Warren Minor Christopher was born in Scranton, North Dakota
, the son of Catherine Anne (née Lemen) and Ernest William Christopher, a bank manager.
He was of part Norwegian descent.
Legal career, Deputy Attorney General for Johnson
Deputy Secretary of State for Carter
Christopher was sworn in on February 26, 1977, as the Deputy Secretary of State
and served in that position until January 20, 1981. As Deputy Secretary, he was involved in negotiating the Algiers Accords
, and securing the release of 52 American hostages in Iran
. He also spearheaded the Sino-American relations
with the People's Republic of China
, helped to win ratification of the Panama Canal
treaties, and headed the first interagency group on human rights
. President Jimmy Carter
awarded him the Presidential Medal of Freedom
, the nation's highest civilian award, on January 16, 1981.
Professional work and achievements
Christopher's professional activities have included service as President of the Los Angeles County Bar Association, 1974–1975; Chairman of the Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary of the American Bar Association, 1975–1976; member of the Board of Governors of the State Bar of California 1975–1976; and Special Counsel to California Governor Edmund G. Brown
In 1981, Christopher received the U.S. Senator John Heinz Award for Greatest Public Service by an Elected or Appointed Official, an award given out annually by Jefferson Awards
Secretary of State for Clinton
Serving as Secretary of State from January 20, 1993 until January 17, 1997, Christopher's main goals were expanding NATO, establishing peace between Israel and its neighbors, and using economic pressure to force China's hand on human rights practices. The major events transpiring during his tenure included the Oslo Accords
, the Dayton Agreement
, normalization of United States–Vietnam relations
, the Rwandan genocide
, Operation Uphold Democracy
, and the Khobar Towers bombing
Assassination attempt on George H. W. Bush, April 1993
On April 13, 1993, eleven Iraqi intelligence agents smuggled a car bomb into Kuwait in an attempt to assassinate former President George H. W. Bush
as he spoke at Kuwait University
Secretary Christopher, among others, urged President Clinton to make a retaliatory strike against Iraq.
On June 26, 1993, the United States launched 23 Tomahawk missiles
against the Baghdad intelligence headquarters.
Oslo Accords, September 1993 Partnership for Peace NATO expansion, January 1994
In order to initiate further enlargement of NATO
with minimal backlash from Russia, Secretary Christopher promoted the Partnership for Peace
program as a stepping-stone into full NATO membership. This was against protests from the Pentagon.
In what is recognized as the terrible failure of the international community, the US and UN failed to intervene to stop the Rwandan genocide
in 1994. Over the course of a hundred days, some 800,000 Tutsis were massacred by Hutu militia. 
China: Delinking human rights and trade status, May 1994
During the 1992 presidential campaign
, then-candidate Clinton blasted President George H. W. Bush for giving China
low-tariff trading privileges despite its human rights abuses. Secretary Christopher agreed with this view and believed that the US should use economic pressure to force China to improve its human rights record. However, on May 26, 1994, President Clinton renewed China's low-tariff trading privileges, effectively delinking the human rights issue from China's trade relations with the US. U.S.-Sino relations improved as a result, with President Jiang Zemin
visiting the U.S. in November 1997 and President Clinton visiting China in June 1998.
Operation Uphold Democracy in Haiti, September 1994 Israel-Jordan peace treaty, October 1994
In the wake of the 1993 Oslo Accords, Secretary Christopher encouraged Jordan's King Hussein
to make a peace treaty with Israel. Christopher eventually offered Hussein $200 million in military equipment and $700 million in debt forgiveness to sweeten the deal. On October 27, 1994, Israeli Prime Minister Yitzchak Rabin
and Jordanian Prime Minister Abdelsalam al-Majali signed the Israel–Jordan peace treaty
. The signing was witnessed by President Clinton and Secretary Christopher. Christopher sought to obtain a similar treaty between Rabin and Syrian President Hafez al-Assad
, but to no avail.
Vietnam: Normalizing relations, July 1995
Working with Senator John McCain
, in 1994, Secretary Christopher began actively promoting the normalization of United States–Vietnam relations
. At the time, the U.S. had not had an embassy in Vietnam since 1975. The main obstacle to normalization came from veterans and POW/MIA support groups who were convinced that Hanoi was not fully cooperating in the search for the remains of US soldiers in Vietnam. However, after Secretary Christopher convinced President Clinton that the Vietnamese government was fully cooperating in these searches, the President announced the formal normalization of diplomatic relations with Vietnam on July 11, 1995.
Dayton Agreement, November 1995 Khobar Towers bombing, June 1996
In the wake of the Khobar Towers bombing
, Secretary Christopher traveled to Saudi Arabia to witness the site of the attack. In Dhahran (the home of the Khobar Towers), Foreign Minister Prince Saud al-Faisal
allegedly promised Christopher that the FBI
would have the full cooperation of the Saudi government. Eventually, however, the Saudi government and the FBI repeatedly conflicted during the course of the investigation.
In addition to several honorary degrees, Christopher received the following awards: the Jefferson Award from the American Institute for Public Service for the Greatest Public Service Performed by an Elected or Appointed Official; the UCLA
Medal; the Harold Weill Medal from New York University
; the James A. Garfield
Baller Award; the Thomas Jefferson Award in Law from the University of Virginia
Law School; and the Louis Stein Award from Fordham Law School
At the 1999 unveiling of his portrait at the Department of State, attended by President Clinton, Christopher remarked: "To anyone who has served in Washington, there is something oddly familiar about [having your portrait painted]. First, you're painted into a corner, then you're hung out to dry and, finally, you're framed."
Christopher in 2000
Warren Christopher presenting the scholarship named for him in 2004
Former Secretaries of State James Baker
and Christopher served as Co-Chairs of the Miller Center's National War Powers Commission. Baker and Christopher testified on March 5 before the House Foreign Affairs Committee
about the War Powers Consultation Act of 2009 – the statute that the Commission unanimously recommended in its July 2008 report. The statute is designed to replace the War Powers Resolution of 1973 and provide for more meaningful consultation between the president and Congress on matters of war.
From 2003 until his death, Christopher taught a small seminar course on international affairs as part of the Honors Program at UCLA
Warren Christopher married twice. He married Joan Southgate Workman on June 14, 1949, in San Diego, California
; the couple had a daughter, Lynn (born May 30, 1952). They divorced in 1955.
He was married to Marie Wyllis from 1956 until his death; the couple had two sons: Scott (born December 27, 1957
) and Thomas (born July 24, 1959)
), and a daughter, Kristen (born March 26, 1963
Christopher had five grandchildren: Andrew, Lauren, Warren, and Chloe Christopher, and Christopher Henderson.
He wrote In the Stream of History: Shaping Foreign Policy for a New Era
(1998) and Chances of a Lifetime
World Justice Project
President Obama described Christopher as a "resolute pursuer of peace" for his work in the Middle East and the Balkans.
Hillary Clinton described Christopher as a "diplomat's diplomat – talented, dedicated and exceptionally wise".
He was described as "the best public servant I ever knew" by President Jimmy Carter
in his memoirs.
On March 19, 2011, Carter stated that "[America] has lost a great and revered leader".
- ^ "Warren Minor Christopher biography at". bookrags.com.
- ^ Cornwell, Rupert (March 22, 2011). "Warren Christopher: Lawyer and diplomat who served as Secretary of State under President Clinton". The Independent. London, UK.
- ^ Warren Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) pp 9-19.
- ^ a b c Woo, Elaine (March 19, 2011). "Warren Christopher dies at 85; former secretary of State's quiet diplomacy was prized from Washington to L.A." Los Angeles Times.
- ^ a b c d Robert D. Hershey Jr. (March 19, 2011). "Warren Christopher, Ex-Secretary of State, Dies at 85". The New York Times.
- ^ a b Steinberg, Mark. "A Goodbye to Warren Christopher". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 18 April 2017.
- ^ "National - Jefferson Awards Foundation".
- ^ "The Bush assassination". Department of Justice/FBI Laboratory report. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001). Page 234.
- ^ "Cruise Missile Strike - June 26, 1993. Operation Southern Watch". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 2007-05-06.
- ^ Christopher, Warren. Chances of a Lifetime. (New York: Scribner Press, 2001) p. 200.
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-03-11. Retrieved 2012-06-12.
- ^ Manry, Bill Clinton pp 127-29.
- ^ "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide (2002) by Samantha Power, pp 329-90. online
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. p. 242.
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) p. 192.
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) p. 214.
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) p. 293.
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) p. 251
- ^ Christopher, Chances of a Lifetime. (2001) p. 225.
- ^  Archived May 16, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Warren Christopher profile at". International Hot Spots/UCLA Spotlight. March 1, 2003. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- ^ "Lynn Southgate Christopher (date of birth: 05/30/1952)". CaliforniaBirthIndex.org. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- ^ Scheer, Robert (February 21, 1993). "Clinton's Globe-trotter: Secretary of State Warren Christopher Knows the Power of Being an Insider With a Social Conscience. And He's Carrying it Into the Global Arena". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
- ^ "Scott W. Christopher (date of birth: 12/27/1967)". CaliforniaBirthIndex.org. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- ^ "Thomas W Christopher (date of birth: 07/24/1967)". CaliforniaBirthIndex.org. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- ^ "Kristen I. Christopher (date of birth: 03/26/1963)". CaliforniaBirthIndex.org. Retrieved April 27, 2016.
- ^ Theodore Roosevelt Rough Rider Award — North Dakota Office of the Governor
- ^ "Honorary Chairs". World Justice Project. Archived from the original on 2009-01-05. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
- ^ "About the". World Justice Project. Archived from the original on 2010-02-03. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
- ^ Tripp, Leslie (2011-03-19). "Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher dies". CNN. Retrieved 2011-03-19.
- ^ a b c "Former US Secretary of State Warren Christopher dies". BBC. March 19, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ "Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher dies at 85". msnbc.com. March 19, 2011. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ "Obama on Christopher: 'Resolute pursuer of peace'". USA Today. March 19, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ Hillary Clinton (March 19, 2011). "Passing of Warren Christopher". State Department. Archived from the original on March 21, 2011. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- ^ Megan Matteucci (March 19, 2011). "Former Secretary of State Warren Christopher dies at 85". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved March 19, 2011.
- Cameron, Fraser. US foreign policy after the cold war: global hegemon or reluctant sheriff? (Routledge, 2006).
- Chollet, Derek. The Road to the Dayton Accords (Palgrave Macmillan, New York, 2005). excerpt
- Dumbrell, John. "President Clinton's Secretaries of State: Warren Christopher and Madeleine Albright". Journal of transatlantic studies 6.3 (2008): 217–227.
- Girard, Philippe. Clinton in Haiti: the 1994 US invasion of Haiti. (Springer, 2004).
- Hamilton, Nigel. Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency (Public Affairs, 2007), with numerous chapters on foreign-policy; excerpt
- Hyland, William G. . Clinton's World: Remaking American Foreign Policy (1999) excerpt; also online
- Larres, Klaus. "'Bloody as Hell' Bush, Clinton and the Abdication of American Leadership in the Former Yugoslavia, 1990–1995". Journal Of European Integration History 10 (2004): 179–202. [https://www.cvce.eu/content/publication/2013/6/17/454ffc3e-05f7-4357-a721-c695b0ac9157/publishable_en.pdf online pp 179–202.
- Levy, Peter B. Encyclopedia of the Clinton presidency (Greenwood, 2002)
- Maney, Patrick J. Bill Clinton: New Gilded Age President (2016). Scholarly survey; Christopher's foreign policy on pages 116–40.
- Murray, Leonie. Clinton, peacekeeping and humanitarian interventionism: rise and fall of a policy (Routledge, 2007).
- Power, Samantha. "A Problem from Hell": America and the Age of Genocide (2002) covers Bosnia, Kosovo, Srebenica, and Rwanda; Pulitzer Prize.online free to borrow
- Christopher, Warren. Chances of a Lifetime: A Memoir (2001) online
- Christopher, Warren. In the Stream of History: Shaping Foreign Policy for a New Era (1998) 37 episodes as Secretary of State, with commentary and speeches online
- Nelson, Michael, et al. eds. 42: Inside the Presidency of Bill Clinton (Miller Center of Public Affairs Books, 2016) excerpt pp 193–233, analysis of interviews with insiders on Bosnia, Kosovo, Northern Ireland, and the Middle East.
Last edited on 27 April 2021, at 15:16
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