The Walloon Region
: Région wallonne
: Wallonische Region
: Waals gewest
), usually simply referred to as Wallonia
Covering the southern portion of the country, Wallonia is primarily French-speaking
, and accounts for 55% of Belgium's territory, but only a third of its population. The Walloon Region was not merged with the French Community of Belgium
, which is the political entity responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education, because the French Community of Belgium encompasses both Wallonia and the bilingual Brussels
There is a German-speaking minority in eastern Wallonia, resulting from the annexation of three cantons
previously part of the German Empire at the conclusion of World War I
. This community represents less than 1%
of the Belgian population. It forms the German-speaking Community of Belgium
, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues.
During the industrial revolution, Wallonia was second only to the United Kingdom in industrialization, capitalizing on its extensive deposits of coal and iron. This brought the region wealth, and from the beginning of the 19th to the middle of the 20th century, Wallonia was the more prosperous half of Belgium. Since World War II
, the importance of heavy industry has greatly diminished, and the Flemish Region has exceeded Wallonia in wealth as Wallonia has declined economically. Wallonia now suffers from high unemployment and has a significantly lower GDP per capita than Flanders. The economic inequalities and linguistic divide between the two are major sources of political conflicts in Belgium and a major factor in Flemish separatism
The capital of Wallonia is Namur
, and the most populous city is Liège
. Most of Wallonia's major cities and two-thirds of its population lie along the east–west aligned Sambre and Meuse valley
, the former industrial backbone of Belgium. To the north of this valley, Wallonia lies on the Central Belgian Plateau, which, like Flanders, is a relatively flat and agriculturally fertile area. The south and southeast of Wallonia is made up of the Ardennes
, an expanse of forested highland that is less densely populated.
The term "Wallonia" can mean slightly different things in different contexts. One of the three federal regions of Belgium
is still constitutionally defined as the "Walloon Region" as opposed to "Wallonia", but the regional government has renamed itself Wallonia, and it is commonly called Wallonia.
Preceding 1 April 2010, when the renaming came into effect, Wallonia would sometimes refer to the territory governed by the Walloon Region, whereas Walloon Region
referred specifically to the government. In practice, the difference between the two terms is small and what is meant is usually clear, based on context.
The Merovingian Franks
gradually gained control of the region during the 5th century, under Clovis
. Due to the fragmentation of the former Roman Empire
, Vulgar Latin regionally developed along different lines and evolved into several langue d'oïl
dialects, which in Wallonia became Picard
The oldest surviving text written in a langue d'oïl
, the Sequence of Saint Eulalia
, has characteristics of these three languages and was likely written in or very near to what is now Wallonia around 880 AD
From the 4th to the 7th century, the Franks
established several settlements, probably mostly in the north of the province where the romanization was less advanced and some Germanic trace was still present. The language border (that now splits Belgium in the middle) began to crystallize between 700 under the reign of the Merovingians
and around 1000 after the Ottonian Renaissance
French-speaking cities, with Liège
as the largest one, appeared along the Meuse
, while Gallo-Roman cities such as Tongeren
The Carolingian dynasty
dethroned the Merovingians in the 8th century. In 843, the Treaty of Verdun
gave the territory of present-day Wallonia to Middle Francia
, which would shortly fragment, with the region passing to Lotharingia
. On Lotharingia's breakup in 959, the present-day territory of Belgium became part of Lower Lotharingia
, which then fragmented into rival principalities and duchies by 1190. Literary Latin
, which was taught in schools, lost its hegemony during the 13th century and was replaced by Old French
Mons fusillade on 17 April 1893
In the 19th century, the area began to industrialize, and Wallonia was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe
This brought the region great economic prosperity, which was not mirrored in poorer Flanders and the result was a large amount of Flemish immigration to Wallonia
. Belgium was divided into two divergent communities. On the one hand, the very Catholic Flemish society was characterized by an economy centered on agriculture; on the other hand, Wallonia was the center of the continental European Industrial Revolution
, where classical liberal and socialist movements were rapidly emerging.
Major strikes and general strikes
took place in Wallonia, including the Walloon jacquerie of 1886
, the Belgian general strikes
, 1902, 1913 (for universal suffrage
), 1932 (depicted in Misère au Borinage
), and 1936. After World War II
, major strikes included the general strike against Leopold III of Belgium
(1950), and the 1960-1961 Winter General Strike
for autonomy for Wallonia.
The profitability of the heavy industries to which Wallonia owed its prosperity started declining in the first half of the 20th century, and the center of industrial activity shifted north to Flanders. The loss of prosperity caused social unrest, and Wallonia sought greater autonomy in order to address its economic problems. In the wake of the 1960-1961 Winter General Strike
, the process of state reform in Belgium
got under way. This reform started partly with the linguistic laws of 1962–63
, which defined the four language areas within the constitution
. But the strikes of 1960 which took place in Wallonia more than in Flanders
are not principally linked with the four language areas nor with the Communities but with the Regions. In 1968, the conflict between the communities burst out. French speakers in Flanders (who were not necessarily Walloons) were driven out of, most notably the Leuven-based Catholic University
amid shouts of "Walen buiten
!" ("Walloons out!"). After a formal split of the university in two and the creation of a brand new campus
a wider series of State reforms was passed in Belgium
, which resulted in the federalisation of the nation and the creation of the Walloon Region and the French Community
(comprising both Wallonia and Brussels), administrative entities each of which would gain various levels of considerable autonomy.
The natural regions of Belgium
Wallonia is landlocked
, with an area of 16,901 km2
(6,526 sq mi), or 55 percent of the total area of Belgium. The Sambre and Meuse valley
, from Liège
(70 m (230 ft)) to Charleroi
(120 m (390 ft)) is an entrenched river
in a fault line
which separates Middle Belgium (elevation 100–200 m (330–660 ft)) and High Belgium (200–700 m (660–2,300 ft)). This fault line corresponds to a part of the southern coast of the late London-Brabant Massif
. The valley, along with Haine
valleys form the sillon industriel
, the historical centre of the Belgian coalmining and steelmaking industry, and is also called the Walloon industrial backbone. Due to their long industrial historic record, several segments of the valley have received specific names: Borinage
, around Mons
, le Centre
, around La Louvière
, the Pays noir
, around Charleroi
and the Basse-Sambre
, near Namur
To the north of the Sambre and Meuse valley lies the Central Belgian plateau, which is characterized by intensive agriculture
. The Walloon part of this plateau is traditionally divided into several regions: Walloon Brabant
, Western Hainaut
(French: Wallonie picarde
, around Tournai
), and Hesbaye
. South of the sillon industriel, the land is more rugged and is characterized by more extensive farming
. It is traditionally divided into the regions of Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
, the Ardennes
and Land of Herve
, as well as the Belgian Lorraine
. Dividing it into Condroz
), and Belgian Lorraine (which includes the Gaume
) is more reflective of the physical geography. The larger region, the Ardennes, is a thickly forested plateau with caves and small gorges. It is host to much of Belgium's wildlife but little agricultural capacity. This area extends westward into France and eastward to the Eifel
in Germany via the High Fens
plateau, on which the Signal de Botrange
forms the highest point in Belgium at 694 metres (2,277 ft).
View of Charleroi
The province of Walloon Brabant is the most recent one, being formed in 1995 after the splitting of the province of Brabant
View of Liège with the Meuse
The largest cities in Wallonia are:
- Charleroi (204,146)
- Liège (195,790)
- Namur (110,428)
- Mons (92,529)
- La Louvière (81,138)
- Tournai (69,792)
- Seraing (63,500)
- Verviers (56,596)
- Mouscron (55,687)
- Herstal (38,969)
- Braine-l'Alleud (38,748)
- Châtelet (36,131)
The 10 largest groups of foreign residents in 2018 are:
Science and technology
Contributions to the development of science and technology have appeared since the beginning of the country's history. Baptismal font
of Renier de Huy
, is not the only example of medieval Walloon working expertise. An indication of that : the words "houille" (coal)
or "houilleur" (coal miner) or "grisou" (damp) were coined in Wallonia and are from walloon
In the present day, Bureau Greisch
has acquired an international reputation as consulting engineer and architect in the fields of structures, civil engineering and buildings, including the Millau Viaduct
Wallonia is rich in iron and coal, and these resources and related industries have played an important role in its history. In ancient times, the Sambre and Meuse valley
was an important industrial area in the Roman Empire
. In the Middle Ages
, Wallonia became a center for brass
working and bronze
working, with Huy
being important regional centers. In the 12th and 13th centuries, the iron masters of Liège
developed a method of refining iron ore by the use of a blast furnace, called the Walloon Method
. There were also a few coal mines around Charleroi
and the Borinage
during this period, but their output was small, and was principally consumed as a fuel by various industries such as the important glass making industry that sprang up in the Charleroi
basin during the 14th century.
In the 19th century, the area began to industrialize, mainly along the so-called sillon industriel
. It was the first fully industrialized area in continental Europe
and Wallonia was the second industrial power in the world, in proportion to its population and its territory, after the United Kingdom.
The sole industrial centre in Belgium outside the collieries and blast furnaces of Wallonia was the historic cloth making town of Ghent
The two World Wars curbed the continuous expansion that Wallonia had enjoyed up till that time. Towards the end of the 1950s, things began to change dramatically. The factories of Wallonia were by then antiquated, the coal was running out and the cost of extracting coal was constantly rising. It was the end of an era, and Wallonia has been making efforts to redefine itself. The restoration of economical development is high on the political agenda, and the government is encouraging development of industries, notably in cutting-edge technology and in business parks.
The economy is improving,
but Wallonia is not yet at the level of Flanders
and is still suffering from difficulties.
The current Walloon economy is relatively diversified, although certain areas (especially around Charleroi and Liège) are still suffering from the steel industry crisis, with an unemployment rate of up to 30 percent. Nonetheless, Wallonia has some companies which are world leaders in their specialized fields, including armaments, glass production, lime
and aviation parts.
The south of Wallonia, bordering Luxembourg
, benefits from its neighbour's economic prosperity, with many Belgians working on the other side of the border; they are often called frontaliers
. The Ardennes
area south of the Meuse
is a popular tourist destination for its nature and outdoor sports, in addition to its cultural heritage, with places such as Bastogne
, and the famous hot springs
The Gross domestic product (GDP) of the region was 105.7 billion € in 2018, accounting for 23% of Belgiums economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 25,700 € or 85% of the EU27 average in the same year.
Politics and government
Belgium is a federal state
made up of three communities and three regions, each with considerable autonomy. One of these is the Walloon Region, which is governed by the Parliament of Wallonia
and the executive Government of Wallonia
. The Walloon Region's autonomy extends even to foreign policy; Wallonia is entitled to pursue its own foreign policy, including the signing of treaties, and in many domains even the Belgian federal government is not able to sign an international treaty without the agreement of the Parliament of Wallonia.
Wallonia is also home to about 80 percent of the population of the French Community of Belgium
, a political level responsible for matters related mainly to culture and education, with the remainder living in Brussels
. Wallonia is also home to the small German-speaking Community of Belgium
in the east, which has its own government and parliament for culture-related issues. Although in Flanders
, the Flemish Region
assigned all of its powers to the Flemish Community
, the Walloon Region remains in principle distinct from and independent from the French Community, and vice versa. Despite this, the French Community's parliament
is almost entirely composed of members of Wallonia's and Brussels' parliaments, so the bodies are governed by the same individuals. Additionally, the French Community of Belgium has controversially begun referring to itself exclusively as the 'Wallonia-Brussels Federation' to emphasize the links between the French Community, Wallonia and Brussels.
The Walloon Region has a unicameral parliament
with 75 members elected for five years by direct universal suffrage
, and an executive, the Government of Wallonia
, elected by a political majority in Parliament. The Government numbers nine members with the president. Each member is called a Walloon minister
. The head of the Government is called the Minister-President of Wallonia
. The coalition government for the 2014–2019 legislature was a center-left coalition PS
until July 28 when it was replaced by a center-left coalition MR-cdH. The current Minister-President is Elio Di Rupo
History of Walloon autonomy
"From 1831, the year of Belgium's independence, until the federalization of the country in 1970, Wallonia has increasingly asserted itself as a region in its own right."
Following several state reforms
, especially the 1993 state reform, Belgium became a federal state made up of three communities and three regions, with Wallonia being represented by the Walloon Region and its two language communities. The directly elected Walloon Parliament was created in June 1995, replacing the Conseil régional wallon
(Regional Council of Wallonia). The first Council had sat on 15 October 1980 and was composed of members of the Belgian Chamber of Representatives
and the Belgian Senate
elected in Wallonia.
A red rooster is the main symbol of Wallonia
The first appearance of the French word Wallonie
as a reference to the romance world as opposed to Germany is said to date from 1842.
Two years later, it was first used to refer to the Romance part of the young country of Belgium.
In 1886, the writer and Walloon militant Albert Mockel
, first used the word with a political meaning of cultural and regional affirmation,
in opposition with the word Flanders
used by the Flemish Movement
. The word had previously appeared in German and Latin as early as the 17th century.
The rising of a Walloon identity led the Walloon Movement
to choose different symbols representing Wallonia. The main symbol is the "bold rooster" (French: coq hardi
), also named "Walloon rooster" (French: coq wallon
: cok walon
), which is widely used, particularly on arms and flags. The rooster was chosen as an emblem by the Walloon Assembly
on 20 April 1913, and designed by Pierre Paulus
on 3 July 1913.
The Flag of Wallonia
features the red rooster on a yellow background.
An anthem, Le Chant des Wallons
(The Walloons' Song
), written by Theophile Bovy in 1900 and composed by Louis Hillier in 1901, was also adopted. On September 21, 1913, the "national" feast day of Wallonia took place for the first time in Verviers
, commemorating the participation of Walloons during the Belgian Revolution
of 1830. It is held annually on the third Sunday of September. The Assembly also chose a motto
for Wallonia, "Walloon Forever" (Walloon
: Walon todi
), and a cry, "Liberty" (French: Liberté
). In 1998, the Walloon Parliament
made all these symbols official except the motto and the cry.
The population of Wallonia is predominantly of Christian heritage. In 2016, 68% of residents of Wallonia declared themselves to be Roman Catholic
(21% were practising Catholics and 47% were non-practising), 3% were Muslim
, 3% were Protestant
Christian, 1% were of other religions and 25% were non-religious.
Religion in Wallonia (2016)
A linguistic map of Wallonia. Note that in all areas, except the German-speaking part, French is currently the dominant language.
The official languages of Wallonia are French, which is also by far the main language spoken in the region, and German (in the East-Cantons
The German-speaking Community of Belgium
accounts for about 2% of the region's population. Belgian French
, which is also spoken in the Brussels-Capital Region
, is similar to that spoken in France, with slight differences in pronunciation and some vocabulary differences, notably the use of the words septante
(70) and nonante
(90), as opposed to soixante-dix
There are noticeable Walloon accents, with the accent from Liège
and its surroundings being perhaps the most striking. Other regions of Wallonia also have characteristic accents, often linked to the regional language.
traditionally also speak regional Romance languages, all from the Langues d'oïl
group. Wallonia includes almost all of the area where Walloon
is spoken, a Picard
zone corresponding to the major part of the Hainaut Province
, the Gaume
(district of Virton
) with the Lorrain language
and a Champenois
zone. There are also regional Germanic languages, such as the Luxembourgish language
(Land of Arlon
). The regional languages of Wallonia are more important than in France, and they have been officially recognized by the government. With the development of education in French, however, these dialects have been in continual decline. There is currently an effort to revive Walloon dialects; some schools offer language courses in Walloon, and Walloon is also spoken in some radio programmes, but this effort remains very limited.
Literature is written principally in French but also in Walloon and other regional languages, colloquially called Walloon literature. Walloon
literature (regional language not French) has been printed since the 16th century. But it did have its golden age, paradoxically, during the peak of the Flemish immigration to Wallonia
in the 19th century: "That period saw an efflorescence of Walloon literature, plays and poems primarily, and the founding of many theaters and periodicals."
The New York Public Library
possesses a surprisingly large collection of literary works in Walloon, quite possibly the largest outside Belgium, and its holding are representative of the output. Out of nearly a thousand, twenty-six were published before 1880. Thereafter the numbers rise gradually year by year, reaching a peak of sixty-nine in 1903, and then they fall again, down to eleven in 1913. See 'Switching Languages', p. 153. Yves Quairiaux counted 4800 plays for 1860–1914, published or not. In this period plays were almost the only popular show in Wallonia. But this theater remains popular in the present-day Wallonia: Theater is still flourishing, with over 200 non-professional companies playing in the cities and villages of Wallonia for an audience of over 200,000 each year.
There are links between French literature and (the very small) Walloon literature. For instance Raymond Queneau
set Editions Gallimard
the publication of a Walloon Poets' anthology. Ubu roi
was translated in Walloon by André Blavier
( an important pataphysician
, friend of Queneau), for the new and important Puppets
theater of Liège of Jacques Ancion, the Al Botroûle
theater "at the umbilical cord" in Walloon indicating a desire to return to the source (according to Joan Cross). But Jacques Ancion wanted to develop a regular adult audience. From the 19th century, he included the Walloon play Tati l'Pèriquî by E.Remouchamps and the avant-garde Ubu roi by A.Jarry
For Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, the dialectal culture is no more a sign of attachment to the past but a way to participate to a new synthesis
(member of the Groupe µ
) wrote that Wallonia, and literature in Wallonia, has been present in French language since its formation.
In their 'Histoire illustrée des lettres française de Belgique', Charlier and Hanse (editors), La Renaissance du livre, Bruxelles, 1958, published 247 pages (on 655 ), about the "French" literature in the Walloon provinces (or Walloon principalities of the Middle-Age, sometimes also Flemish provinces and principalities), for a period from the 11th to the 18th century. Among the works or the authors,the Sequence of Saint Eulalia
(9th century), La Vie de Saint Léger
(10th century), Jean Froissart
(14th century in the County of Hainaut
), Jean d'Outremeuse
, Jean Lebel
, Jean Lemaire de Belges
(16th century from Bavay
), the Prince
(18th century, Beloeil
). There is a Walloon Surrealism
especially in Hainaut Province
. Charles Plisnier
(1896–1952), born in Mons, won the Prix Goncourt
in 1936, for his novel Mariages
and for Faux Passeports
(short stories denouncing Stalinism, in the same spirit as Arthur Koestler
). He was the first foreigner to receive this honour. The Walloon Georges Simenon
is likely the most widely read French-speaking writer in the world, according to the Tribune de Genève
More than 500 million of his books have been sold, and they have been translated into 55 languages. There is a link between the Jean Louvet
's work and the social issues in Wallonia
Herri Met de Blès
, Landscape with the Fire of Sodom
, 21.5 x 33 cm, c. 1526–1550, Musée des Arts anciens du Namurois, Namur. This landscape is similar to the Meuse
Mosan art, painting, architecture George Grard
(1901—1984) was a Walloon sculptor, known above all for his representations of the female, in the manner of Pierre Renoir
and Aristide Maillol
, modelled in clay or plaster, and cast in bronze.
The vocal music
of the so-called Franco-Flemish School
developed in the southern part of the Low Countries and was an important contribution to Renaissance culture. Robert Wangermée and Philippe Mercier wrote in their encyclopedic book about the Walloon music that Liège
and Hainaut Province
played a leading part in the so-called Franco-Flemish School.
is generally regarded as a member of the Darmstadt School
in the 1950s. Pousseur's music employs serialism
, mobile forms, and aleatory, often mediating between or among seemingly irreconcilable styles, such as those of Schubert
), or Pousseur's own serial style and the protest song "We shall overcome" (Couleurs croisées
). He was strongly linked to the social strikes in Liège
during the 1960s.
He worked also with the French writer Michel Butor
Walloon films are often characterized by social realism
. It is perhaps the reason why the documentary Misère au Borinage
, and especially its co-director Henri Storck
, is considered by Robert Stallaerts as the father of the Walloon cinema. He wrote: "Although a Fleming, he can be called the father of the Walloon cinema.".
For F.André between Misère au Borinage
and the films like those of the Dardenne brothers
(since 1979), there is Déjà s'envole la fleur maigre
(1960) (also shot in the Borinage
a film regarded as a point of reference in the history of the cinema.
Like those of the Dardenne brothers
, Thierry Michel
, Jean-Jacques Andrien
, Benoît Mariage
, or, e.g. the social documentaries of Patric Jean
, the director of Les enfants du Borinage
writing his film as a letter to Henri Storck. On the other hand, films such as Thierry Zéno
's Vase de noces
(1974), Mireille in the life of the others
by Jean-Marie Buchet
(1979), C'est arrivé près de chez vous
(English title: Man bites dog
) by Rémy Belvaux
and André Bonzel
(1992) and the works of Noël Godin
and Jean-Jacques Rousseau
are influenced by surrealism
and black comedy
. The films of the Dardenne brothers
are also inspired by the Bible and Le Fils
for instance is regarded as one of the most spiritually significant films.
The Ducasse de Mons
(Walloon French for Kermesse
), is one of the UNESCO Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity
. It comprises two important parts: the procession, the descent and the ascent of the shrine of Waltrude
, and the combat between Saint George
and the dragon. The combat (after the procession), plays out on the Trinity Sunday between 12:30 pm and 1:00 pm on the Mons
's central square. It represents the fight between Saint George (the good) and the dragon (the evil). The dragon is a mannequin carried and moved by the white men
). The dragon fights Saint George by attacking with his tail. Saint George on his horse turns clockwise and the dragon turns in the other direction. Saint George finally kills the dragon.
Wallonia is famous for a number of different foods and drinks, a great many of which are specialties of certain cities or regions. The 1957 Michelin Guide
noted that "regional food has put up heroic resistance and the Walloon provinces and Flemish provinces are proud of their specialities."
The Liège waffle
a rich, dense, sweet, and chewy waffle native to Liège, is the most popular type of waffle in Belgium, and can be found in stores and even vending machines throughout the country. Cougnou
, or the bread of Jesus
, is a sweet bread typically eaten around Christmas time and found throughout the region.
In terms of drink, Wallonia mirrors Belgium as a whole; beer and wine are both popular, and a great diversity of beers are made and enjoyed in Wallonia. Installed in Bierghes in the Senne valley, the Gueuzerie Tilquin is the only gueuze blendery in Wallonia. Wallonia boasts three of the seven Trappist beers
) in addition to a great number of other locally brewed beers. Wallonia is also home to the last bastion of traditional rustic saison
, most notably those produced at the Brasserie de Silly and the Brasserie Dupont (located in Tourpes
, in the region of Western Hainaut Province
historically known for its production of rustic farmhouse ales). Jupiler
, the best-selling beer in Belgium, is brewed in Jupille-sur-Meuse
. Wallonia also home to a Jenever
called Peket, and a May wine
The two largest cities in Wallonia each have an airport. The Brussels South Charleroi Airport
has become an important passenger airport, especially with low fares companies such as Ryanair
. It serves as a low-cost alternative to Brussels Airport
, and it saw 7 303 720 passengers in 2016. The Liège Airport
is specialized in freight, although it also operates tourist-oriented charter flights. Today, Liège is the 8th airport for European freight and aims to reach the 5th rank in the next decade.
Railways, motorways, buses
Wallonia has an extensive and well-developed rail network, served by the Belgian National Railway Company, SNCB
Wallonia's numerous motorways fall within the scope of the TransEuropean Transport network programme (TEN-T). This priority programme run by the European Union provides more than 70,000 km of transport infrastructure, including motorways, express rail lines and roadways, and has been developed to carry substantial volumes of traffic.
With traffic of over 20 million tonnes and 26 kilometres of quays, the autonomous port
of Liège (PAL) is the third largest inland port in Europe.
It carries out the management of 31 ports along the Meuse
and the Albert Canal
. It is accessible to sea and river transporters weighing up to 2,500 tonnes, and to push two-barge convoys (4,500 tonnes, soon to be raised to 9,000 tonnes). Even if Wallonia does not have direct access to the sea, it is very well connected to the major ports thanks to an extensive network of navigable waterways that pervades Belgium, and it has effective river connections to Antwerp
On the west side of Wallonia, in Hainaut Province
, the Strépy-Thieu boat lift
, permits river traffic of up to the new 1350-tonne standard to pass between the waterways of the Meuse and Scheldt
rivers. Completed in 2002 at an estimated cost of €160 million (then 6.4 billion Belgian francs
) the lift has increased river traffic from 256 kT in 2001 to 2,295 kT in 2006.
The AWEX organizes regular trade missions to the promising market of Kazakhstan, where it has a representative office in Almaty. In 2017, the AWEX together with the Flanders Investment and Trade
brought a delegation of 30 companies to Astana and Almaty, two largest cities in Kazakhstan.
Twin towns and sister cities
- ^ a b "be.STAT". bestat.statbel.fgov.be.
- ^ a b "Structuur van de bevolking | Statbel". statbel.fgov.be.
- ^ "Vlaamse overheid – Taalwetwijzer – Wetgeving". vlaanderen.be.
- ^ The Belgian Constitution (PDF). Brussels, Belgium: Belgian House of Representatives. May 2014. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2015. Retrieved 10 September 2015. Article 3: Belgium comprises three Regions: the Flemish Region, the Walloon Region and the Brussels Region. Article 4: Belgium comprises four linguistic regions: the Dutch-speaking region, the French-speaking region, the bilingual region of Brussels-Capital and the German-speaking region.
- ^ "BBC – Languages – Languages". www.bbc.co.uk.
- ^ "French : Le Gouvernement a décidé de promouvoir le terme " Wallonie " en lieu et place de " Région wallonne "".
- ^ For example, the CIA World Factbook states Wallonia is the short form and Walloon Region is the long form. The Invest in Wallonia website and the Belgian federal government use the term Wallonia when referring to the Walloon Region.
- ^ (French) Albert Henry, Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie, Institut Jules Destrée [fr], Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), foodnote 13 p. 86.
- ^ Footnote: In medieval French, the word Liégeois referred to all the inhabitants of the Principality vis-à-vis the other inhabitants of the Low-countries, the word Walloons being only used for the French-speaking inhabitants vis-à-vis the other inhabitants of the Principality. Stengers, Jean (1991). "Depuis quand les Liégeois sont-ils des Wallons?". In Hasquin, Hervé (ed.). Hommages à la Wallonie [mélanges offerts à Maurice Arnould et Pierre Ruelle] (in French). Brussels: éditions de l'ULB. pp. 431–447.
- ^ a b (in French) Maurice Delbouille Romanité d'oïl Les origines : la langue – les plus anciens textes in La Wallonie, le pays et les hommes Tome I (Lettres, arts, culture), La Renaissance du Livre, Bruxelles,1977, pp.99–107.
- ^ a b c d e f g "A young region with a long history (from 57BC to 1831)". Gateway to the Walloon Region. Walloon Region. 2007-01-22. Archived from the original on 2008-05-01. Retrieved 2009-01-13.
- ^ Kramer, pg. 59, citing M. Gysseling (1962). "La genèse de la frontière linguistique dans le Nord de la Gaule". Revue du Nord (in French). 44 (173): 5–38, in particular 17. doi:10.3406/rnord.1962.2410.
- ^ a b "Wallonie : une région en Europe" (in French). Ministère de la Région wallonne. Retrieved September 29, 2007.
- ^ a b "The region asserts itself (from 1840 to 1970)". Gateway to the Walloon Region. 2007-01-22. Retrieved 2009-01-14.
- ^ "Belgium: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population". Archived from the original on March 28, 2006.
- ^ "HOUILLE : Définition de HOUILLE". cnrtl.fr.
- ^ Allan H. Kittel, "The Revolutionary Period of the Industrial Revolution", Journal of Social History, Vol. I,n° 2 (Winter 1967), pp. 129–130.
- ^ Philippe Destatte, L'identité wallonne, Institut Destrée, Charleroi, 1997, pages 49–50 ISBN 2-87035-000-7
- ^ "Welcome". erih.net. Archived from the original on 2013-07-31.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-05-21. Retrieved 2008-12-22.
- ^ "Wallonia battles wasteland image". BBC News. October 6, 2008. Retrieved September 27, 2009.
- ^ According to La Libre Belgique on 26 August 2010: 9.8 million visitors in 2009 (2.8 in Brussels), 6% of the regional economy (15% in Brussels)
- ^ "AGC Flat Glass: Leadership through innovation". uwe.be.
- ^ "Carmeuse: expansion through partnership and knowledge". uwe.be.
- ^ "IBA's growth still accelerating". uwe.be.
- ^ "Sonaca: Increasing visibility in North America". uwe.be.
- ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
- ^ "Official Website of the Walloon Region".
- ^ There is also a mention of Wallonie in 1825 : (in French) « les Germains, au contraire, réservant pour eux seuls le noble nom de Franks, s'obstinaient, dès le onzième siècle, à ne plus voir de Franks dans la Gaule, qu'ils nommaient dédaigneusement Wallonie, terre des Wallons ou des Welsches » Augustin Thierry, Histoire de la conquête de l'Angleterre par les Normands, Éd. Firmin Didot, Paris, 1825, tome 1, p. 155. read online
- ^ (in French) Albert Henry, Histoire des mots Wallons et Wallonie, Institut Jules Destrée, Coll. «Notre histoire», Mont-sur-Marchienne, 1990, 3rd ed. (1st ed. 1965), p. 12.
- ^ (in French) «C'est cette année-là  que naît le mot Wallonie, dans son sens politique d'affirmation culturelle régionale, lorsque le Liégeois Albert Mockel crée une revue littéraire sous ce nom» Philippe Destatte, L'identité wallonne p. 32.
- ^ La préhistoire latine du mot Wallonie in Luc Courtois, Jean-Pierre Delville, Françoise Rosart & Guy Zélis (editors), Images et paysages mentaux des XIXe et XXe siècles de la Wallonie à l'Outre-Mer, Hommage au professeur Jean Pirotte à l'occasion de son éméritat, Academia Bruylant, Presses Universitaires de l'UCL, Louvain-la-Neuve, 2007, pp. 35–48 ISBN 978-2-87209-857-6, p. 47
- ^ http://www.allstates-flag.com/fotw/flags/be-wal_l.html#wal98
- ^ a b lesoir.be (28 January 2016). "75% des francophones revendiquent une identité religieuse". lesoir.be. Archived from the original on 31 January 2016. Retrieved 2017-06-05.
- ^ "La Constitution belge (Art. 4)" (in French). the Belgian Senate. May 2007. Retrieved 2009-01-18. La Belgique comprend quatre régions linguistiques : la région de langue française, la région de langue néerlandaise, la région bilingue de Bruxelles-Capitale et la région de langue allemande..
- ^ 'Switching Languages', Translingual Writers Reflect on Their Craft, Edited by Steven G. Kellman Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2003, p. 153. ISBN 978-0-8032-2747-7
- ^ "The Walloon language page". skynet.be.
- ^ Joan Gross, Speaking in Other Voices: An Ethnography of Walloon Puppet Theaters. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins Press, 2001, ISBN 1-58811-054-0
- ^ Benoît Denis et Jean-Marie Klinkenberg, Littérature : entre insularité et activisme in Le Tournant des années 1970. Liège en effervescence, Les Impressions nouvelles, Bruxelles, 2010, pp. 237–253, p. 252. French : Ancion monte l'Ubu rwèen 1975 (...) la culture dialectalisante cesse d'être une marque de passéisme pour participer à une nouvelle synthèse...
- ^ Histoire de la Wallonie, Privat Toulouse, 2004, ISBN 2-7089-4779-6 p. 220. French: Le latin apporté en Gaule par les légions romaines avait fini par éclater en de multiples dialectes (...) peu à peu, pour répondre aux besoins des pouvoirs publics et religieux se forme une langue standard. Dans ce processus qui aboutira à l'élaboration du français, la Wallonie est présente dès les premières heures.
- ^ An Paenhuysen Surrealism in the Provinces. Flemish and Walloon Identity in the Interwar period in Image&Narrative, n° 13, Leuven November, 2005
- ^ L'écrivain français le plus dans le monde
- ^ "Maigret and his master". theage.com.au. 2003-09-14.
- ^ Cody, Gabrielle H.; Sprinchorn, Evert (2007). The Columbia Encyclopedia of Modern Drama. ISBN 9780231144223.
- ^ "Gustave Serrurier-Bovy | artnet". www.artnet.com.
- ^ Your Antique Furniture Guide, Art Nouveau in Belgium
- ^ French Le troisième grand Maître de l'Ars Nova in Robert Wangermée et Philippe Mercier, La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles, La Renaissance du livre, Bruxelles, 1980, Tome I, pp. 37–40.
- ^ Robert Wangermée et Philippe Mercier, La musique en Wallonie et à Bruxelles, La Renaissance du livre, Bruxelles, 1980, Tome I, p. 10.
- ^ Wangermée, Robert (1995). Dictionnaire de la chanson en Wallonie et à Bruxelles. ISBN 9782870096000.
- ^ The "Trois Visages de Liege", (...) full of provocative sound collages [evokes..] not only moments in sonic civic history, but the sounds of its historical events as well: wildcat strikes and their ensuing violence in 1960, protests against new laws being enacted, etc. See Acousmatrix 4: Scambi/Trois Visages de Liege/Paraboles Mix
- ^ Historical dictionary of Belgium (Scarecrow press, 1999, p. 191 ISBN 0-8108-3603-3).
- ^ Cinéma wallon et réalité particulière, in TOUDI, n° 49/50, septembre-octobre 2002, p.13.
- ^ "les films repères dans l'histoire du cinéma". autourdu1ermai.fr.
- ^ "The Arts & Faith Top 100 Films". artsandfaith.com.
- ^ quoted by "Culinary cultures of Europe: identity, diversity and dialogue", by Darra Goldstein, Kathrin Merkle, Fabio Parasecoli, Stephen Mennell, Council of Europe. Directorate General IV—Education, Culture and Heritage, Youth and Sport, Council of Europe, 2005
- ^ Dinant Official Web Site
- ^ "Ardenne Ham".
- ^ The Simon and Schuster international pocket food guide, 1981.
- ^ "AWEX".
- ^ "Liege port authority".
- ^ "Qui sommes-nous? – logistics in Wallonia". www.logisticsinwallonia.be.
- ^ "AWEX (WALLONIA FOREIGN TRADE AND INVESTMENT AGENCY)". www.skywin.be.
- ^ "Economic cooperation between Kazakhstan and Belgium discussed in Brussels". mfa.kz.
- ^ "ベルギー3地域と「友好交流及び相互協力に関する覚書」を締結". Retrieved 15 May 2017.
Johannes Kramer (1984). Zweisprachigkeit in den Benelux-ländern
(in German). Buske Verlag. ISBN 978-3-87118-597-7
Media related to Wallonia
at Wikimedia Commons
Last edited on 20 July 2021, at 14:09
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.