The Wattasid dynasty
: ⵉⵡⴻⵟⵟⴰⵙⴻⵏ, Iweṭṭasen
) was a ruling dynasty
. Like the Marinid dynasty
, its rulers were of ZenataBerber
The two families were related, and the Marinids recruited many viziers
from the Wattasids.
These viziers assumed the powers of the Sultans
, seizing control of the Marinid dynasty's realm when the last Marinid, Abu Muhammad Abd al-Haqq, who had massacred many of the Wattasids in 1459, was murdered during a popular revolt in Fez
Morocco endured a prolonged multifaceted crisis in the 15th and early 16th centuries brought about by economic, political, social and cultural issues. Population growth remained stagnant and traditional commerce with the far south was cut off as the Portuguese occupied all seaports. At the same time, the towns were impoverished, and intellectual life was on the decline.
Morocco was in decline when the Berber Wattasids assumed power. The Wattasid family had been the autonomous governors of the eastern Rif
since the late 13th century, ruling from their base in Tazouta (near present-day Nador
). They had close ties to the Marinid sultans and provided many of the bureaucratic elite. While the Marinid dynasty
tried to repel the Portuguese and Spanish invasions and help the kingdom of Granada
to outlive the Reconquista
, the Wattasids accumulated absolute power through political maneuvering. When the Marinids became aware of the extent of the conspiracy, they slaughtered the Wattasids, leaving only Abu Abd Allah al-Sheikh Muhammad ibn Yahya
alive. He went on to found the Kingdom of Fez
and establish the dynasty
to be succeeded by his son, Mohammed al-Burtuqali, in 1504.
The Wattasid rulers failed in their promise to protect Morocco from foreign incursions and the Portuguese increased their presence on Morocco's coast. Mohammad al-Chaykh's son attempted to capture Asilah
in 1508, 1511 and 1515, but without success.
In the south, a new dynasty arose, the Saadian dynasty, which seized Marrakesh
in 1524 and made it their capital. By 1537 the Saadis were in the ascendent when they defeated the Portuguese Empire
. Their military successes contrast with the Wattasid policy of conciliation towards the Catholic
kings to the north.
As a result, the people of Morocco tended to regard the Saadians as heroes, making it easier for them to retake the Portuguese strongholds on the coast, including Tangiers, Ceuta
. The Saadians also attacked the Watttasids who were forced to yield to the new power. In 1554, as Wattasid towns surrendered, the Wattasid sultan, Ali Abu Hassun
, briefly retook Fez. The Saadis quickly settled the matter by killing him and, as the last Wattasids fled Morocco by ship, they too were murdered by pirates.
The Wattasid did little to improve general conditions in Morocco following the Reconquista. It was necessary to wait for the Saadians for order to be reestablished and the expansionist ambitions of the kingdoms of the Iberian peninsula to be curbed.
Known Wattasid coins include a few extremely rare gold coins and also square silver dirhams
and half dirhams, still following the Almohad Caliphate
standard of roughly 1.5 grams.
Chronology of events
- ^ Album, Stephen. A Checklist of Islamic Coins, Second Edition, January 1998, Santa Rosa, CA
- Brancato, Dario (2014). "'Leo Africanus' and His Worlds of Translation". In Federici, F.; Tessicini, D. (eds.). Translators, Interpreters, and Cultural Negotiators: Mediating and Communicating Power from the Middle Ages to the Modern Era. Palgrave Macmillan.
- Bosworth, C.E. (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Columbia University Press.
Last edited on 14 March 2021, at 23:50
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