Aeneid
epic poem by Vergilius Maro
The Aeneid (29–19 BC), is a Latin epic poem of twelve books, written by Virgil, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans. It is widely regarded as Virgil's masterpiece and one of the greatest works of Latin literature.
Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.
The world is a world of tears and the burdens of mortality touch the heart.
Quotes
Book I
Arma virumque cano.
Arms and the man I sing.
Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris
Italiam fato profugus Laviniaque venit
Litora.

Multum ille et terris iactatus et alto
Vi superum, saevae memorem Iunonis ob iram,
Multa quoque et bello passus, dum conderet urbem
lnferretque deos Latio, genus unde Latinum
Albanique patres atque altae moenia Romae.

Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?
Can there be so much anger in the hearts of the heavenly gods?
Musa, mihi causas memora, quo numine laeso,
quidve dolens, regina deum tot volvere casus
insignem pietate virum, tot adire labores
impulerit. Tantaene animis caelestibus irae?

Tantae molis erat Romanam condere gentem!

Aeternum servans sub pectore volnus.

O terque quaterque beati!

Apparent rari nantes in gurgite vasto.

Furor arma ministrat;
Tum, pietate gravem ac meritis si forte virum quem
conspexere, silent, arrectisque auribus adstant;
ille regit dictis animos, et pectora mulcet.

O socii—neque enim ignari sumus ante malorum—
O passi graviora, dabit deus his quoque finem.

Forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit.
A joy it will be one day, perhaps, to remember even this.
Forsan et haec olim meminisse iuvabit.

Per varios casus, per tot discrimina rerum.

Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.
Endure, and keep yourselves for days of happiness.
Durate, et vosmet rebus servate secundis.

Talia voce refert, curisque ingentibus aeger
Spem vultu simulat, premit altum corde dolorem.

Lacrimis oculos suffusa nitentis.

Volvens fatorum arcana movebo.

His ego nec metas rerum nec tempora pono;
Imperium sine fine dedi.

O Dea certe.

Longa est injuria, longae
ambages.

Dux femina facti.

Sum pius Aeneas, raptos qui ex hoste Penates
classe veho mecum, fama super aethera notus.
Italiam quaero patriam et genus ab Iove summo.

Data fata secutus.

And in her step she was revealed a very goddess.
Dixit et avertens rosea cervice refulsit,
Ambrosiaeque comae divinum vertice odorem
Spiravere; pedes vestis defluxit ad imos,
Et vera incessu patuit dea.

Mirabile dictu.

Quae regio in terris nostri non plena laboris?

Sunt hic etiam sua praemia laudi,
Sunt lacrimae rerum et mentem mortalia tangunt.

Illa pharetram fert umero,
Gradiensque deas supereminet omnes.

Quod genus hoc hominum? Quaeve hunc tam barbara morem | Permittit patria?

Si genus humanum et mortalia temnitis arma,
At sperate deos memores fandi atque nefandi.

Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt
Noliri, et late finis custode tueri.

Tros Tyriusque mihi nullo discrimine agetur.

Lumenque iuventae
purpureum.

Di tibi, si qua pios respectant numina, si quid
Usquam iustitiae est et mens sibi conscia recti,
Praemia digna ferant.

Semper honos nomenque tuum laudesque manebunt.

No stranger to trouble myself I am learning to care for the unhappy.
Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco.

Book II
Sorrow too deep to tell, your majesty,
You order me to feel and tell once more.

Infandum, regina, jubes renovare dolorem.

Quaeque ipse miserrima vidi
et quorum pars magna fui.

Quis talia fando
Temperet a lacrimis?

Quamquam animus meminisse horret, luctuque refugit,
incipiam.

Scinditur incertum studia in contraria vulgus.

Aliquis latet error.

Do not trust the horse, Trojans.
Whatever it is, I fear the Greeks even when they bring gifts.
Equo ne credite, Teucri.
quidquid id est, timeo Danaos et dona ferentes.

Si mens non laeva fuisset.

In utrumque paratus.

Accipe nunc Danaum insidias, et crimine ab uno
Disce omnes.

Vitam in tenebris luctuque trahebam.

Spargere voces
in vulgum ambiguas.

Adsensere omnes et, quae sibi quisque timebat,
Unius in miseri exitium conversa tulere.

His lacrimis vitam damus et miserescimus ultro.

Horresco referens.

He lifts to heaven hideous cries...
Clamores simul horrendos ad sidera tollit:
qualis mugitus, fugit cum saucius aram
taurus et incertam excussit cervice securim.

Vertitur interea caelum et ruit Oceano nox.

Tacitae per amica silentia lunae.

Tempus erat quo prima quies mortalibus aegris
Incipit et dono divum gratissima serpit.

Quantum mutatus ab illo
Hectore qui redit exuvias indutus Achilli.

Excutior somno et summi fastigia tecti
Ascensu supero atque arrectis auribus asto:
In segetem veluti cum flamma furentibus Austris
Incidit, aut rapidus montano flumine torrens
Sternit agros, sternit sata laeta boumque labores
Praecipitisque trahit silvas; stupet inscius alto
Accipiens sonitum saxi de vertice pastor.

Furor, iraque mentem
Praecipitant, pulchrumque mori succurrit in armis.

It is come—the last day and inevitable hour for Troy.
Venit summa dies et ineluctabile tempus
Dardaniae. Fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium.

Una salus victis nullam sperare salutem.

Nox atra cava circumvolat umbra.

Crudelis ubique
Luctus, ubique pavor, et plurima mortis imago.

Adspirat primo Fortuna labori.

Dolus an virtus, quis in hoste requirat?

Heu nihil invitis fas quemquam fidere divis!

The gods thought otherwise.
Dis aliter visum.

Fit via vi.

Sic fatus senior telumque imbelle sine ictu
Coniecit, rauco quod protinus aere repulsum,
Et summo clipei nequiquam umbone pependit.

Facilis iactura sepulcri.

Arma, viri, ferte arma: vocat lux ultima victos.
Reddite me Danais: sinite instaurata revisam
Proelia; numquam omnes hodie moriemur inulti.

So come, dear father, climb up onto my shoulders! I will carry you on my back. This labor of love will never wear me down. Whatever falls to us now, we both will share one peril, one path to safety. Little Iulus, walk beside me, and you, my wife, follow me at a distance, in my footsteps.
Ergo age, care pater, cervici imponere nostrae;
Ipse subibo umeris nec me labor iste gravabit;
Quo res cumque cadent, unum et commune periclum,
Una salus ambobus erit. Mihi parvus Iulus
Sit comes, et longe servet vestigia coniunx.

He follows his father, but not with equal steps.
Sequiturque patrem non passibus aequis.

Horror ubique animo, simul ipsa silentia terrent.

I was dismayed; my hair stood stiff, my voice held fast within my jaws.
Obstupui, steteruntque comae, et vox faucibus haesit.

Ter conatus ibi collo dare bracchia circum;
Ter frustra comprensa manus effugit imago.

Cessi et sublato montes genitore petivi.

Book III

Dare fatis vela.

Campos ubi Troja fuit.

Parce sepulto.

Auri sacra fames!
Accursed hunger for gold!
Quid non mortalia pectora cogis,
Auri sacra fames?

Et nati natorum et qui nascentur ab illis.

Fama volat.

Cedamus Phoebo et moniti meliora sequamur.

The mad prophetic Sibyl you shall find,
Dark in a cave, and on a rock reclined.
She sings the fates, and, in her frantic fits,
The notes and names inscribed, to leafs commits.
Insanam vatem aspicies, quae rupe sub ima
Fata canit foliisque notas et nomina mandat.
Quaecumque in foliis descripsit carmina virgo
Digerit in numerum atque antro seclusa relinquit:
Illa manent immota locis neque ab ordine cedunt.
Verum eadem, verso tenuis cum cardine ventus
Impulit et teneras turbavit ianua frondes,
Numquam deinde cavo volitantia prendere saxo
nec revocare situs aut iungere carmina curat:
Inconsulti abeunt sedemque odere Sibyllae.

She shall direct thy course, instruct thy mind,
And teach thee how the happy shores to find.
Hic tibi ne qua morae fuerint dispendia tanti,
Quamvis increpitent socii et vi cursus in altum
Vela vocet, possisque sinus implere secundos,
Quin adeas vatem precibusque oracula poscas
Ipsa canat vocemque volens atque ora resolvat.
Illa tibi Italiae populos venturaque bella
Et quo quemque modo fugiasque ferasque laborem
Expediet, cursusque dabit venerata secundos.
Haec sunt quae nostra liceat te voce moneri.
Vade age, et ingentem factis fer ad aethera Troiam.

Vivite felices, quibus est fortuna peracta
Jam sua: nos alia ex aliis in fata vocamur.

Tollimur in coelum curvato gurgite, et iidem
Subducta ad manes imos descendimus unda.

Di, talem terris avertite pestem!

Monstrum horrendum, informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum.

Voluptas / solamenque mali.

Book IV

His looks, his words, they pierce her heart and cling—
no peace, no rest for her body, love will give her none.
At regina gravi iamdudum saucia cura
Vulnus alit venis et caeco carpitur igni.

Haerent infixi pectore voltus
Verbaque, nee placidam membris dat cura quietem.

Quae me suspensam insomnia terrent!

Degeneres animos timor arguit.

Heu, quibus ille
Jactatus fatis! quae bella exhausta canebat!

Si mihi non animo fixum immotumque sederet
Ne cui me vinclo vellem sociare iugali,
Postquam primus amor deceptam morte fefellit;
Si non pertaesum thalami taedaeque fuisset,
Huic uni forsan potui succumbere culpae.

Agnosco veteris vestigia flammae.

Sed mihi vel tellus optem prius ima dehiscat
Vel pater omnipotens adigat me fulmine ad umbras,
Pallentis umbras Erebo noctemque profundam
Ante, pudor, quam te violo aut tua iura resolvo.
Ille meos, primus qui me sibi iunxit, amores
Abstulit; ille habeat secum servetque sepulcro.

Id cinerem aut manes credis curare sepultos?

Tacitum vivit sub pectore vulnus.

Haeret lateri lethalis arundo.

Pendent opera interrupta.

Nec famam obstare furori.

Coniugium vocat, hoc praetexit nomine culpam.

Fama, malum qua non aliud velocius ullum;
Mobilitate viget, virisque adquirit eundo;
Parva metu primo; mox sese attollit in auras,
Ingrediturque solo, et caput inter nubila condit.

Pernicibus alis.

Naviget!
Let him set sail!
Naviget!

Animum nunc huc celerem nunc dividit illuc.

Quis fallere possit amantem?
Who can deceive a lover?
Quis fallere possit amantem?

Omnia tuta timens.

Mene fugis?
You're running away—from me?
Mene fugis? Per ego has lacrimas dextramque tuam te
(Quando aliud mihi jam miserae nihil ipsa reliqui)
Per connubia nostra, per inceptos Hymenaeos;
Si bene quid de te merui, fuit aut tibi quidquam
Dulce meum, miserere domus labentis, et istam,
Oro, si quis adhuc precibus locus, exue mentem.

Numquam, regina, negabo
Promeritam, nec me meminisse pigebit Elissae
Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos regit artus.

Hic amor, haec patria est.

I sail for Italy not of my own free will.
Italiam non sponte sequor.

Nec tibi diva parens.

Nusquam tuta fides.

Omnibus umbra locis adero.

Improbe Amor, quid non mortalia pectora cogis!

He stands immovable by tears,
Nor tenderest words with pity hears.
              Nullis ille movetur
Fletibus aut voces ullas tractabilis audit.

Fata obstant.

Mens immota manet, lacrimae volvuntur inanes.

Taedet caeli convexa tueri.

Hoc visum nulli, non ipsi effata sorori.

Ingeminant curae rursusque resurgens
Saevit amor magnoque irarum fluctuat aestu.

Non servata fides cineri promissa Sychaeo.

Varium et mutabile semper | femina.

Exoriare aliquis nostris ex ossibus ultor.

Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum Fortuna, peregi.
I have lived and journeyed through the course assigned by fortune.
Vixi, et, quem dederat cursum Fortuna, peregi;
Et nunc magna mei sub terras ibit Imago.

Moriemur inultae,
Sed moriamur.
I shall die unavenged,
but I shall die.
‘Moriemur inultae,
Sed moriamur’ ait. ‘sic, sic juvat ire sub umbras.’

Resonat magnis plangoribus aether.

Book V

Furens quid Femina possit.

Superat quoniam Fortuna, sequamur,
Quoque vocat vertamus iter.

Quem semper acerbum,
Semper honoratum (sic di voluistis) habebo.

Cuncti adsint meritaeque exspectent praemia palmae.

Ore favete omnes.

Plausu fremituque virum studiisque faventum
———— Pulsati colles clamore resultant.

Ceu nubibus arcus
Mille jacit varios adverso sole colores.

Litus ama... altum alii teneant.

Possunt, quia posse videntur.
They can because they think they can.
Possunt, quia posse videntur.

Decus et tutamen.

Gratior et pulchro veniens in corpore virtus.

Me liceat casus miserari insontis amici.

Cede Deo.

Every misfortune is to be subdued by patience.
Nate dea, quo fata trahunt retrahuntque, sequamur;
Quidquid erit, superanda omnis fortuna ferendo est.

Exigui numero, sed bello vivida virtus.

O nimium caelo et pelago confise sereno,
Nudus in ignota, Palinure, iacebis harena.

Book VI

Ludibria ventis.

Mitte hanc de pectore curam.

Bella, horrida bella.
Wars, horrid wars!
Bella, horrida bella,
Et Thybrim multo spumantem sanguine cerno.

Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior ito
Quam tua te fortuna sinet.

Obscuris vera involvens.

Non ulla laborum,
O virgo, nova mi facies inopinave surgit;
Omnia praecepi atque animo mecum ante peregi.

The gates of hell are open night and day;
Smooth the descent, and easy is the way:
But to return, and view the cheerful skies,
In this the task and mighty labor lies.
Facilis descensus Averno:
Noctes atque dies patet atri ianua Ditis;
Sed revocare gradum superasque evadere ad auras,
Hoc opus, hic labor est.

Primo avulso non deficit alter.

Fidus Achates.

Vocat in certamina divos.

Procul, O procul este, profani!

Now, Aeneas, is the hour for courage, now for a dauntless heart!
Nunc animis opus, Aenea, nunc pectore firmo.

Di, quibus imperium est animarum, umbraeque silentes,
Et Chaos, et Phlegethon, loca nocte tacentia late,
Sit mihi fas audita loqui: sit numine vestro
Pandere res alta terra et caligine mersas.

Ibant obscuri sola sub nocte per umbram,
Perque domos Ditis vacuas et inania regna.
Quale per incertam lunam sub luce maligna
Est iter in silvis.

Vestibulum ante ipsum primisque in faucibus Orci
Luctus et ultrices posuere cubilia Curae,
Pallentesque habitant Morbi tristisque Senectus,
Et Metus et malesuada Fames ac turpis Egestas,
Terribiles visu formae, Letumque Labosque;
tum consanguineus Leti Sopor.

In medio ramos annosaque bracchia pandit
Ulmus opaca, ingens, quam sedem Somnia volgo
Vana tenere ferunt, foliisque sub omnibus haerent.

Jam senior, sed cruda deo viridisque senectus.

Here a whole crowd came streaming to the banks...
Hue omnis turba ad ripas effusa ruebat,
Matres atque viri, defunctaque corpora vita
Magnanimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae,
Impositique rogis juvenes ante ora parentum.

Stabant orantes primi transmittere cursum
Tendebantque manus ripae ulterioris amore.

Multa putans sortemque animo miseratus iniquam.

Desine fata deum flecti sperare precando.

Falso damnati crimine mortis.

I left your shores, my Queen, against my will.
Infelix Dido, verus mihi nuntius ergo
venerat exstinctam ferroque extrema secutam?
funeris heu tibi causa fui? per sidera iuro,
per superos et si qua fides tellure sub ima est,
inuitus, regina, tuo de litore cessi.

Dulcis et alta quies, placidaeque simillima morti.

Hic locus est, partes ubi se via findit in ambas.

Sedet, aeternumque sedebit
Infelix Theseus.

Discite justitiam moniti et non temnere divos.

Vendidit hic auro patriam.

Non, mihi si linguae centum sunt oraque centum
Ferrea vox, omnis scelerum comprendere formas,
Omnia poenarum percurrere nomina possim.

Devenere locos laetos et amoena vireta
Fortunatonun nemorum, sedesque beatas.

Hic manus, ob patriam pugnando vulnera passi,
Quique sacerdotes casti, dum vita manebat,
Quique pii vates, et Phoebo digna locuti,
Inventas aut qui vitam excoluere per artes,
Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo.

Animae, quibus altera fato
Corpora debentur, Lethaei ad fluminis undam
Secures latices, et longa oblivia potant.

Mens agitat molem.
Mind moves matter.
Principio caelum ac terras camposque liquentis
Lucentemque globum Lunae Titaniaque astra
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infusa per artus
Mens agitat molem et magno se corpore miscet.

Each of us bears his own Hell.
Quisque suos patimur manis.

Concretam exemit labem, purumque relinquit
Aetherium sensum atque aurai simplicis ignem.

Has omnis, ubi mille rotam volvere per annos,
Lethaeum ad fluvium deus evocat agmine magno,
Scilicet immemores supera et convexa revisant
Bursus et incipiant in corpora velle reverti.

Nunc age, Dardaniam prolem quae deinde sequatur
Gloria, qui maneant Itala de gente nepotes,
Inlustris animas nostrumque in nomen ituras,
Expediam dictis, et te tua fata docebo.

Vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido.

Ne, pueri, ne tanta animis adsuescite bella
Neu patriae validas in viscera vertite vires.

Remember Roman, these will be your arts:
to teach the ways of peace to those you conquer,
to spare defeated peoples, tame the proud.
Tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento
(Hae tibi erunt artes), pacique imponere morem,
Parcere subjectis et debellare superbos.

Aspice, ut insignis spoliis Marcellus opimis
Ingreditur victorque viros supereminet omnes.

Tu Marcellus eris.
'You will be Marcellus!'
O nate, ingentem luctum ne quaere tuorum;
Ostendent terris hunc tantum fata, neque ultra
Esse sinent. Nimium vobis Romana propago
Visa potens, Superi, propria haec si dona fuissent.
Quantos ille virum magnam Mavortis ad urbem
Campus aget gemitus, vel quae, liberine, videbis
Funera, cum tumulum praeterlabere recentem!
Nec puer Iliaca quisquam de gente Latinos
In tantum spe tollet avos, nec Romula quondam
Ullo se tantum tellus iactabit alumno.
Heu pietas, heu prisca fides, invictaque bello
Dextera! Non illi se quisquam impune tulisset
Obvius armato, seu cum pedes iret in hostem,
Seu spumantis equi foderet calcaribus armos.
Heu, miserande puer, si qua fata aspera rumpas,
Tu Marcellus eris.

Manibus date lilia plenis.

His saltem accumulem donis, et fungar inani
Munere.

Incenditque animum famae venientis amore.

Sunt geminae Somni portae, quarum altera fertur
Cornea, qua veris facilis datur exitus umbris,
Altera candenti perfecta nitens elephanto,
Sed falsa ad caelum mittunt insomnia Manes.

Book VII

Hinc exaudiri gemitus iraeque leonum.

Major rerum mihi nascitur ordo;
Majus opus moveo.

Hic domus, haec patria est.

If I cannot sway the heavens, I'll wake the powers of hell!
Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo.

Bella viri pacemque gerent quis bella gerenda.

Bella manu letumque gero.

Saevit amor ferri, et scelerata insania belli.

Ille, velut pelagi rupes immota, resistit.

Non illa colo calathisve Minervae
Femineas adsueta manus.

Semperque recentis
Convectare juvat praedas et vivere rapto.

Book VIII

Pacemne huc fertis an arma?

Pedibus timor addidit alas.

Arte magistra.

O mihi praeteritos referat si Iuppiter annos.

At vos, o superi, et divum tu maxime rector
Juppiter, Arcadii, quaeso, miserescite regis
Et patrias audite preces: si numina vestra
Incolumem Pallanta mihi, si fata reseruant,
Si visurus eum vivo et venturus in unum:
Vitam oro, patiar quemvis durare laborem.
Sin aliquem infandum casum, Fortuna, minaris,
Nunc, nunc o liceat crudelem abrumpere vitam,
Dum curae ambiguae, dum spes incerta futuri,
Dum te, care puer, mea sola et sera voluptas,
Complexu teneo, gravior neu nuntius auris
Vulneret.

Arva nova Neptunia caede rubescunt.

All these images on Vulcan's shield
His mother's gift, were wonders to Aeneas...
Talia per clipeum Volcani, dona parentis,
Miratur rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet
Attollens umero famamque et fata nepotum.

Book IX

Turne, quod optanti divum promittere nemo
Auderet, volvenda dies en attulit ultro.

Prisca fides facto, sed fama perennis.

Do the gods light this fire in our hearts
or does each man's mad desire become his god?
Dine hunc ardorem mentibus addunt,
Euryale, an sua cuique deus fit dira cupido?

Est hic, est animus lucis contemptor et istum
Qui vita bene credat emi, quo tendis, honorem.

Nequeam lacrimas perferre parentis.

Animum patriae strinxit pietatis imago.

Nunc ipsa vocat res.
Hac iter est.

Me, me, adsum qui feci, in me convertite ferrum
O Rutuli, mea fraus omnis: nihil iste nee ausus,
Nee potuit; caelum hoc et conscia sidera testor:
Tantum infelicem nimium dilexit amicum.

Euryalus
In death went reeling down,
And blood streamed on his handsome length, his neck
Collapsing let his head fall on his shoulder—
As a bright flower cut by a passing plow
Will droop and wither slowly, or a poppy
Bow its head upon its tired stalk
When overborne by a passing rain.
Volvitur Euryalus leto, pulchrosque per artus
It cruor inque umeros cervix conlapsa recumbit:
Purpureus veluti cum flos succisus aratro
Languescit moriens; lassove papavera collo
Demisere caput, pluvia cum forte gravantur.

Moriens animam abstulit hosti.
Tum super exanimum sese proiecit amicum
Confossus, placidaque ibi demum morte quieuit.

Nulla dies umquam memori vos eximet aevo.
"No day shall erase you from the memory of time"
(9/11 Memorial Museum)
Fortunati ambo! si quid mea carmina possunt,
Nulla dies umquam memori vos eximet aevo,
Dum domus Aeneae Capitoli immobile saxum
Accolet imperiumque pater Romanus habebit.

At tuba terribilem sonitum procul aere canoro
Increpuit, sequitur clamor caelumque remugit.

Natos ad flumina primum
Deferimus saevoque gelu duramus et undis

Audacibus adnue coeptis.
Nod assent to the daring work I
have in hand!
Iuppiter omnipotens, audacibus adnue coeptis.

Sic itur ad astra.
That is the way to the stars.
Macte nova virtute, puer, sic itur ad astra.

Abietibus juvenes patriis et montibus aequos.

Book X

Adveniet iustum pugnae (ne arcessite) tempus.

Speravimus ista
Dum fortuna fuit.

Sua cuique exorsa laborem
Fortunamque ferent.

Fata viam invenient.

Audentis Fortuna iuvat.
Fortune favors the bold.
Audentis fortuna iuvat.

Numina nulla premunt, mortali urgemur ab hoste
mortales.

Every man's last day is fixed.
Lifetimes are brief and not to be regained,
For all mankind. But by their deeds to make
Their fame last: that is labor for the brave.
Stat sua cuique dies, breve et inreparabile tempus
Omnibus est vitae; sed famam extendere factis,
Hoc virtutis opus.

Nescia mens hominum fati sortisque futurae,
Et servare modum, rebus sublata secundis!

Dextra mihi Deus.

Et dulcis moriens reminiscitur Argos.

Book XI

Salve aeternum mihi, maxime Palla,
Aeternumque vale.

Vivendo vici mea fata.

Experto credite.

Spes sibi quisque.

Lingua melior, sed frigida bello
Dextera.

Nulla salus bello.

Proinde tona eloquio, solitum tibi.

Cur indecores in limine primo
Deficimus? Cur ante tubam tremor occupat artus?

Multa dies variique labor mutabilis aevi
Rettulit in melius, multos alterna revisens
Lusit et in solido rursus Fortuna locavit.

Nequiquam patrias temptasti lubricus artis.

Camilla's dying hand pulled at the spear,
But the iron point was stuck deep in her ribs.
Drained of blood, she sank back; the chill light
Sank in her eyes; and her face, formerly
So radiant, turned pale in death.
Illa manu moriens telum trahit: ossa sed inter
Ferreus ad costas alto stat vulnere mucro.
Labitur exsanguis; labuntur frigida leto
Lumina: purpureus quondam color ora reliquit.

Quadripedumque putrem cursu quatit ungula campum.

Book XII

Quo referor totiens? quae mentem insania mutat?

Aegrescitque medendo.

In te omnis domus inclinata recumbit.

Forsan miseros meliora sequentur.

Sic omnis amor unus habet decemere ferro.

Learn fortitude and toil from me, my son,
Ache of true toil. Good fortune learn from others.
Disce, puer, virtutem ex me verumque laborem,
Fortunam ex aliis.

Ne qua meis esto dictis mora.

Usque adeone mori miserum est?

Magnorum haud unquam indignus avorum.

Aestuat ingens
Imo in corde pudor mixtoque insania luctu
Et furiis agitatus amor et conscia virtus.

Hunc, oro, sine me furere ante furorem.

Fors et virtus miscentur in unum.

Iuppiter ipse duas aequato examine lances
Sustinet et fata imponit diversa duorum,
quem damnet labor et quo vergat pondere letum.

Ni te tantus edit tacitam dolor.

Ulterius temptare veto.

Sit Romana potens Itala virtute propago.

Go no further down the road of hatred.
Ulterius ne tende odiis.

Stetit acer in armis
Aeneas volvens oculos dextramque repressit;
Et iam iamque magis cunctantem flectere sermo
Coeperat, infelix umero cum apparuit alto
Balteus et notis fulserunt cingula bullis
Pallantis pueri, victum quem vulnere Turnus
Straverat atque umeris inimicum insigne gerebat.
Ille, oculis postquam saevi monimenta doloris
Exuviasque hausit, furiis accensus et ira
Terribilis: 'tune hinc spoliis indute meorum
Eripiare mihi? Pallas te hoc vulnere, Pallas
Immolat et poenam scelerato ex sanguine sumit.'
Hoc dicens ferrum adverso sub pectore condit
Fervidus.

Vitaque cum gemitu fugit indignata sub umbras.

Quotes about the Aeneid
Give way, you Roman writers, give way, you Greeks: something greater than the Iliad is being born. ~ Sextus Propertius
A man, an adult, is precisely what [Aeneas] is: Achilles had been little more than a passionate boy... With Virgil European poetry grows up.
~ C. S. Lewis
The Aeneid enforces the fine paradox that all the wonders of the most powerful institution the world has ever known are not necessarily of greater importance than the emptiness of human suffering. ~ Adam Parry
(arranged in chronological order)

Cedite Romani scriptores, cedite Graii:
Nescioquid maius nascitur Iliade.

Et profugum Aenean, altae primordia Romae,
Quo nullum Latio clarius extat opus.

"Aeneida" prosa prius oratione formatam digestamque in XII libros particulatim componere instituit, prout liberet quidque, et nihil in ordinem arripiens. Ac ne quid impetum moraretur, quaedam inperfecta transmisit, alia levissimis verbis veluti fulsit, quae per iocum pro tibicinibus interponi aiebat ad sustinendum opus, donec solidae columnae advenirent.

De l'Eneïda dico, la qual mamma
fummi, e fummi nutrice, poetando:
sanz'essa non fermai peso di dramma.

Virgil falls infinitely short of Homer in the characters of his poem, both as to their variety and novelty. Æneas is indeed a perfect character, but as for Achates, though he's styled the hero's friend, he does nothing in the whole poem which may deserve that title. [...] I do not see any thing new or particular in Turnus. [...] In short, there is neither that variety nor novelty in the persons of the Æneid, which we meet with in those of the Iliad.
Joseph Addison, The Spectator, No. 273 (January 12, 1712)

Nor is it sufficient for an epic poem to be filled with such thoughts as are natural, unless it abound also with such as are sublime. Virgil in this particular falls short of Homer. He has not indeed so many thoughts that are low and vulgar; but at the same time has not so many thoughts that are sublime and noble. The truth of it is, Virgil seldom rises into very astonishing sentiments, when he is not fired by the Iliad. He everywhere charms and pleases us by the force of his own genius; but seldom elevates and transports us where he does not fetch his hints from Homer.
Joseph Addison, The Spectator, No. 279 (January 19, 1712)

There are few readers who do not prefer Turnus to Æneas.
Robert Southey, Joan of Arc (1796), Preface, p. vi

My chief objection (I mean that to the character of Aeneas) is, of course, not so much felt in the three first books; but, afterwards, he is always either insipid or odious, sometimes excites interest against him, and never for him.
Charles James Fox, letter to his friend Trotter, in Memoirs of the latter years of the Right Honorable Charles James Fox by John Bernard Trotter (3rd edition, 1811), p. 527

It was surely no affectation in Virgil when he desired to have the Aeneid burnt; he had made that poem the task of his life, and in his last moments he had the feeling that he had failed in it.
Barthold Georg Niebuhr, Lectures on the History of Rome, Vol. III (1849), p. 137

The Roman epic abounds in moral and poetical defects; nevertheless it remains the most complete picture of the national mind at its highest elevation, the most precious document of national history, if the history of an age is revealed in its ideas, no less than in its events and incidents.
Charles Merivale, History of the Romans Under the Empire, Vol. IV (1865), p. 448

Doubtless it was the "Æneid," his artificial and unfinished epic, that won Virgil the favour of the Middle Ages. To the Middle Ages, which knew not Greek, and knew not Homer, Virgil was the representative of the heroic and eternally interesting past. But to us who know Homer, Virgil's epic is indeed "like moonlight unto sunlight;" is a beautiful empty world, where no real life stirs, a world that shines with a silver lustre not its own, but borrowed from "the sun of Greece."
Andrew Lang, letter to Lady Violet Lebas in Letters on Literature (1892), p. 64

Virgil is unhappy in his hero. Compared with Achilles his Aeneas is but the shadow of a man.
Thomas Ethelbert Page, The Aeneid of Virgil (1900), p. xvii

A man, an adult, is precisely what [Aeneas] is: Achilles had been little more than a passionate boy. ... With Virgil European poetry grows up.
C. S. Lewis, A Preface to Paradise Lost (1942), Chapter 6: "Virgil and the Subject of Secondary Epic"

The Aeneid, the supposed panegyric of Augustus and great propaganda-piece of the new regime, has turned into something quite different. The processes of history are presented as inevitable, as indeed they are, but the value of what they achieve is cast into doubt. Virgil continually insists on the public glory of the Roman achievement, the establishment of peace and order and civilization, that dominion without end which Jupiter tells Venus he has given the Romans:
Imperium sine fine dedi.
But he insists equally on the terrible price one must pay for this glory. More than blood, sweat and tears, something more precious is continually being lost by the necessary process; human freedom, love, personal loyalty, all the qualities which the heroes of Homer represent, are lost in the service of what is grand, monumental and impersonal: the Roman State.
Adam Parry, "The Two Voices of Virgil's Aeneid", in Arion, Vol. II, No. 4 (1963), p. 78

The Aeneid enforces the fine paradox that all the wonders of the most powerful institution the world has ever known are not necessarily of greater importance than the emptiness of human suffering.
Adam Parry, "The Two Voices of Virgil's Aeneid", in Arion, Vol. II, No. 4 (1963), p. 80

Virgil's is a poem that at once sustains the discourses of political power and questions them as well.
Michael C. J. Putnam, Virgil's Aeneid: Interpretation and Influence (1995), p. 3

Aeneas exhibits a new kind of tragic heroism: that of the public servant who labors for others selflessly... It is important to grasp the meanings of the Roman word pietas inasmuch as this, the only quality assigned Aeneas in the prologue, furnishes the most common description of him throughout the epic: pius Aeneas. The adjective and noun describe the right relationship that exists between a human being and (1) the gods, (2) his public responsibilities as citizen or political leader, (3) his family, and (4) other human beings. ... The pageant of [Aeneas'] exit from Troy is a masterpiece of Vergilian symbolism. Not content with the simple legend that Aeneas carried his father from the defeated city, Vergil adds to the picture little Ascanius stepping along at Aeneas' side, and in the father's hands he places a small receptacle containing the penates or household gods. Aeneas, in the center of the tableau, fulfills the first three aspects of pietas. Not only is he obeying the gods but he is carrying the religious symbols which will serve as the basis of important rituals in his new land. Not only is he showing family devotion with his filial act toward Anchises his father (as legend prescribed) but he is leading his son by the hand so as to continue the family. ... The total family group centered on Aeneas represents the public mission of the hero, who serves as the necessary link between old Troy (Anchises) and new Troy in Italy (Ascanius). Aeneas' duty, which he selflessly carries out, is to bring the Trojans to Italy and make possible their lasting settlement. This he admirably accomplishes, then dies three years later without having had time to enjoy his achievement.
William S. Anderson, The Art of the Aeneid (2nd Edition, 2005), pp. 23–24

Translations
The following English translations have been used for the quotations:
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Original texts of Virgil's works at The Latin Library
Last edited on 21 November 2020, at 11:26
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