X-SAMPA - Wikipedia
X-SAMPA
This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Find sources: "X-SAMPA" – news · newspapers ·books · scholar · JSTOR (March 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA. For the distinction between [ ], / / and ⟨ ⟩, see IPA § Brackets and transcription delimiters.
The Extended Speech Assessment Methods Phonetic Alphabet (X-SAMPA) is a variant of SAMPA developed in 1995 by John C. Wells, professor of phonetics at University College London.[1] It is designed to unify the individual language SAMPA alphabets, and extend SAMPA to cover the entire range of characters in the 1993 version of International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). The result is a SAMPA-inspired remapping of the IPA into 7-bit ASCII.
SAMPA was devised as a hack to work around the inability of text encodings to represent IPA symbols. Later, as Unicode support for IPA symbols became more widespread, the necessity for a separate, computer-readable system for representing the IPA in ASCII decreased. However, X-SAMPA is still useful as the basis for an input method for true IPA.
Summary
Notes
Lower case symbols
X-SAMPAIPAIPA imageDescriptionExamples
aa
open front unrounded vowelFrench dame [dam]
bb
voiced bilabial plosiveEnglish bed [bEd], French bon [bO~]
b_<ɓ
voiced bilabial implosiveSindhi ɓarʊ [b_<arU]
ccvoiceless palatal plosiveHungarian latyak ["lQcQk]
dd
voiced alveolar plosiveEnglish dig [dIg], French doigt [dwa]
d`ɖ
voiced retroflex plosiveSwedish hord[hu:d`]
d_<ɗ
voiced alveolar implosiveSindhi ɗarʊ [d_<arU]
eeclose-mid front unrounded vowelFrench blé [ble]
ffvoiceless labiodental fricativeEnglish five [faIv], French femme [fam]
gɡ
voiced velar plosiveEnglish game [geIm], French longue [lO~g]
g_<ɠ
voiced velar implosiveSindhi ɠəro [g_<@ro]
hh
voiceless glottal fricativeEnglish house [haUs]
h\ɦ
voiced glottal fricativeCzech hrad [h\rat]
iiclose front unrounded vowelEnglish be [bi:], French oui [wi], Spanish si [si]
jjpalatal approximantEnglish yes [jEs], French yeux [j2]
j\ʝvoiced palatal fricativeGreek γειά [j\a]
kk
voiceless velar plosiveEnglish scat [sk{t], Spanish carro ["karo]
llalveolar lateral approximantEnglish lay [leI], French mal [mal]
l`ɭretroflex lateral approximantSvealand Swedish sorl[so:l`]
l\ɺalveolar lateral flapWayuu püülükü [pM:l\MkM]
mm
bilabial nasalEnglish mouse [maUs], French homme [Om]
nn
alveolar nasalEnglish nap [n{p], French non [nO~]
n`ɳ
retroflex nasalSwedish hörn[h2:n`]
oo
close-mid back rounded vowelFrench veau [vo]
pp
voiceless bilabial plosiveEnglish speak [spik], French pose [poz], Spanish perro ["pero]
p\ɸ
voiceless bilabial fricativeJapanese fuku [p\M_0kM]
qq
voiceless uvular plosiveArabic qasbah ["qQs_Gba]
rralveolar trillSpanish perro ["pero]
r`ɽretroflex flapBengali gari [gar`i:]
r\ɹalveolar approximantEnglish red [r\Ed]
r\`ɻ
retroflex approximantMalayalam വഴി ["v@r\`i]
ssvoiceless alveolar fricativeEnglish seem [si:m], French session [sE"sjO~]
s`ʂvoiceless retroflex fricativeSwedish mars[mas`]
s\ɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal fricativePolish świerszcz [s\v'ers`ts`]
ttvoiceless alveolar plosiveEnglish stew [stju:], French raté [Ra"te]
t`ʈvoiceless retroflex plosiveSwedish mört[m2t`]
uu
close back rounded vowelEnglish boom [bu:m], Spanish su[su]
vv
voiced labiodental fricativeEnglish vest [vEst], French voix [vwa]
v\ (or P)ʋ
labiodental approximantDutch west [v\Est]/[PEst]
ww
labial-velar approximantEnglish west [wEst], French oui [wi]
xx
voiceless velar fricativeScots loch [lOx] or [5Ox]; German Buch, Dach; Spanish caja, gestión
x\ɧ
voiceless palatal-velar fricativeSwedish sjal [x\A:l]
yy
close front rounded vowelFrench tu [ty] German über ["y:b6]
zzvoiced alveolar fricativeEnglish zoo [zu:], French azote [a"zOt]
z`ʐ
voiced retroflex fricativeMandarin Chinese rang [z`aN]
z\ʑ
voiced alveolo-palatal fricativePolish źrebak ["z\rEbak]
Capital symbols
X-SAMPAIPAIPA imageDescriptionExample
Aɑ
open back unrounded vowelEnglish father ["fA:D@(r\)] (RP and Gen.Am.)
Bβ
voiced bilabial fricativeSpanish lavar [la"Ba4]
B\ʙ
bilabial trillReminiscent of shivering ("brrr")
Cçvoiceless palatal fricativeGerman ich [IC], English human ["Cjum@n] (broad transcription uses [hj-])
Dð
voiced dental fricativeEnglish then [DEn]
Eɛopen-mid front unrounded vowelFrench même [mE:m], English met [mEt] (RP and Gen.Am.)
Fɱ
labiodental nasalEnglish emphasis ["EFf@sIs] (spoken quickly, otherwise uses [Emf-])
Gɣ
voiced velar fricativeGreek γωνία [Go"nia]
G\ɢ
voiced uvular plosiveInuktitut nirivvik [niG\ivvik]
G\_<ʛ
voiced uvular implosiveMam ʛa [G\_<a]
Hɥ
labial-palatal approximantce huit [Hit]
H\ʜ
voiceless epiglottal fricativeAgul мехӀ [mEH\]
Iɪnear-close front unrounded vowelEnglish kit [kIt]
I\
near-close central unrounded vowel (non-IPA)Polish ryba [rI\bA] 
Jɲ
palatal nasalSpanish año ["aJo], English canyon ["k{J@n] (broad transcription uses [-nj-])
J\ɟvoiced palatal plosiveHungarian egy[EJ\]
J\_<ʄ
voiced palatal implosiveSindhi ʄaro [J\_<aro]
Kɬvoiceless alveolar lateral fricativeWelsh llaw [KaU]
K\ɮ
voiced alveolar lateral fricativeMongolian долоо [tOK\O:]
Lʎ
palatal lateral approximantItalian famiglia [fa"miLLa], Castilian llamar [La"mar]
L\ʟ
velar lateral approximantKorean 구지 [t6L\gudz\i]
Mɯ
close back unrounded vowelKorean [M:ms\_hik_}]
M\ɰ
velar approximantSpanish fuego ["fweM\o]
Nŋ
velar nasalEnglish thing [TIN]
N\ɴ
uvular nasalJapanese san[saN\]
Oɔopen-mid back rounded vowelAmerican English off [O:f]
O\ʘ
bilabial click 
P (or v\)ʋ
labiodental approximantDutch west [PEst]/[v\Est], allophone of English phoneme /r\/
Qɒ
open back rounded vowelRP lot [lQt]
Rʁ
voiced uvular fricativeGerman rein [RaIn]
R\ʀ
uvular trillFrench roi [R\wa]
Sʃ
voiceless postalveolar fricativeEnglish ship [SIp]
Tθ
voiceless dental fricativeEnglish thin [TIn]
Uʊ
near-close back rounded vowelEnglish foot [fUt]
U\ᵿ
near-close central rounded vowel (non-IPA)English euphoria [jU\"fO@r\i@]
Vʌ
open-mid back unrounded vowelScottish English strut [str\Vt]
Wʍ
voiceless labial-velar fricativeScots when [WEn]
Xχ
voiceless uvular fricativeKlallam sχaʔqʷaʔ​[sXa?q_wa?]
X\ħ
voiceless pharyngeal fricativeArabic <ح>ha’ [X\A:]
Yʏ
near-close front rounded vowelGerman hübsch [hYpS]
Zʒ
voiced postalveolar fricativeEnglish vision ["vIZ@n]
Other symbols
X-SAMPAIPAIPA imageDescriptionExample
..syllable break 
"ˈprimary stress 
%ˌsecondary stressAmerican English pronunciation [pr\@%nVn.si."eI.S@n]
' (or _j)ʲpalatalizedRussian Земля (Earth) [z'I"ml'a] or [z_jI"ml_ja]
:ːlong 
:\ˑhalf longEstonian differentiates three vowel lengths
- separatorPolish trzy [t-S1] vs. czy [tS1] (affricate)
@əschwaEnglish arena [@"r\i:n@]
@\ɘclose-mid central unrounded vowelPaicĩ kɘ̄ɾɘ [k@\_M4@\_M]
@`ɚ
r-coloured schwaAmerican English color["kVl@`]
{æ
near-open front unrounded vowelEnglish trap [tr\{p]
}ʉ
close central rounded vowelSwedish sju [x\}:]; AuE/NZE boot [b}:t]
1ɨclose central unrounded vowelWelsh tu [t1], American English rose's ["r\oUz1z]
2ø
close-mid front rounded vowelDanish købe ["k2:b@], French deux [d2]
3ɜopen-mid central unrounded vowelEnglish nurse [n3:s] (RP) or [n3`s] (Gen.Am.)
3\ɞ
open-mid central rounded vowelIrish tomhail [t3\:l']
4ɾalveolar flapSpanish pero ["pe4o], American English better ["bE4@`]
5ɫvelarized alveolar lateral approximant; also see _eEnglish milk [mI5k], Portuguese livro ["5iv4u]
6ɐnear-open central vowelGerman besser ["bEs6], Australian English mud [m6d]
7ɤ
close-mid back unrounded vowelEstonian kõik [k7ik], Vietnamese mơ [m7_M]
8ɵ
close-mid central rounded vowelSwedish buss [b8s]
9œ
open-mid front rounded vowelFrench neuf [n9f], Danish drømme [dR9m@]
&ɶ
open front rounded vowelSwedish skörd [x\&d`]
?ʔglottal stopCockney English bottle ["bQ?o]
?\ʕvoiced pharyngeal fricativeArabic ع (`ayn) [?\Ajn]
* undefined escape character, SAMPA's "conjunctor" 
/ indeterminacy in French vowels 
< begin nonsegmental notation (e.g., SAMPROSA) 
<\ʢvoiced epiglottal fricativeSiwi arˤbˤəʢa (four) [ar_?\b_?\@<\a]
> end nonsegmental notation 
>\ʡepiglottal plosiveArchi гӀарз (complaint) [>\arz]
^upstep 
!downstep 
!\ǃpostalveolar clickZulu iqaqa (polecat) [i:!\a:\a]
||minor (foot) group 
|\ǀdental clickZulu icici (earring) [i:|\i:|\i]
||major (intonation) group 
|\|\ǁalveolar lateral clickZulu xoxa (to converse) [|\|O:|\|a]
=\ǂpalatal click 
-\
linking mark 
Diacritics
X-SAMPAIPAIPA imageDescription
_"  ̈centralized
_+  ̟advanced
_-  ̠retracted
_/̌rising tone
_0  ̥voiceless
_< implosive (IPA uses separate symbols for implosives)
= (or _=)  ̩syllabic
_>ʼejective
_?\ˤpharyngealized
_\̂ falling tone
_^  ̯non-syllabic
_}  ̚no audible release
`˞rhotacization in vowels, retroflexion in consonants (IPA uses separate symbols for consonants, see t` for an example)
~ (or _~)  ̃nasalization
_A  ̘advanced tongue root
_a  ̺apical
_B  ̏
extra low tone
_B_L ᷅
low rising tone
_c  ̜less rounded
_d  ̪dental
_e  ̴
velarized or pharyngealized; also see 5
<F>
global fall
_F  ̂
falling tone
_Gˠvelarized
_H  ́
high tone
_H_T ᷄
high rising tone
_hʰaspirated
_j (or ')ʲpalatalized
_k  ̰creaky voice
_L  ̀
low tone
_lˡlateral release
_M  ̄
mid tone
_m  ̻laminal
_N  ̼linguolabial
_nnasal release
_O  ̹more rounded
_o  ̞lowered
_q  ̙retracted tongue root
<R>
global rise
_R  ̌
rising tone
_R_F ᷈
rising falling tone
_r  ̝raised
_T  ̋
extra high tone
_t  ̤breathy voice
_v  ̬voiced
_wʷ
labialized
_X  ̆extra-short
_x  ̽mid-centralized
Charts
Consonants
Consonants (pulmonic)
Place of articulationLabialCoronalDorsalLaryngeal
Manner of articulationBilabial
Labio‐
dental
DentalAlveolar
Post‐
alveolar
Retro‐
flex
PalatalVelarUvular
Pharyn‐
geal
Epi‐
glottal
Glottal
Nasal   m   F   n   n`   J   N   N\
Plosivep bp_db_dt dt`d`cJ\kgqG\>\?
Fricativep\BfvTDszSZs`z`Cj\xGXRX\?\H\<\hh\
Approximant   B_o   v\   r\   r\`   j   M\
Trill   B\   r   *   R\   *
Tap or Flap   *   *   4   r`   *
Lateral FricativeK K\*   *   *   
Lateral Approximant   l   l`   L   L\
Lateral Flap   l\   *   *   *
Asterisks (*) mark sounds that do not have X-SAMPA symbols. Daggers (†) mark IPA symbols that have recently been added to Unicode. Since April 2008, the latter is the case of the labiodental flap, symbolized by a right-hook v in the IPA:
. A dedicated symbol for the labiodental flap does not yet exist in X-SAMPA.
Coarticulated
WVoiceless labialized velar approximant
wVoiced labialized velar approximant
HVoiced labialized palatal approximant
s\Voiceless palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
z\Voiced palatalized postalveolar (alveolo-palatal) fricative
x\Voiceless "palatal-velar" fricative
Affricates and double articulation
tsvoiceless alveolar affricate
dzvoiced alveolar affricate
tSvoiceless postalveolar affricate
dZvoiced postalveolar affricate
ts\voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
dz\voiced alveolo-palatal affricate
tKvoiceless alveolar lateral affricate
kpvoiceless labial-velar plosive
gbvoiced labial-velar plosive
Nmlabial-velar nasal stop
Consonants (non-pulmonic)
ClicksImplosivesEjectives
O\Bilabialb_<Bilabial_>For example:
|\Laminal alveolar ("dental")d_<Alveolarp_>Bilabial
ǃ\Apical (post-) alveolar ("retroflex")J\_<Palatalt_>Alveolar
=\Laminal postalveolar ("palatal")g_<Velark_>Velar
|\|\Lateral coronal ("lateral")G\_<Uvulars_>Alveolar fricative
Vowels
FrontCentralBack
Close
i • 
y
1 • }
M • 
u
I • Y
I\ • U\
• U
e • 
2
@\ • 8
7 • 
o
e_o • 2_o
• o_o
E • 
3 • 3\
V • O
{ •
a • 
A • 
Q
Near‑close
Close‑mid
Mid
Open‑mid
Near‑open
Open
See also
References
^ Wells, J.C. "Computer-coding the IPA: a proposed extension of SAMPA" (PDF). UCL Phonetics and Linguistics. University College London. Retrieved 16 March 2016.
External links
Last edited on 27 May 2021, at 22:32
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit