On Zengi's death, his territories were divided, with Mosul and his lands in Iraq going to his eldest son Saif ad-Din Ghazi I
, and Aleppo and Edessa falling to his second son, Nur ad-Din, atabeg of Aleppo
. Nur ad-Din proved to be as competent as his father. In 1149, he defeated Raymond of Poitiers
, Prince of Antioch
, at the battle of Inab
, and the next year conquered the remnants of the County of Edessa
west of the Euphrates
In 1154, he capped off these successes by his capture of Damascus
from the Burid dynasty
that ruled it.
Now ruling from Damascus, Nur ad-Din's success continued. Another Prince of Antioch, Raynald of Châtillon
was captured, and the territories of the Principality of Antioch
were greatly reduced. In the 1160s, Nur ad-Din's attention was mostly held by a competition with the King of Jerusalem
, Amalric of Jerusalem
, for control of the Fatimid Caliphate
. Ultimately, Nur ad-Din's Kurdish
was successful in leading an expeditionary force to prevent the Crusaders
from establishing a strong presence in an increasingly anarchic Egypt
. Shirkuh's army arrived in time and defeated the Crusaders
' army. He took control as governor of Egypt, but unexpectedly died shortly afterwards.
Shirkuh's nephew Saladin
was appointed vizier by the Fatimid
and Governor of Egypt, in 1169. Al-Adid died in 1171, and Saladin took advantage of this power vacuum, effectively taking control of the country. Upon seizing power, he switched Egypt's allegiance to the Baghdad
-based Abbasid Caliphate which adhered to Sunni Islam, rather than traditional Fatimid Shia
practice. Three years later, he was proclaimed sultan following the death of his former master, the Nur al-Din
of Zengid dynasty and established himself as the first custodian of the two holy mosques.
Nur ad-Din was preparing to invade Jerusalem
when he unexpectedly died in 1174. His son and successor As-Salih Ismail al-Malik
was only a child, and was forced to flee to Aleppo, which he ruled until 1181, when he was died and replaced by his cousin Imad al-Din Zengi II
. Saladin conquered Aleppo two years later, ending Zengid rule in Syria.
Zengid princes continued to rule in Northern Iraq Emirs of Mosul well into the 13th century, ruling Mosul and Sinjar until 1234; their rule did not come finally to an end until 1250.
Coin of Nasir ad-Din Mahmud
, mint of Mosul, depicting a female with two winged victories, 1223. British Museum.
Zengid Atabegs and Emirs of Mosul
- Zengi, 1127–1146
- Sayf al-Din Ghazi I, son of Zengi, 1146–1149
- Qutb al-Din Mawdud, son of Zengi, 1149–1170
- Sayf al-Din Ghazi II, son of Qutb al-Din Mawdud, 1170–1180
- Izz al-Din Mas'ud, son of Qutb al-Din Mawdud, 1180–1193
- Nur al-Din Arslan Shah I, son of Izz al-Din Mas'ud, 1193–1211
- Izz al-Din Mas'ud II, son of Nur al-Din Arslan Shah I, 1211–1218
- Nur al-Din Arslan Shah II, son of Izz al-Din Mas'ud II, 1218–1219
- Nasir ad-Din Mahmud, son of Izz al-Din Mas'ud, 1219–1234.
Mosul was taken over by Badr al-Din Lu'lu'
, atabeg to Nasir ad-Din Mahmud, whom he murdered in 1234.
Zengid Emirs of Aleppo
Zengid Emirs of Damascus
Damascus was conquered by Saladin
in 1174 and ruled by Ayyubids
Zengid Emirs of Sinjar
- Imad al-Din Shahanshah, son of Qutb ad-Din Muhammad, 1219–1220
- Jalal al-Din Mahmud (co-ruler), son of Qutb ad-Din Muhammad, 1219–1220
- Fath al-Din Umar (co-ruler), son of Qutb ad-Din Muhammad, 1219–1220.
Zengid Emirs of al-Jazira (in Northern Iraq)
In 1250, al-Jazira fell under the domination of an-Nasir Yusuf
, Ayyubid emir of Aleppo.
- Asbridge, Thomas (2012). The Crusades: The War for the Holy Land. Simon & Schuster.
- Ayalon, David (1999). Eunuchs, Caliphs and Sultans: A Study in Power Relationships. Hebrew University Magnes Press.
- Bosworth, C.E. (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties: A Chronological and Genealogical Manual. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Hunyadi, Zsolt; Laszlovszky, József (2001). The Crusades and the Military Orders. Central European University.
- Irwin, Robert (1999). "Islam and the Crusades 1096-1699". In Riley-Smith, Jonathan (ed.). The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford University Press.
- Stevenson, William Barron (1907). The Crusaders in the East. Cambridge University Press.
- Taef El-Azharii (2006). Zengi and the Muslim Response to the Crusades, Routledge, Abington, UK.
Last edited on 5 April 2021, at 22:59
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