oppenheimer, Clive (2004). "The size and frequency of the largest explosive eruptions on Earth". Bulletin of Volcanology. 66 (8): 735–748. Bibcode​:​2004BVol...66..735M​. doi​:​10.1007/s00445-004-0355-9​. S2CID 129680497.
10. ^ Siebert, L.; Simkin, T.; Kimberly, P. (2010). Volcanoes of the World (3rd ed.). University of California Press. pp. 28–38. ISBN 978-0-520-26877-7.
11. ^ Miles, M. G.; Grainger, R. G.; Highwood, E. J. (2004). "Volcanic Aerosols: The significance of volcanic eruption strength and frequency for climate" (PDF). Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. 130 (602): 2361–2376. Bibcode​:​2004QJRMS.130.2361M​. doi:10.1256/qj.03.60.