The Western world
, also known as the West
, refers to various regions
, depending on the context, most often consisting of the majority of Europe
, and Australasia
The Western world is also known as the Occident
(from the Latin
, "sunset, West
"), in contrast to the Orient
(from the Latin word oriens
, "rise, East") or Eastern world
. It might mean the Northern half of the North–South divide
and Ancient Rome[d]
are generally considered to be the birthplaces of Western civilization—Greece having heavily influenced Rome—the former due to its impact on philosophy
, as well as building designs and proportions and architecture
; the latter due to its influence on art
. Western civilization is also strongly associated with Christianity
(and to a lesser extent, with Judaism
), which is in turn shaped by Hellenistic philosophy
and Roman culture
In the modern era, Western culture
has been heavily influenced by the Renaissance
, the Ages of Discovery
and the Industrial
and Scientific Revolutions
Through extensive imperialism
by some Western powers in the 15th to 20th centuries
and later exportation of mass culture
, much of the rest of the world has been extensively influenced by Western culture, in a phenomenon often called Westernization
Over time, their associated empires
grew first to the east and west to include the rest of Mediterranean
and Black Sea
coastal areas, conquering and absorbing. Later, they expanded to the north of the Mediterranean Sea
to include Western
, and Southeastern Europe
. Christianization of Ireland
(5th century), Christianization of Bulgaria
(9th century), Christianization of Kievan Rus'
; 10th century), Christianization of Scandinavia
; 12th century) and Christianization of Lithuania
(14th century) brought the rest of present-day European territory into Western civilization.
Historians, such as Carroll Quigley
in "The Evolution of Civilizations"
contend that Western civilization was born around AD 500, after the total collapse of the Western Roman Empire
, leaving a vacuum for new ideas to flourish that were impossible in Classical societies. In either view, between the fall
of the Western Roman Empire and the Renaissance, the West (or those regions that would later become the heartland of the culturally "western sphere") experienced a period of first, considerable decline,
and then readaptation, reorientation and considerable renewed material, technological and political development. This whole period of roughly a millennium is known as the Middle Ages
, its early part forming the "Dark Ages
", designations that were created during the Renaissance
and reflect the perspective on history, and the self-image, of the latter period.
There is debate among some as to whether Latin America
as a whole is in a category of its own.
should be categorized as "East" or "West"
has been "an ongoing discussion" for centuries.
Specifically, Western culture may imply:
- a Biblical Christian cultural influence in spiritual thinking, customs and either ethic or moral traditions, around the Post-Classical Era and after.
- European cultural influences concerning artistic, musical, folkloric, ethic and oral traditions, whose themes have been further developed by Romanticism.
- a Graeco-Roman Classical and Renaissance cultural influence, concerning artistic, philosophic, literary, and legal themes and traditions, the cultural social effects of migration period and the heritages of Celtic, Germanic, Slavic, and other ethnic groups, as well as a tradition of rationalism in various spheres of life, developed by Hellenistic philosophy, Scholasticism, Renaissance humanism, the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment.
The concept of Western culture is generally linked to the classical definition of the Western world
. In this definition, Western culture is the set of literary, scientific, political, artistic, and philosophical principles that set it apart from other civilizations. Much of this set of traditions and knowledge is collected in the Western canon
The term has come to apply to countries whose history is strongly marked by European immigration or settlement, such as the Americas, and Oceania
, and is not restricted to Europe.
The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East
originated in the ancient
tyrannical and imperialistic Graeco-Roman
The Eastern Mediterranean
was home to the highly urbanized cultures that had Greek
as their common language (owing to the older empire of Alexander the Great
and of the Hellenistic successors
.), whereas the West was much more rural in its character and more readily adopted Latin as its common language. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the beginning of the Medieval times (or Middle Ages
), Western and Central Europe were substantially cut off from the East where Byzantine
Greek culture and Eastern Christianity
became founding influences in the Eastern European world such as the Eastern and Southern Slavic peoples.
Western and Central Europe, as such, maintained a distinct identity particularly as it began to redevelop during the Renaissance. Even following the Protestant Reformation
, Protestant Europe continued to see itself as more tied to Roman Catholic Europe than other parts of the perceived civilized world
. Use of the term West
as a specific cultural and geopolitical term developed over the course of the Age of Exploration
as Europe spread its culture to other parts of the world. Roman Catholics
were the first major religious group to immigrate to the New World
, as settlers in the colonies of Spain
(and later, France
) belonged to that faith. English
colonies, on the other hand, tended to be more religiously diverse. Settlers to these colonies included Anglicans
, Dutch Calvinists
, English Puritans
and other nonconformists
, English Catholics
, Scottish Presbyterians
, French Huguenots
, German and Swedish Lutherans
, as well as Quakers
, and Moravians
Ancient Greek-Hellenistic worlds (13th–1st centuries BC)
The then Hellenic
division between the barbarians
(term used by Ancient Greeks for all non-Greek-speaking people) and the Greeks
contrasted in many societies the Greek-speaking
culture of the Greek settlements around the Mediterranean to the surrounding non-Greek cultures. Herodotus
considered the Persian Wars
of the early 5th century BC a conflict of Europa versus Asia (which he considered all land north and east of the Sea of Marmara
, respectively).
The Greeks would highlight the lack of freedom in the Persian world, something that they viewed as antithetical to their culture.
The terms "West"
and "East" were not used by any Greek author to describe that conflict. The anachronistic application of those terms to that division entails a stark logical contradiction, given that the term "West"
has been used to distinguish Latin-speaking peoples from their Greek-speaking neighbors.
According to a few writers, the future conquest of parts of the Roman Empire by Germanic peoples and the subsequent dominance by the Western Christian Papacy
(which held combined political and spiritual authority, a state of affairs
absent from Greek civilization in all its stages), resulted in a rupture of the previously existing ties between the Latin West and Greek thought,
including Christian Greek thought.
Ancient Roman world (509 BC–AD 476)
The Roman Republic
in 218 BC after having managed the conquest of most of the Italian peninsula, on the eve of its most successful and deadliest war with the Carthaginians
The Roman Empire
in AD 117. During 350 years the Roman Republic turned into an Empire expanding up to twenty-five times its area
on Roman Empire between AD 100–500
(753 BC – AD 476) was a civilization
that grew from a city-state
founded on the Italian Peninsula
about the 8th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. In its 10-centuries expansion, Roman civilization shifted from a small monarchy
(753 – 509 BC), to a republic
(509 – 27 BC), to an autocratic
empire (27 BC – AD 476). It came to dominate Western, Central and Southeastern Europe and the entire area surrounding the Mediterranean Sea through conquest using the Roman legions
and then through cultural assimilation
by eventually giving Roman citizenship privileges to the whole population. Nonetheless, despite its great legacy, a number of factors led to the eventual decline and fall of the Roman Empire
The Roman Empire
succeeded the approximately 500-year-old Roman Republic
510 BC – 30 BC), which had been weakened by the conflict between Gaius Marius
and the civil war of Julius Caesar
and Marcus Brutus
. During these struggles hundreds of senators were killed, and the Roman Senate
had been refilled with loyalists[vague]
of the First Triumvirate
and later those of the Second Triumvirate
In 350 years, from the successful and deadliest war
with the Phoenicians
began in 218 BC to the rule of Emperor Hadrian
by AD 117, Ancient Rome expanded up to twenty-five times its area. The same time passed before its fall in AD 476. Rome had expanded long before the empire reached its zenith with the conquest of Dacia
in AD 106, under Emperor Trajan. During its territorial peak, the Roman Empire controlled about 5,000,000 square kilometres (1,900,000 sq mi) of land surface and had a population of 100 million. From the time of Caesar (100 – 44 BC) to the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, Rome dominated Southern Europe
, the Mediterranean coast of Northern Africa
and the Levant
, including the ancient trade routes
with population living outside. Ancient Rome has contributed greatly to the development of law, war, art, literature, architecture, technology and language in the Western world
, and its history
continues to have a major influence on the world today. Latin language
has been the base from which Romance languages
evolved and it has been the official language of the Catholic Church
and all Catholic religious ceremonies all over Europe until 1967, as well as an or the official language of countries such as Poland (9th–18th centuries).
In AD 395, a few decades before its Western collapse, the Roman Empire formally split into a Western
and an Eastern
one, each with their own emperors, capitals, and governments, although ostensibly they still belonged to one formal Empire. The Western Roman Empire
provinces eventually were replaced by Northern EuropeanGermanic
ruled kingdoms in the 5th century due to civil wars, corruption, and devastating Germanic invasions
from such tribes as the Goths
, the Franks
and the Vandals
by their late expansion
throughout Europe. The three-day Visigoths's AD 410 sack of Rome
who had been raiding Greece not long before, a shocking time for Graeco-Romans
, was the first time after almost 800 years that Rome had fallen to a foreign enemy, and St. Jerome
, living in Bethlehem at the time, wrote that "The City which had taken the whole world was itself taken."
There followed the sack of AD 455
lasting 14 days, this time conducted by the Vandals
, retaining Rome's eternal spirit through the Holy See of Rome
(the Latin Church
) for centuries to come.
The ancient Barbarian
tribes, often composed of well-trained Roman soldiers paid by Rome to guard the extensive borders, had become militarily sophisticated 'romanized barbarians', and mercilessly slaughtered the Romans conquering their Western territories while looting their possessions.
The Roman Empire is where the idea of "the West"
began to emerge. By Rome's central location at the heart of the Empire, "West"
and "East" were terms used to denote provinces west and east of the capital itself. Therefore, Iberia
(Portugal and Spain), Gaul
(France), the Mediterranean coast of North Africa
(Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco) and Britannia
were all part of the "West"
, while Greece, Cyprus, Anatolia, Lebanon, Syria, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Libya were part of the "East". Italy itself was considered central, until the reforms of Diocletian
dividing the Empire into true two halves: Eastern and Western.
The dissolution of the Western half (nominally in AD 476, but in truth a long process that ended by AD 800) left only the Eastern Roman Empire alive. The East continued to call themselves Eastern Romans even after AD 610 – 800 when the official language of the empire was Latin, and the Pope crowned Charlemagne
as Emperor of the Romans
. The West began thinking in terms of Western Latins (those living in the old Western Empire) and Eastern Greeks (those inside the Roman remnant to the east).
The Eastern Roman Empire
, governed from Constantinople
, is usually referred to as the Byzantine Empire
after AD 476, the traditional date for the "fall of the Western Roman Empire" and beginning of the Early Middle Ages
. The Eastern Roman Empire surviving the fall of the Western protected Roman legal and cultural traditions, combining them with Greek and Christian elements, for another thousand years. The name Byzantine Empire was used after the Byzantine Empire ended, the inhabitants calling themselves Romans since the term “Roman” was meant to signify all Christians
Middle Ages: Byzantine Empire (AD 395–1450), Holy Roman Empire (AD 800/962–1806), East-West Schism (AD 1054), Protestant Reformation (1500s)
As the Eastern (Orthodox)
and Western (Catholic) churches spread their influence, the line between Eastern and Western Christianity was moving. Its movement was affected by the influence of the Byzantine empire and the fluctuating power and influence of the Catholic church in Rome. The geographic line of religious division approximately followed a line of cultural divide
The influential American conservative political scientist
, adviser and academic Samuel P. Huntington
argued that this cultural division still existed during the Cold War as the approximate Western boundary of those countries that were allied with the Soviet Union
Map of the Byzantine Empire in AD 1180 on the eve of the Latin Fourth Crusade
In AD 800 under Charlemagne
, the Early Medieval
Franks established an empire that was recognized by the Pope
in Rome as the Holy Roman Empire
(Latin Christian revival of the ancient Roman Empire, under perpetual Germanic rule from AD 962) inheriting ancient Roman Empire's prestige but offending the Roman Emperor in Constantinople. The crowning of the Emperor by the Pope led to the assumption that the highest power was the papal hierarchy
, quintessential Roman Empire's spiritual heritage authority, establishing then, until the Protestant Reformation, the civilization of Western Christendom
The Latin Rite
Catholic Church of western and central Europe split with the eastern Greek-speaking
Patriarchates in the Christian East–West Schism
, also known as the "Great Schism", during the Gregorian Reforms
(calling for a more central status of the Roman Catholic Church Institution), three months after Pope Leo IX
's death in April 1054.
Following the 1054 Great Schism
, both the Western
Church and Eastern
Church continued to consider themselves uniquely
orthodox and catholic. Augustine
wrote in On True Religion: "Religion is to be sought... only among those who are called Catholic or orthodox Christians, that is, guardians of truth and followers of right."
Over time, the Western Church
gradually identified with the "Catholic" label, and people of Western Europe gradually associated the "Orthodox" label with the Eastern Church (although in some languages the "Catholic" label is not necessarily identified with the Western Church). This was in note of the fact that both Catholic and Orthodox were in use as ecclesiastical adjectives as early as the 2nd and 4th centuries respectively. Meanwhile, the extent of both Christendoms expanded, as Germanic peoples, Bohemia, Poland, Hungary, Scandinavia, Baltic peoples, British Isles and the other non-Christian lands of the northwest were converted by the Western Church
, while Eastern Slavic peoples, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro, Russian territories, Vlachs
and Georgia were converted by the Eastern Church
In 1071, the Byzantine army was defeated by the Muslim Turco-Persians
of medieval Asia
, resulting in the loss of most of Asia Minor
. The situation was a serious threat to the future of the Eastern Orthodox Byzantine Empire
. The Emperor sent a plea to the Pope
in Rome to send military aid to restore the lost territories to Christian rule. The result was a series of western European military campaigns into the eastern Mediterranean, known as the Crusades
. Unfortunately for the Byzantines, the crusaders (belonging to the members of nobility from France, German territories, the Low countries, England, Italy and Hungary) had no allegiance to the Byzantine Emperor and established their own states in the conquered regions, including the heart of the Byzantine Empire
Map of Byzantine Empire
(yellow), and Holy Roman Empire
at greatest extent and tied states (pink, green, purple, orange) in AD 1261, after the restoration of the Byzantine emperor.
Decline of the Byzantine Empire
(13th–15th centuries) began with the Latin Christian Fourth Crusade
in AD 1202–04, considered to be one of the most important events, solidifying the schism
between the Christian
churches of GreekByzantine Rite
and Latin Roman Rite
. An anti-Western riot
in 1182 broke out in Constantinople
targeting Latins. The extremely wealthy (after previous Crusades
in particular made a successful attempt to maintain control
over the coast of Catholic
present-day Croatia (specifically the Dalmatia
, a region of interest to the maritime
medieval Venetian Republic moneylenders and its rivals, such as the Republic of Genoa) rebelling against the Venetian economic domination.
What followed dealt an irrevocable blow to the already weakened Byzantine Empire with the Crusader army's sack of Constantinople
in April 1204, capital of the Greek Christian
-controlled Byzantine Empire
, described as one of the most profitable and disgraceful sacks of a city in history.
This paved the way for Muslim conquests in present-day Turkey
and the Balkans
in the coming centuries (only a handful of the Crusaders followed to the stated destination thereafter, the Holy Land
The geographical identity of the Balkans is historically known as a crossroads of cultures, a juncture between the Latin
bodies of the Roman Empire
, the destination of a massive influx of pagans (meaning "non-Christians"
, an area where Catholic
as well as the meeting point between Islam
and Christianity. The Papal Inquisition
was established in AD 1229 on a permanent basis, run largely by clergymen in Rome,
and abolished six centuries later. Before AD 1100, the Catholic Church suppressed
what they believed to be heresy, usually through a system of ecclesiastical proscription or imprisonment, but without using torture,
and seldom resorting to executions.
Colonialism (15th–20th centuries)
"Why do the Christian nations, which were so weak in the past compared with Muslim nations begin to dominate so many lands in modern times and even defeat the once victorious Ottoman armies?"..."Because they have laws and rules invented by reason."
In the 13th and 14th centuries, a number of European travelers, many of them Christian missionaries
, had sought to cultivate trading with Asia
. With the Crusades came the relative contraction of the Orthodox Byzantine
's large silk industry in favour of Catholic Western Europe
and the rise of Western Papacy
. The most famous of these merchant travelers
pursuing East–west trade
was Venetian Marco Polo
. But these journeys had little permanent effect on east–west trade because of a series of political developments in Asia in the last decades of the 14th century, which put an end to further European exploration of Asia: namely the new Ming
rulers were found to be unreceptive of religious proselytism by European missionaries and merchants. Meanwhile, the Ottoman Turks
consolidated control over the eastern Mediterranean
, closing off key overland trade routes.
Due to the reach of these empires, Western institutions expanded throughout the world. This process of influence (and imposition) began with the voyages of discovery
, colonization, conquest, and exploitation
enforced as well by papal bulls
in 1450s (by the fall of the Byzantine Empire
), granting Portugal navigation, war and trade monopoly for any newly discovered lands,
and competing Spanish
navigators. It continued with the rise of the Dutch East India Company
by the destabilising Spanish discovery of the New World
, and the creation and expansion of the English
colonial empires, and others.
Even after demands for self-determination from subject peoples within Western empires were met with decolonization
, these institutions persisted. One specific example was the requirement that post-colonial
societies were made to form nation-states (in the Western tradition), which often created arbitrary boundaries and borders that did not necessarily represent a whole nation, people, or culture (as in much of Africa), and are often the cause of international conflicts and friction even to this day. Although not part of Western colonization process proper, following the Middle Ages
Western culture in fact entered other global-spanning cultures during the colonial 15th–20th centuries.
In the early-19th century, the systematic urbanisation
process (migration from villages in search of jobs in manufacturing centers) had begun, and the concentration of labour into factories led to the rise in the population of the towns. World population had been rising as well. It is estimated to have first reached one billion in 1804.
Also, the new philosophical movement later known as Romanticism
originated, in the wake of the previous Age of Reason
of the 1600s and the Enlightenment
of 1700s. These are seen as fostering the 19th century Western world'
s sustained economic development.
Before the urbanisation and industrialization of the 1800s, demand for oriental
goods such as porcelain
remained the driving force behind European imperialism in Asia, and (with the important exception of British East India Company rule in India) the European stake in Asia remained confined largely to trading stations and strategic outposts necessary to protect trade. Industrialisation
, however, dramatically increased European demand for Asian raw materials; and the severe Long Depression of the 1870s provoked a scramble for new markets for European industrial products and financial services in Africa, the Americas, Eastern Europe, and especially in Asia (Western powers exploited their advantages in China
for example by the Opium Wars
This resulted in the "New Imperialism
", which saw a shift in focus from trade and indirect rule
to formal colonial control of vast overseas territories ruled as political extensions of their mother countries.[l]
The later years of the 19th century saw the transition from "informal imperialism" (hegemony
by military influence and economic dominance, to direct rule (a revival of colonial imperialism
) in the African continent
and Middle East
Western empires as they were in 1910.
By 1913, the British Empire
held sway over 412 million people, 23% of the world population at the time,
and by 1920, it covered 35,500,000 km2
(13,700,000 sq mi),
24% of the Earth's total land area.
At its apex, the phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets
" described the British Empire, because its expanse around the globe meant that the sun always shone on at least one of its territories.
As a result, its political, legal
legacy is widespread throughout the Western World
In the aftermath of the Second World War
, decolonizing efforts were employed by all Western powers under United Nations
(ex-League of Nations
) international directives.
Most of colonized nations received independence by 1960. Great Britain showed ongoing responsibility for the welfare of its former colonies as member states of the Commonwealth of Nations
. But the end of Western colonial imperialism saw the rise of Western neocolonialism
or economic imperialism. Multinational corporations came to offer "a dramatic refinement of the traditional business enterprise", through "issues as far ranging as national sovereignty, ownership of the means of production, environmental protection, consumerism, and policies toward organized labor." Though the overt colonial era had passed, Western
nations, as comparatively rich, well-armed, and culturally powerful states, wielded a large degree of influence
throughout the world, and with little or no sense of responsibility toward the peoples impacted by its multinational corporations in their exploitation of minerals and markets.
The dictum of Alfred Thayer Mahan
is shown to have lasting relevance, that whoever controls the seas controls the world.
Enlightenment (17th-18th centuries) Eric Voegelin
described the 18th-century as one where "the sentiment grows that one age has come to its close and that a new age of Western civilization is about to be born". According to Voeglin the Enlightenment (also called the Age of Reason
) represents the "atrophy of Christian transcendental experiences and [seeks] to enthrone the Newtonian
method of science as the only valid method of arriving at truth".
Its precursors were John Milton
and Baruch Spinoza
in 1638 left an enduring impact on John Milton and influenced Milton's great work Areopagitica
, where he warns that, without free speech
, inquisitorial forces will impose "an undeserved thraldom upon learning".
The achievements of the 17th century included the invention of the telescope
and acceptance of heliocentrism
. 18th century scholars continued to refine Newton's theory of gravitation
, notably Leonhard Euler
, Pierre Louis Maupertuis
, Alexis-Claude Clairaut
, Jean Le Rond d'Alembert
, Joseph-Louis Lagrange
, Pierre-Simon de Laplace
. Laplace's five-volume Treatise on Celestial Mechanics
is one of the great works of 18th-century Newtonianism. Astronomy
gained in prestige as new observatories were funded by governments and more powerful telescopes developed, leading to the discovery of new planets, asteroids
, and paving the way for improvements in navigation
. Astronomy became the second most popular scientific profession, after medicine
A common metanarrative of the Enlightenment is the "secularization theory". Modernity, as understood within the framework, means a total break with the past. Innovation and science are the good, representing the modern values of rationalism
, while faith is ruled by superstition and traditionalism.
Inspired by the Scientific Revolution, the Enlightenment embodied the ideals of improvement and progress. Descartes
and Isaac Newton
were regarded as exemplars of human intellectual achievement. Condorcet
wrote about the progress of humanity in the Sketch of the Progress of the Human Mind
(1794), from primitive society to agrarianism
, the invention of writing, the later invention of the printing press
and the advancement to "the Period when the Sciences and Philosophy threw off the Yoke of Authority".
French writer Pierre Bayle
denounced Spinoza as a pantheist
(thereby accusing him of atheism
). Bayle's criticisms garnered much attention for Spinoza. The pantheism controversy in the late 18th century saw Gotthold Lessing
attacked by Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi
over support for Spinoza's pantheism. Lessing was defended by Moses Mendelssohn
, although Mendelssohn diverged from pantheism to follow Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
in arguing that God and the world were not of the same substance (equivalency). Spinoza was excommunicated from the Dutch Sephardic
community, but for Jews who sought out Jewish sources to guide their own path to secularism, Spinoza was as important as Voltaire and Kant.
Cold War context (1947–1991)
During the Cold War
, a new definition emerged. Earth was divided into three "worlds". The First World
, analogous in this context to what was called the West
, was composed of NATO members and other countries aligned with the United States. The Second World was the Eastern bloc
in the Soviet sphere of influence
, including the Soviet Union (15 republics including the then-occupied and presently independent Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Warsaw Pact
countries like Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, East Germany (now united with Germany), and Czechoslovakia
(now split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia).
The Third World consisted of countries, many of which were unaligned with either
, and important members included India, Yugoslavia
, Finland (Finlandization
) and Switzerland (Swiss Neutrality
); some include the People's Republic of China
, though this is disputed, since the People's Republic of China, as communist, had friendly relations—at certain times—with the Soviet bloc, and had a significant degree of importance in global geopolitics. Some Third World countries aligned themselves with either the US-led West or the Soviet-led Eastern bloc.
Maps on the Cold War East–west division
Cold War colonial empires through decolonization. The global distribution of Christians: a darker shade means a higher proportion of Christians.
A number of countries did not fit comfortably into this neat definition of partition, including Switzerland, Sweden, Austria, and Ireland
, which chose to be neutral. Finland
was under the Soviet Union's
military sphere of influence (see FCMA treaty
) but remained neutral and was not communist, nor was it a member of the Warsaw Pact or Comecon but a member of the EFTA since 1986, and was west of the Iron Curtain
. In 1955, when Austria again became a fully independent republic, it did so under the condition that it remain neutral; but as a country to the west of the Iron Curtain, it was in the United States'
sphere of influence. Spain did not join the NATO until 1982, seven years after the death of the authoritarian Franco
Cold War II context
In a debated Cold War II
, a new definition emerged inside the realm of western journalism. More specifically, Cold War II,
also known as the Second Cold War, New Cold War,
Cold War Redux,
Cold War 2.0,
and Colder War,
refers to the tensions, hostilities, and political rivalry that intensified dramatically in 2014 between the Russian Federation
on the one hand, and the United States
, European Union
and some other countries on the other hand.
Tensions escalated in 2014 after Russia's annexation of Crimea
, military intervention in Ukraine
, and the 2015 Russian military intervention in the Syrian Civil War
By August 2014, both sides had implemented economic, financial, and diplomatic sanctions upon each other: virtually all Western countries, led by the US and EU, imposed restrictive measures
on Russia; the latter reciprocally introduced retaliatory measures
The exact scope of the Western world
is somewhat subjective in nature, depending on whether cultural, economic, spiritual or political criteria are employed. It is a generally accepted western view to recognize the existence of at least three "major worlds" (or "cultures", or "civilizations"), broadly in contrast with the Western: the Eastern world
, the Arab
and the African
worlds, with no clearly specified boundaries. Additionally, Latin American
worlds are sometimes separately considered "akin" to the West.
Many anthropologists, sociologists and historians oppose "the West and the Rest" in a categorical manner.
The same has been done by Malthusian demographers with a sharp distinction between European and non-European family systems. Among anthropologists, this includes Durkheim
As the term "Western world
" does not have a strict international definition, governments do not use the term in legislation of international treaties
and instead rely on other definitions.
In the 20th century, Christianity declined
in influence in many Western countries, mostly in the European Union where some member states have experienced falling church attendance and membership in recent years,
and also elsewhere. Secularism
(separating religion from politics and science) increased. However, while church attendance is in decline, in some western countries (i.e. Italy, Poland and Portugal) more than half the people state that religion is important
and most Westerners nominally identify themselves as Christians (e.g. 59% in the United Kingdom) and attend church on major occasions, such as Christmas and Easter. In the Americas, Christianity continues to play an important societal role, though in areas such as Canada, a low level of religiosity is common due to a European-type secularization. The official religions
of the United Kingdom and some Nordic countries are forms of Christianity, while the majority of European countries have no official religion. Despite this, Christianity, in its different forms, remains the largest faith in most Western countries.
countries also are the most keen on digital and televisual media technologies, as they were in the postwar period on television and radio: from 2000 to 2014, the Internet
's market penetration
in the West
was twice that in non-Western
Wikipedia has been blocked intermittently in China since 2004.
The term "Western world"
is sometimes interchangeably used with the term First World
or developed countries
, stressing the difference between First World and the Third World
or developing countries
. This usage occurs despite the fact that many countries that may be culturally "Western" are developing countries
– in fact, a significant percentage of the Americas are developing countries. It is also used despite many developed countries or regions
not being Western (e.g. Japan
, South Korea
, Hong Kong
), and therefore left out when "Western world
" is used to denote developed countries. Privatization
policies (involving government enterprises and public services) and multinational corporations
are often considered a visible sign of Western nations's economic presence, especially in Third World countries, and represent common institutional environment for powerful politicians, enterprises, trade unions and firms, bankers and thinkers of the Western world
Countries by income group
The Western world based-on Samuel P. Huntington
's 1996 Clash of Civilizations
. Latin America
, depicted in turquoise, could be considered a sub-civilization within Western civilization, or a distinct civilization intimately related to the West and descended from it. For political consequences, the second option is the most adequate.
Huntington's map of major civilizations.
What constitutes Western civilization in post-Cold War
world is coloured dark blue. He also dwells that Latin America (shown in purple) is either a sub-civilization within Western civilization or a separate civilization akin to the West. Turkey, Russia, and Mexico
are considered "torn countries" that are either already part of the West or in the process of joining the West.
American political scientist, adviser and academic Samuel P. Huntington
considered Latin America as separate from the Western world
for the purpose of his geopolitical analysis.
However, he also states that, while in general researchers consider that the West
has three main components (European, North American and Latin American), in his view, Latin America has followed a different development path from Europe and North America. Although it is a scion of European (mainly Spanish and Portuguese) civilization, it also incorporates, to an extent, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from North America and Europe. It has had a corporatist and authoritarian culture that Europe had to a much lesser extent. Both Europe and North America felt the effects of the Reformation and combined Catholic and Protestant culture. Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this is changing due to the influx of Protestants into the region. Some regions in Latin America incorporate indigenous cultures, which did not exist in Europe and were effectively annihilated in the United States, and whose importance oscillates between two extremes: Mexico, Central America, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, on the one hand, and Uruguay, Brazil, Chile and Argentina on the other. However, he does mention that the modus operandi of the Catholic Church was to incorporate native elements of pagan European cultures into the general dogma of Catholicism, and the Native American elements could be perceived in the same way.
Subjectively, Latin Americans are divided when it comes to identifying themselves. Some say: "Yes, we are part of the West." Others say: "No, we have our own unique culture"; and a vast bibliographical material produced by Latin Americans and North Americans exposes in detail their cultural differences. Huntington goes on to mention that Latin America could be considered a sub-civilization within Western civilization, or a separate civilization intimately related to the West and divided as to its belonging to it. While the second option is the most appropriate and useful for an analysis focused on the international political consequences of civilizations, including relations between Latin America, on the one hand, and North America and Europe, on the other, he also mentions that the underlying conflict of Latin America belonging to the West must eventually be addressed in order to develop a cohesive Latin American identity.
Huntington's view has, however, been contested on a number of occasions as biased.
Views on torn countries
According to Samuel P. Huntington
, some countries are torn on whether they are Western or not, with typically the national leadership pushing for Westernization
, while historical, cultural and traditional forces remain largely non-Western.
These include Turkey
, whose political leadership has since the 1920s tried to Westernize the predominantly Muslim
country with only 3% of its territory within Europe. It is his chief example of a "torn country" that is attempting to join Western civilization.
The country's elite started the Westernization
efforts, beginning with Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
, who took power as the first president of the modern Turkish nation-state in 1923, imposed western institutions and dress, removed the Arabic alphabet and embraced the Latin alphabet. It joined NATO and since the 1960s has been seeking to join the European Union
with very slow progress.
Mexico and Russia are also considered to be torn by Huntington. He also gives the example of Australia as a country torn between its Western civilizational heritage and its growing economic engagement with Asia.
A series of scholars of civilization, including Arnold J. Toynbee
, Alfred Kroeber
and Carroll Quigley
have identified and analyzed "Western civilization" as one of the civilizations
that have historically existed and still exist today. Toynbee entered into quite an expansive mode, including as candidates those countries or cultures who became so heavily influenced by the West as to adopt these borrowings into their very self-identity. Carried to its limit, this would in practice include almost everyone within the West, in one way or another. In particular, Toynbee refers to the intelligentsia
formed among the educated elite of countries impacted by the European expansion of centuries past. While often pointedly nationalist, these cultural and political leaders interacted within the West to such an extent as to change both themselves and the West.
Palestinian-American literary critic Edward Said
uses the term "Occident" in his discussion of Orientalism
. According to his binary
, the West, or Occident, created a romanticized vision of the East, or Orient, to justify colonial and imperialist intentions. This Occident-Orient binary focuses on the Western vision of the East instead of any truths about the East. His theories are rooted in Hegel
's master-slave dialectic
: The Occident would not exist without the Orient and vice versa.
Further, Western writers created this irrational, feminine, weak "Other" to contrast with the rational, masculine, strong West because of a need to create a difference between the two that would justify imperialist ambitions, according to the Said-influenced Indian-American theorist Homi K. Bhabha
Map illustrations of the West according to different but closely interrelated definitions
Division of the Roman Empire
after 395 into western and eastern part. The geopolitical divisions in Europe that created a concept of East
originated in the Roman Empire.
Latin alphabet world distribution. The dark green areas show the countries where this alphabet is the sole official (or de facto official) national script. The light green places show the countries where the alphabet co-exists with other scripts.
Countries with 50% or more Christians
are colored purple while countries with 10% to 50% Christians are colored pink
Map showing relative degree of religiosity by country. Based on a 2006–2008 worldwide survey by Gallup.
European Union (in blue) and European Free Trade Association (in green).
Legal systems of the world.
Secular states in blue.
Relative geographic prevalence of Christianity versus the second most prevalent religion Islam
and lack of either religion, in 2006.
From a very different perspective, it has also been argued that the idea of the West is, in part, a non-Western invention, deployed in the non-West to shape and define non-Western pathways through or against modernity.
Representation in the United Nations
- ^ Including outermost regions of the European Union such as Madeira and the Canary Islands, which are part of Western European countries despite not being geographically located in Europe.
- ^ Latin America's status as Western is disputed by some researchers.
See notes:[n 1][n 2][n 3][n 4][n 5][n 6][n 7][n 8][n 9]
See notes [n 10][n 11][n 12][n 13][n 14]
- ^See notes [n 15][n 16][n 17][n 18][n 19]
- ^ Several dates are commonly proposed to mark the transition from Republic to Empire, including the date of Julius Caesar's appointment as perpetual Roman dictator (44 BC), the victory of Caesar's heir Octavian at the Battle of Actium (2, 31 September BC), and the Roman Senate's granting to Octavian the honorific Augustus. (16, 27 January BC). Octavian/Augustus officially proclaimed that he had saved the Roman Republic and carefully disguised his power under republican forms: Consuls continued to be elected, tribunes of the plebeians continued to offer legislation, and senators still debated in the Roman Curia. However, it was Octavian who influenced everything and controlled the final decisions, and in final analysis, had the legions to back him up, if it became necessary.
- ^ Others have fiercely criticized these views arguing they confuse the Eastern Roman Empire with Russia, especially considering the fact that the country that had the most historical roots in Byzantium (Greece) expelled communists and was allied with the West during the Cold War. Still, Russia accepted Eastern Christianity from the Byzantine Empire (by the Patriarch of Constantinople: Photios I) linking Russia very close to the Eastern Roman Empire world. Later on, in 16th century Russia created its own religious centre in Moscow. Religion survived in Russia beside severe persecution carrying values alternative to the communist ideology.
- ^ The Dalmatia remained under Venice domination throughout next centuries (even constituting an Italian territorial claim by the Treaty of Versailles in the aftermath of the First World War and through successive Italy's fascist period's demands).
- ^ These changes were adopted by the Scandinavian kings. Later, French commoner Jean Cauvin (John Calvin) assumed the religio-political leadership in Geneva, a former ecclesiastical city whose prior ruler had been the bishop. The English king later improvised on the Lutheran model, but subsequently many Calvinist doctrines were adopted by popular dissenters paralleling the struggles between the King and Parliament lead to the English Civil War (1642–1651) between royalists and parliamentarians, while both colonized North America eventually resulting in an independent United States of America (1776) during the Industrial Revolution.
- ^ Portuguese sailors began exploring the coast of Africa and the Atlantic archipelagos in 1418–19, using recent developments in navigation, cartography and maritime technology such as the caravel, in order that they might find a sea route to the source of the lucrative spice trade. In 1488, Bartolomeu Dias rounded the southern tip of Africa under the sponsorship of Portugal's John II, from which point he noticed that the coast swung northeast (Cape of Good Hope). In 1492 Christopher Columbus would land on an island in the Bahamas archipelago on behalf of the Spanish, and documenting the Atlantic Ocean's routes would be granted a Coat of Arms by Pope Alexander VI motu proprio in 1502. With the discovery of the American continent or 'New World' in 1492–1493, the European colonial Age of Discovery and exploration was born, revisiting an imperialistic view accompanied by the invention of firearms, while marking the start of the Modern Era. During this long period the Catholic Church launched a major effort to spread Christianity in the New World and to convert the Native Americans and others. A 'Modern West' emerged from the Late Middle Ages (after the Renaissance and fall of Constantinople) as a new civilization greatly influenced by the interpretation of Greek thought preserved in the Byzantine Empire, and transmitted from there by Latin translations and emigration of Greek scholars through Renaissance humanism. (Popular typefaces such as italics were inspired and designed from transcriptions during this period.) Renaissance architectural works, revivals of Classical and Gothic styles, flourished during this modern period throughout Western colonial empires. In 1497 Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama made the first open voyage from Europe to India. In 1520, Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese navigator in the service of the Crown of Castile ('Spain'), found a sea route into the Pacific Ocean.
- ^ In the 16th century, the Portuguese broke the (overland) Medieval monopoly of the Arabs and Italians of trade (goods and slaves) between Asia and Europe by the discovery of the sea route to India around the Cape of Good Hope. With the ensuing rise of the rival Dutch East India Company, Portuguese influence in Asia was gradually eclipsed; Dutch forces first established fortified independent bases in the East and then between 1640 and 1660 wrestled some southern Indian ports, and the lucrative Japan trade from the Portuguese. Later, the English and the French established some settlements in India and trade with China, and their own acquisitions would gradually surpass those of the Dutch. In 1763, the British eliminated French influence in India and established the British East India Company as the most important political force on the Indian Subcontinent.
- ^ Although Christianized by early Middle Ages, Ireland is soon colonised in 16th- and 17th-century with settlers from the neighboring island of Great Britain (several people committed in the establishment of these colonies in Ireland, would later also colonise North America initiating the British Empire), while Iceland still uninhabited long after the rest of Western Europe had been settled, by 1397–1523 would eventually be united in one alliance with all of the Nordic states (kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden and Norway).
- ^ The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914. It is also called the 'Partition of Africa' and by some the 'Conquest of Africa'. In 1870, only 10 percent of Africa was under formal Western/European control; by 1914 it had increased to almost 90 percent of the continent, with only Ethiopia (Abyssinia), the Dervish state (a portion of present-day Somalia) and Liberia still being independent.
- ^ In ancient Greece (8th century BC – AD 6th century), hegemony denoted the politico-military dominance of a city-state over other city-states. The dominant state is known as the hegemon.
- ^ Ricardo Duchesne (7 February 2011). The Uniqueness of Western Civilization. BRILL. p. 297. ISBN 978-90-04-19248-5. The list of books which have celebrated Greece as the "cradle" of the West is endless; two more examples are Charles Freeman's The Greek Achievement: The Foundation of the Western World (1999) and Bruce Thornton's Greek Ways: How the Greeks Created Western Civilization (2000)
- ^ Chiara Bottici; Benoît Challand (11 January 2013). The Myth of the Clash of Civilizations. Routledge. p. 88. ISBN 978-1-136-95119-0. The reason why even such a sophisticated historian as Pagden can do it is that the idea that Greece is the cradle of civilisation is so much rooted in western minds and school curicula as to be taken for granted.
- ^ William J. Broad (2007). The Oracle: Ancient Delphi and the Science Behind Its Lost Secrets. Penguin Publishing Group. p. 120. ISBN 978-0-14-303859-7. In 1979, a friend of de Boer's invited him to join a team of scientists that was going to Greece to assess the suitability of the ... But the idea of learning more about Greece — the cradle of Western civilization, a fresh example of tectonic forces at ...
- ^ Maura Ellyn; Maura McGinnis (2004). Greece: A Primary Source Cultural Guide. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-8239-3999-2.
- ^ John E. Findling; Kimberly D. Pelle (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-313-32278-5.
- ^ Wayne C. Thompson; Mark H. Mullin (1983). Western Europe, 1983. Stryker-Post Publications. p. 337. ISBN 9780943448114. for ancient Greece was the cradle of Western culture ...
- ^ Frederick Copleston (1 June 2003). History of Philosophy Volume 1: Greece and Rome. A&C Black. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8264-6895-6. PART I PRE-SOCRATIC PHILOSOPHY CHAPTER II THE CRADLE OF WESTERN THOUGHT:
- ^ Mario Iozzo (2001). Art and History of Greece: And Mount Athos. Casa Editrice Bonechi. p. 7. ISBN 978-88-8029-435-1. The capital of Greece, one of the world's most glorious cities and the cradle of Western culture,
- ^ Marxiano Melotti (25 May 2011). The Plastic Venuses: Archaeological Tourism in Post-Modern Society. Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-4438-3028-7. In short, Greece, despite having been the cradle of Western culture, was then an “other” space separate from the West.
- ^ Library Journal. 97. Bowker. April 1972. p. 1588. Ancient Greece: Cradle of Western Culture (Series), disc. 6 strips with 3 discs, range: 44–60 fr., 17–18 min
- ^ Stanley Mayer Burstein (2002). Current Issues and the Study of Ancient History. Regina Books. p. 15. ISBN 978-1-930053-10-6. and making Egypt play the same role in African education and culture that Athens and Greece do in Western culture.
- ^ Murray Milner, Jr. (8 January 2015). Elites: A General Model. John Wiley & Sons. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-7456-8950-0. Greece has long been considered the seedbed or cradle of Western civilization.
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- ^ Kim Covert (1 July 2011). Ancient Greece: Birthplace of Democracy. Capstone. p. 5. ISBN 978-1-4296-6831-6. Ancient Greece is often called the cradle of western civilization. ... Ideas from literature and science also have their roots in ancient Greece.
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- ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish). The origin of western civilization is usually dated to 700 or 800 AD. In general, researchers consider that it has three main components, in Europe, Northern America and Latin America. [...] However, Latin America has followed a quite different development path from Europe and Northern America. Although it is a scion of European civilization, it also incorporates more elements of indigenous American civilizations compared to those of Northern America and Europe. It also currently has had a more corporatist and authoritarian culture. Both Europe and Northern America felt the effects of Reformation and combination of Catholic and Protestant cultures. Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this may be changing. [...] Latin America could be considered, or a sub-set, within Western civilization, or can also be considered a separate civilization, intimately related to the West, but divided as to whether it belongs with it.
- ^ a b Huntington, Samuel P. (2 August 2011). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. Simon & Schuster. pp. 151–154. ISBN 978-1451628975.
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- ^ "U.S. and other powers kick Russia out of G8". CNN.com. 25 March 2014. Retrieved 7 August 2014.
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- ^ a b Goody, Jack (2005). "The Labyrinth of Kinship". New Left Review. Retrieved 24 July 2007.
- ^ Ford, Peter (22 February 2005). "What place for God in Europe". USA Today. Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- ^ Eurostat (2005). "Social values, Science and Technology" (PDF). Special Eurobarometer 225. Europa, web portal: 9. Retrieved 11 June 2009.
- ^ See ARDA data archives: http://www.thearda.com/internationalData/regions/index.asp
- ^ a b ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Europe". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Americas". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ ANALYSIS (19 December 2011). "Global religious landscape: Christians". Pewforum.org. Retrieved 17 August 2012.
- ^ Maurice Roche (2017). Mega-Events and Social Change: Spectacle, Legacy and Public Culture. Oxford University Press. p. 329. ISBN 9781526117083.
- ^ Reid, David (15 May 2019). "China blocks Wikipedia in all languages". CNBC. Retrieved 23 May 2019.
- ^ Paul Starr, "The Meaning of Privatization," Yale Law and Policy Review 6: 6–41" 1988.
- ^ James C. W. Ahiakpor, "Multinational Corporations in the Third World: Predators or Allies in Economic Development?" 20 July 2010.
- ^ Investopedia, "Why are most multinational corporations either from the US, Europe or Japan".
- ^ Jackson J. Spielvogel, "Western Civilization: A Brief History, Volume II: Since 1500" 2016.
- ^ United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on Multinational Corporations, "Multinational corporations and United States foreign policy Part 11" 1975.
- ^ THE WORLD OF CIVILIZATIONS: POST-1990 scanned image Archived 12 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish). The origin of western civilization is usually dated to 700 or 800 AD. In general, researchers consider that it has three main components, in Europe, Northern America and Latin America. [...] However, Latin America has followed a quite different development path from Europe and Northern America. Although it is a scion of European civilization, it also incorporates, to varying degrees, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from Northern America and Europe. It has had a corporatist and authoritarian culture that Europe had to a much lesser extent and America did not have at all. Both Europe and North America felt the effects of the Reformation and combined Catholic and Protestant culture. Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this may be changing. [...] Latin America could be considered, or a sub-civilization within Western civilization, or a separate civilization, intimately related to the West and divided as to its belonging to it. [...] For an analysis focused on the international political consequences of civilizations, including relations between Latin America, on the one hand, and Northern America and Europe, on the other, the second option is the most appropriate and useful.
- ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 110–111. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish).
- ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 38–39. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish). The origin of western civilization is usually dated to 700 or 800 AD. In general, researchers consider that it has three main components, in Europe, North America and Latin America"... "However, Latin America has followed a quite different development path from Europe and North America. Although it is a scion of European civilization, it also incorporates, to varying degrees, elements of indigenous American civilizations, absent from North America and Europe. It has had a corporatist and authoritarian culture that Europe had to a much lesser extent and America did not have at all. Both Europe and North America felt the effects of the Reformation and combined Catholic and Protestant culture. Historically, Latin America has been only Catholic, although this may be changing. Latin American civilization incorporates indigenous cultures, which did not exist in Europe, which were effectively annihilated in North America, and whose importance oscillates between two extremes: Mexico, Central America, Peru and Bolivia, on the one hand, and Argentina and Chile, on the other. The political evolution and the economic development of Latin America have clearly separated from the predominant models in the North Atlantic countries. Subjectively, Latin Americans themselves are divided when it comes to identifying themselves. Some say: "Yes, we are part of the West." Others say: "No, we have our own unique culture"; and a vast bibliographical material produced by Latin Americans and North Americans exposes in detail their cultural differences. Latin America could be considered, or a sub-civilization within Western civilization, or a separate civilization, intimately related to the West and divided as to its belonging to it.
- ^ Huntington, Samuel P. (1991). Clash of Civilizations (6th ed.). Washington, D.C. pp. 148–150. ISBN 978-0-684-84441-1 – via http://www.mercaba.org/SANLUIS/Historia/Universal/Huntington,%20Samuel%20-%20El%20choque%20de%20civilizaciones.pdf (in Spanish).
- ^ Fuentes, Carlos. "Huntington and the Mask of Racism". NPQ.
- ^ Citrin, Jack; Lerman, Amy; Murakami, Michael; Pearson, Kathryn (2007). "Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic Immigration a Threat to American Identity?" (PDF). Perspectives on Politics. 5 (1): 31–48. doi:10.1017/s1537592707070041. S2CID 14565278. Archived from the original(PDF) on 30 May 2019.
- ^ Huntington, Samuel (1996). The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 43.
- ^ Samuel P. Huntington. The Clash of Civilizations and the Remaking of World Order. The Free Press. pp. 144–149.
- ^ Cf., Teilhard de Chardin, Le Phenomene Humain (1955), translated as The Phenomena of Man (New York 1959).
- ^ Bonnett, A. 2004. The Idea of the West
- Ankerl, Guy (2000). Coexisting contemporary civilizations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and West. INU societal research. 1. Global communication without universal civilization. Geneva: INU Press. ISBN 2-88155-004-5.
- Bavaj, Riccardo: "The West": A Conceptual Exploration , European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2011, retrieved: 28 November 2011.
- Conze, Vanessa, Abendland, EGO - European History Online, Mainz: Institute of European History, 2017, retrieved: March 8, 2021 (pdf).
- Daly, Jonathan. "The Rise of Western Power: A Comparative History of Western Civilization" (London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2014). ISBN 9781441161314.
- Daly, Jonathan. "Historians Debate the Rise of the West" (London and New York: Routledge, 2015). ISBN 978-1-13-877481-0.
- The Western Tradition homepage at Annenberg/CPB – where you can watch each episode on demand for free (Pop-ups required)
- J. F. C. Fuller. A Military History of the Western World. Three Volumes. New York: Da Capo Press, Inc., 1987 and 1988.
Last edited on 30 April 2021, at 02:53
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