The Yarmuk River
, sometimes spelled Yarmouk
: نهر اليرموك
, Nahr Al-Yarmuk
, or شريعة المناذرة
, Shariat el Menadhirah
, also Sheriat el-Mandur
: נְהַר הַיַּרְמוּךְ
, Nahar HaYarmukh
: Ἱερομύκης, Hieromýkēs
), is the largest tributary
of the Jordan River
It runs in Jordan
, and the West Bank
and drains much of the Hauran
plateau. Its main tributaries are the wadis
of 'Allan and Ruqqad
from the north, Ehreir and Zeizun from the east. Although it is narrow and shallow throughout its course, at its mouth it is nearly as wide as the Jordan, measuring thirty feet in breadth and five in depth. The once celebrated Matthew Bridge used to cross the Yarmuk at its confluence with the Jordan.
Yarmuk forms a natural border
between the plains to the north - Hauran, Bashan
- and the Gilead
mountains to the south. Thus it has often served as boundary line between political entities.
Abila (Tel Abil) is attested in the 14th-century BC Amarna Letters
. This is possibly the case also for Geshur
, assumed to have lain north of the river.
Other historical cities on the course of the river are Dara'a
; and the archaeological sites of Tell Shihab
and Khirbet ed-Duweir (See Lo-debar
In Hellenistic times, the territory of Hippos
was across from those of Gadara
(Abel) on the south, while Dion
sat on the eastern tributaries.
Israeli-Jordanian border at the confluence of the Jordan and Yarmuk Rivers
The Al-Wehda Dam
was constructed on the border between Jordan and Syria in the 2000s. There are political agreements between Jordan and Syrian (1953 and 1987) and between Jordan and Israel (1994), about the management and allocation of the shared waters of the Yarmouk River.
- ^ Schürer, Emil (2014-01-30). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ. A&C Black. page 133, note 243. ISBN 9781472558299. Retrieved 2021-04-07.
- ^ https://pleiades.stoa.org/places/678183
- ^ https://www.trismegistos.org/place/42652
- ^ It is one of three main tributaries which enter the Jordan between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea; to the south there are the Zarqa (Jabbok) and the Mujib (Arnon) rivers.
- ^ 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
- ^ a b c d e Ma'oz, p. 420
- ^ a b Ma'oz, Zvi Uri (1997). "Golan". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East. p. 418. ISBN 978-0195112153.
- ^ Yarmuk River railway bridges, 1933 aerial photographs. Aerial Photographic Archive for Archaeology in the Middle East / National Archives, London.
- ^ a b Hussein, Hussam, and Mattia Grandi. "Dynamic political contexts and power asymmetries: the cases of the Blue Nile and the Yarmouk Rivers." International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics (2017): 1-20.
Last edited on 16 May 2021, at 00:24
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