1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Vol 25/Table of contributors
< 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica‎ | Vol 25
 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica
- Vol 25 Table of contributors
Vol 25:1
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A. B. G.Rev. Alexander Balloch Grosart, LL.D., D.D.
See the biographical article: Grosart, Alexander Balloch.
Stirling, William Alexander, Earl of (in part).
A. C. McG.Arthur Cushman McGiffert, M.A., Ph.D., D.D.
Professor of Church History: Union Theological Seminary, New York. Author of History of Christianity in the Apostolic Age; &c. Editor of the Historia Ecclesia of Eusebius.
Socrates (Church Historian) (in part); Sozomen (in part).
A. D.Henry Austin Dobson, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Dobson, H. Austin.
Steele, Sir Richard (in part); Sterne, Laurence (in part).
A. De.Arthur Dendy, D.Sc., F.R.S., F.Z.S., F.L.S.
Professor of Zoology in King’s College, London. Zoological Secretary of the Linnean Society of London. Author of memoirs on systematic zoology, comparative anatomy, embryology, &c.
A. E. H.A. E. Houghton.
Formerly Correspondent of the Standard in Spain. Author of Restoration of the Bourbons in Spain.
Spain: History (in part).
A. E. S.Arthur Everett Shipley, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Master of Christ’s College, Cambridge. Reader in Zoology, Cambridge University. Joint-editor of the Cambridge Natural History.
Sipunculoidea; Smith, William Robertson.
A. F. E.Allen F. Everett.
Commander, R.N. Formerly Superintendent of the Signal School, H.M.S. “Victory,” Portsmouth.
Signal: Marine Signalling (in part).
A. F. P.Albert Frederick Pollard, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.
Fellow of All Souls College, Oxford. Professor of English History in the Uversity of London. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography 1893 – 1901. Author of England under the Protector Somerset; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
Somerset, Edward Seymour, Duke of.
A. Go.*Rev. Alexander Gordon, M.A.
Lecturer in Church History in the University of Manchester.
A. Ha.Adolf Harnack, D.Ph.
See the biographical article: Harnack, Adolf.
Socrates (Church Historian) (in part); Sozomen (in part).
A. H. S.Rev. Archibald Henry Sayce, Litt.D., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Sayce, A. H.
A. J. G.Rev. Alexander James Grieve, M.A., B.D.
Professor of New Testament and Church History at the United Independent College, Bradford. Sometime Registrar of Madras University and Member of Mysore Educational Service.
Smyth, John.
A. Ma.Alexander Macalister, M.A., LL.D., M.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Anatomy in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of St John’s College. Formerly Professor of Zoology in the University of Dublin. Author of Text-Book of Human Anatomy; &c.
A. Mel.Arthur Mellor.
Of Messrs J. & T. Brocklehurst & Sons, Silk Manufacturers, Macclesfield.
Silk: Spinning of “Silk Waste.”.
A. M. C.Agnes Mary Clerke.
See the biographical article: Clerke, Agnes M.
Smyth, Charles Piazzi; Stone, Edward James.
A. M. F.*Arthur Mostyn Field, F.R.S., F.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.Met.S.
Vice-Admiral, R.N. Admiralty Representative on Port of London Authority. Hydrographer of the Royal Navy, 1904 – 1909.
A. M.-Fa.Alfred Morel-Fatio.
Professor of Romance Languages at the College de France, Paris. Member of the Institute of France; Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Secretary of the École des Chartes, 1885-1906; &c. Author of L’Espagne au XVIe et au XVIIe siècles.
Spain: Language (in part).
A. N.Alfred Newton, F.R.S.
See the biographical article: Newton, Alfred.
Siskin; Skimmer; Skua; Snake-bird; Snipe; Sparrow; Spoonbill; Stilt; Stork.
A. P. H.Alfred Peter Hillier, M.D., M.P.
Author of South African Studies; The Commonweal; &c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
South Africa:History (in part).
A. S.*Arthur Schuster, F.R.S., Ph.D., D.Sc.
Professor of Physics at the University of Manchester, 1888-1907. President of the International Association of Seismology. Author of Theory of Optics and papers in the Proceedings and Transactions of the Royal Society.
A. So.Albrecht Socin, Ph.D. (1844-1899).
Formerly Professor of Semitic Philology in the Universities of Leipzig and Tübingen. Author of Arabische Grammatik; &c.
Sinai: The Biblical Mount Sinai.
A. S. E.Arthur Stanley Eddington, M.A., M.Sc., F.R.A.S.
Chief Assistant at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge.
A. S. P.-P.Andrew Seth Pringle-Pattison, M.A., LL.D., D.C.L.
Professor of Logic and Metaphysics in the University of Edinburgh. Gifford Lecturer in the University of Aberdeen, 1911. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Man’s Place in the Cosmos; The Philosophical Radicals; &c.
A. W. H.*Arthur William Holland.
Formerly Scholar of St Johns College. Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray’s Inn, 1900.
Sidmouth, Viscount.
A. W. P.Alfred Wallis Paul, C.I.E.
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1870-1895. Political Officer, Sikkim Expedition. British Commissioner under Anglo-Chinese Convention of 1890. Deputy Commissioner of Darjeeling.
B. B. A.Braman Blanchard Adams.
Associate Editor of the Railway Age Gazette, New York.
Signal: Army Signalling (in part).
B. K.*Benjamin Kidd, D.C.L.
Author of Social Evolution; Principles of Western Civilization; &c.
B. W. G.Benedict William Ginsburg, M.A., LL.D.
St Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Barrister-at-Law of the Inner Temple. Formerly Editor of the Navy, and Secretary of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters; &c.
Steamship Lines.
C. A. G. B.Cyprian Arthur George Bridge, G.C.B.
Admiral R.N. Commander-in-Chief, China Station, 1901-1904. Director of Naval Intelligence, 1889- 1894. Author of The Art of Naval Warfare; Sea-Power and other Studies; &c.
Signal: Marine Signalling (in part).
C. B.*Sir Charles Bémont, Litt.D. (Oxon).
See the biographical article: Bémont, Charles.
Sorel, Albert.
C. D. W.Hon. Carroll Davidson Wright.
See the biographical article: Wright, Hon. Carroll Davidson.
Strikes and Lock-outs: United States.
C. F. A.Charles Francis Atkinson.
Formerly Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Captain, 1st City of London (Royal Fusiliers). Author of The Wilderness and Cold Harbor.
Spanish Succession, War of (in part).
C. H.*Sir Charles Holroyd, Litt. D.
See the biographical article: Holroyd, Sir Charles.
Strang, William.
C. H. Ha.Carlton Huntley Hayes, A.M., Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History in Columbia University, New York. Member of the American Historical Association.
Sixtus IV.; Stilicho, Flavius.
C. L. K.Charles Lethbridge Kingsford, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc., F.S.A.
Assistant Secretary to the Board of Education. Author of Life of Henry V. Editor of Chronicles of London and Stow’s Survey of London.
Somerset, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of.
C. P.*Carl Pulfrich, Ph.D.
On the staff of the Carl Zeiss Factory, Jena. Formerly Privatdozent at the University of Bonn. Member of the Astronomical Societies of Brussels and Paris.
C. Pa.Cesare Paoli.
See the biographical article: Paoli, Cesare.
Siena (in part).
C. Pf.Christian Pfister, D. ès L.
Professor at the Sorbonne, Paris. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Etudes sur le règne de Robert le Pieux; Le Duché merovingien d’Alsace et la légende de Sainte-Odile.
Sigebert, King.
C. R. B.Charles Raymond Beazley, M.A., D.Litt., F.R.G.S., F.R.Hist.S.
Professor of Modern Histor in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Merton College, Oxford, and University Lecturer in the History of Geography. Lothian Prizeman, Oxford, 1889. Lowell Lecturer, Boston, 1908. Author of Henry the Navigator; The Dawn of Modern Geography; &c.
Simon of St Quentin; Sindbad the Sailor, Voyages of.
C. S. S.Charles Scott Sherrington, M.A., D.Sc., M.D., F.R.S., LL.D.
Professor of Physiology in the University of Liverpool. Author of The Integrative Action of the Nervous System.
Spinal Cord:Physiology.
C. W. W.Sir Charles William Wilson, K.C.B., K.C.M.G., F.R.S. (1856-1907).
Major-General, Royal Engineers. Secretary to the North American Boundary Commission, 1858-1862. British Commissioner on the Servian Boundary Commission. Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, 1886-1894. Director-General of Military Education, 1895-1898. Author of From Korti to Khartoum; Life of Lord Clive; &c.
Sivas (in part).
D. F. T.Donald Francis Tovey.
Author of Essays in Musical Analysis; comprising The Classical Concerto, The Goldberg Variations, and analyses of many other Classical works.
Sonata Forms; Spohr, Ludwig.
D. G. H.David George Hogarth, M.A.
Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Fellow of the British Academy. Excavated at Paphos, 1888; Naucratis, 1899 and 1903; Ephesus, 1904-1905; Assiut, 1906~1907. Director, British School at Athens, 1897-1900. Director, Cretan Exploration Fund, 1899.
Side; Sis; Sivas (in part); Smyrna (in part); Soli (Asia Minor).
D. H.David Hannay.
Formerly British Vice-Consul at Barcelona. Author of Short History of the Royal Navy; Life of Emilio Castelar; &c.
Sluys, Battle of; Spain: History (in part); Spanish Succession, War of: Naval and Military Operations; Spinola, Ambrose.
D. M. W.Sir Donald Mackenzie Wallace, K.C.I.E., K.C.V.O.
Extra Groom of the Bedchamber to H.M. King George V. Director of the Foreign Department of The Times, 1891-1899. Member of Institut de Droit International and Officier de l’Instruction Publique of France. Joint-editor of the New Volumes (10th ed.) of the Encyclopaedia Britannica. Author of Russia; Egypt and the Egyptian Question; The Web of Empire; &c.
Shuvalov, Count.
E. A.Edward Arber, D.Litt., F.S.A.
See the biographical article: Arber, Edward.
Smith, John (1579-1631).
E. A. F.Edward Augustus Freeman, LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Freeman, E. A.
Sicily: History (in part).
E. C. B.Rt. Rev. Edward Cuthbert Butler, O.S.B., M.A., D.Litt.
Abbot of Downside Abbey, Bath. Author of “The Lausiac History of Palladius” in Cambridge Texts and Studies.
Silvestrines; Simeon Stylites, St.
E. G.Edmund Gosse, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Gosse, Edmund.
Song (Literary); Stanley, Thomas; Stevenson, Robert Louis; Style.
E. H. M.Ellis Hovell Minns, M.A.
University Lecturer in Palaeography, Cambridge. Lecturer and Assistant Librarian at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Formerly Fellow of Pembroke College.
Slavs; Slovaks; Slovenes; Sorbs.
Ed. M.Eduard Meyer, Ph.D., D.Litt., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Berlin. Author of Geschichte des Alterthums; Geschichte des alten Aegyptens; Die Israeliten und ihre Nachbarstämme.
E. Ma.Edward Manson.
Barrister-at-Law. Joint-editor of the Journal of Comparative Legislation. Author of Law of Trading Companies; Practical Guide to Company Law; &c.
Stocks and Shares.
E. M. S.Eleanor Mildred Sidgwick (Mrs Henry Sidgwick), D.Litt., LL.D.
Principal of Newnham College, Cambridge, 1892-1910. Hon. Secretary to the Society for Psychical Research. Author of Papers in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research.
E. M. T.Sir Edward Maunde Thompson, G.C.B., I.S.O., D.C.L., Litt.D., LL.D.
Director and Principal Librarian. British Museum, 1898-1909. Sandars Reader in Bibliography, Cambridge University, 1895-1896. Hon. Fellow of University College, Oxford. Author of Handbook of Greek and Latin Palaeography. Editor of the Chronicon Angliae. Joint-editor of publications of the Palaeographical Society the New Palaeographical Society, and of the Facsimile of the Laurentian Sophocles.
E. O.Edmund Owen, F.R.C.S., LL.D., D.Sc.
Consulting Surgeon to St Mary’s Hospital, London, and to the Children’s Hospital, Great Ormond Street, London. Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of A Manual of Anatomy for Senior Students.
Skull: Cranial Surgery; Spinal Cord (Surgery); Stomach.
E. Pr.Edgar Prestage.
Special Lecturer in Portuguese Literature in the University of Manchester. Commendador, Portuguese Order of S. Thiago. Corresponding Member of Lisbon Royal Academy of Sciences and Lisbon Geographical Society; &c.
Silva, Antonio J. da; Sousa, Luiz de.
E. W. H.Ernest William Hobson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.A.S.
Fellow and Tutor in Mathematics, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Stokes Lecturer in Mathematics in the University.
Spherical Harmonics.
F. A. B.Francis Arthur Bather, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S., F.R.G.S.
Assistant Keeper of Geology British Museum. Rolleston Prizeman Oxford, 1892. Author of “Echinoderma” in A Treatise on Zoology; Triassic Echinoderms of Bakony; &c.
F. C. S. S.Ferdinand Canning Scott Schiller, M.A., D.Sc.
Fellow and Tutor of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Author of Riddles of the Sphinx; Studies in Humanism; &c.
Spencer, Herbert.
F. G. M. B.Frederick George Meeson Beck, M.A.
Fellow and Lecturer in Classics, Clare College, Cambridge.
Sigurd; Strathclyde.
F. G. P.Frederick Gymer Parsons, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S., F.R.Anthrop.Inst.
Vice-President, Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Lecturer on Anatomy at St Thomas’s Hospital and the London School of Medicine for Women, London. Formerly Hunterian Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons.
Skeleton; Skin and Exoskeleton; Skull; Spinal Cord (in part).
F. J. H.Francis John Haverfield, M.A., LL.D., F.S.A.
Camden Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford. Fellow of Brasenose College. Formerly Censor, Student, Tutor and Librarian of Christ Church. Ford’s Lecturer, 1906-1907. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Monographs on Roman History, especially Roman Britain; &c.
Silures; Spain:History, Ancient.
F. J. S.Frederick John Snell, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Author of The Age of Chaucer; &c.
Spenser, Edmund (in part).
F. Ll. G.Francis Llewellyn Griffith, M.A., Ph.D., F.S.A.
Reader in Egyptology, Oxford University. Editor of the Archaeological Survey and Archaeological Reports of the Egypt Exploration Fund. Fellow of Imperial german Archaeological Institute. Author of Stories of the High Priests of Memphis; &c.
Sphinx (in part).
F. L. L.Lady Lugard.
See the biographical article: Lugard, Sir F. J. D.
F. N. M.Colonel Frederic Natusch Maude, C.B.
Lecturer in Military History, Manchester University. Author of War and the World’s Policy; The Leipzig Campaign; The Jena Campaign.
F. Po.Sir Frederick Pollock, Bart., LL.D., D.C.L.
See the biographical article: Pollock: Family.
Stephen, Sir J. F., Bart.
F. R. C.Frank R. Cana.
Author of South Africa from the Great Trek to the Union.
Siwa; Sobat (in part); Somaliland; South Africa: Geography and Statistics, History (in part), and Bibliography; Stanley, Sir Henry.
F. W.*Frank Warner.
President of the Silk Association of Great Britain and Ireland; Hon. Secretary of the Ladies’ National Silk Association. Chairman of the Silk Section, London Chamber of Commerce, and of the Council of the Textile Institute.
Silk (in part).
F. W. R.*Frederick William Rudler, I.S.O., F.G.S.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London, 1879-1902. President of the Geologists’ Association, 1887-1889.
Sinter; Spinel; Spodumene.
G. A. C.*Rev. George Albert Cooke, D.D.
Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture, Oxford, and Fellow of Oriel College. Canon of Rochester. Hon. Canon of St Mary’s Cathedral, Edinburgh. Author of Text-Book of North Semitic Inscriptions; &c.
G. A. Gr.George Abraham Grierson, C.I.E., Ph.D., D.Litt.
Member of the Indian Civil Service, 1873-1903. In charge of the Linguistic Survey of India, 1898-1902. Gold Medallist, Royal Asiatic Society, 1909. Vice-President of the Royal Asiatic Society. Formerly Fellow of Calcutta University. Author of The Languages of India; &c.
Sindhi and Lahnda.
G. C. L.George Collins Levey, C.M.G.
Member of the Board of Advice to the Agent-General of Victoria. Formerly Editor and Proprietor of the Melbourne Herald. Secretary, Colonial Committee of Royal Commission to Paris Exhibition, 1900. Secretary, Adelaide Exhibition, 1887. Secretary, Royal Commission, Hobart Exhibition, 1894-1895. Secretary to Commissioners for Victoria at the Exhibitions in London, Paris, Vienna, Philadelphia and Melbourne.
Stawell, Sir William.
G. C. W.
Chevalier of the Legion of Honour. Author of Portrait Miniatures; Life of Richard Cosway, R.A.; George Engleheart; Portrait Drawings; &c. Editor of new edition of Bryan’s Dictionary of Painters and Engravers.
Smart, John.
G. E. H.George Ellery Hale, LL.D., SC.D.
Director of the Mt. Wilson Solar Observatory of the Carnegie Institution of Washington at Pasadena, California. Director of the Yerkes Observatory, Chicago, 1895-1905. Foreign Member of the Royal Society of London. Inventor of the Spectroheliograph. Author of Papers on solar and stellar physics in the Astrophysical Journal; &c.
G. G. B.Very Rev. George Granville Bradley, D.D.
See the biographical article: Bradley, George Granville.
Stanley, Dean (in part).
G. G. C.George Goudie Chisholm, M.A.
Lecturer on Geography in the University of Edinburgh. Secretary of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society. Author of Handbook of Commercial Geography. Editor of Longman’s Gazetteer of the World.
Sicily: Geography and Statistics (in part).
G. G. S.George Gregory Smith, M.A.
Professor of English Literature, Queen’s University of Belfast. Author of The Days of James IV.; The Transition Period; Specimens of Middle Scots; &c.
Stirling, William Alexander, Earl of (in part).
G. J. T.George James Turner.
Barrister-at-Law, Lincoln’s Inn. Editor of Select Pleas of the Forests for the Selden Society.
G. Mo.Gaetano Mosca.
Professor of Constitutional Law, University of Turin.
Sicily:Geography and Statistics (in part).
G. Sa.George Saintsbury, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Saintsbury, George E. B.
Staël, Madame de.
G. W. T.Rev. Griffithes Wheeler Thatcher, M.A., B.D.
Warden of Camden College, Sydney, N.S.N. Formerly Tutor in Hebrew and Old Testament History at Mansfield College, Oxford.
H. Br.Henry Bradley, M.A., PHD.
Fellow of the British Academy. Joint-editor of the New English Dictionary (Oxford). Author of The Story of the Goths; The Making of English; &c.
H. Cl.Sir Hugh Charles Clifford, K.C.M.G.
Colonial Secretary, Ceylon. Fellow of the Royal Colonial Institute. Formerly Resident, Pahang. Colonial Secretary, Trinidad and Tobago, 1903-1907. Author of Studies in Brown Humanity; Further India, &c. Joint-author of A Dictionary of the Malay Language.
Singapore; Straits Settlements.
H. E. S.*Horace Elisha Scudder (d. 1902).
Formerly Editor of the Atlantic Monthly. Author of Life of James Russell Lowell; History of the United States; &c.
Stowe, Mrs Beecher.
H. F. G.Hans Friedrich Gadow, M.A., F.R.S., Ph.D.
Strickland Curator and Lecturer on Zoology in the University of Cambridge. Author of “Amphibia and Reptiles” in the Cambridge Natural History; &c.
Snakes; Song:Of Birds; Sphenodon.
H. H. F.H. Hamilton Fyfe.
Special Correspondent of the Daily Mail; Dramatic critic of The World. Author of A Modern Aspasia; The New Spirit in Egypt; &c.
Stepniak, Sergius.
H. Ja.Henry Jackson, M.A., Litt.D., LL.D., O.M.
Regius Professor of Greek in the University of Cambridge, and Fellow of Trinity College. Fellow of the British Academy. Author of Texts to illustrate the History of Greek Philosophy from Thales to Aristotle.
Socrates; Sophists; Speusippus.
H. M. R.Hugh Munro Ross.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Lincoln College, Oxford. Editor of The Times Engineering Supplement. Author of British Railways.
Signal: Army Signalling (in part).
H. M. Wo.Harold Mellor Woodcock, D.Sc.
Assistant to the Professor of Proto-Zoology, London University. Fellow of University College, London. Author of “Haemoflagellates” in Sir E. Ray Lankester’s Treatise of Zoology, and of various scientific papers.
H. O. F.Henry Ogg Forbes, LL.D., F.R.G.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Director of Museums to the Corporation of Liverpool. Reader in Ethnography in the University of Liverpool. Explorer of Mount Owen Stanley, New Guinea, Chatham Islands and Sokotra. Author of A Naturalist’s Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago; Editor and part-author of Natural History of Sokotra and Abd-el-Kuri; &c.
Sokotra (in part).
H. R. T.Henry Richard Tedder, F.S.A.
Secretary and Librarian of the Athenaeum Club, London.
Societies, Learned.
H. St.Henry Sturt, M.A.
Author of Idola Theatri; The Idea of a Free Church; Personal Idealism.
Space and Time.
H. S. J.Henry Stuart Jones, M.A.
Formerly Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford, and Director of the British School at Rome. Member of the German Imperial Archaeological Institute. Author of The Roman Empire; &c.
H. W. C. D.Henry William Carless Davis, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Balliol College, Oxford. Fellow of All Souls’ College, Oxford, 1895-1902. Author of England under the Normans and Angevins; Charlemagne.
Simeon of Durham; Stephen, King of England.
I. A.Israel Abrahams, M.A.
Reader in Talmudic and Rabbinic Literature in the University of Cambridge. Formerly President, Jewish Historical Society of England. Author of A Short History of Jewish Literature; Jewish Life in the Middle Ages; Judaism; &c.
Simon Ben Yoḥai; Singer, Simeon; Smolenskin, Perez; Steinschneider, M.
J. A. Co.Hon. Sir John Alexander Cockburn, K.C.M.G., M.D.
Knight of Grace of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Premier and Chief Secretary, South Australia, 1889-1890: Minister of Education and Agriculture, 1893-1898; Agent-General in London, 1898-1901. Author of Australian Federation; &c.
South Australia:History.
J. A. E.James Alfred Ewing, C.B., LL.D., F.R.S., M.Tnst.C.E.
Director of (British) Naval Education. Hon. Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Mechanism and Applied Mechanics in the University of Cambridge, 1890-1903. Author of The Strength of Materials; &c.
Siemens, Sir William; Steam Engine; Strength of Materials.
J. A. H.John Allen Howe.
Curator and Librarian of the Museum of Practical Geology, London. Author of Geology of Building Stones.
J. B.James Bonar, M.A., LL.D.
Master of the Royal Mint, Ottawa. Senior Examiner to the Civil Service Commission, 1895-1907. Author of Malthus and his Work; Philosophy and Political Economy; &c.
J. Bra.Joseph Braun, S.J.
Author of Die Liturgische Gewandung; &c.
J. Bt.James Bartlett.
Lecturer on Construction, Architecture, Sanitation, Quantities, &c., at King’s College, London. Member of Society of Architects. Member of Institute of Junior Engineers.
Staircase​:​Construction​; Steel construction; Stone.
J. C. Br.John Casper Branner, Ph.D., LL.D., F.G.S.
Vice-President and Professor of Geology in Leland Stanford University, California. Director of the Branner-Agassiz Expedition to Brazil, 1899. State Geologist of Arkansas, 1887-1893. Author of numerous works on the geology of Brazil, Arkansas and California.
South America.
J. D. B.James David Bourchier, M.A., F.R.G.S.
King’s College, Cambridge. Correspondent of The Times in South-Eastern Europe. Commander of the Orders of Prince Danilo of Montenegro and of the Saviour of Greece, and Officer of the Order of St Alexander of Bulgaria.
Silistria; Sofia; Stambolov, Stefan.
J. F.-K.James Fitzmaurice-Kelly, Litt.D., F.R.Hist.S.
Gilmour Professor of Spanish Language and Literature, Liverpoo University. Norman McColl Lecturer, Cambridge University, Fellow of the British Academy. Member of the Royal Spanish Academy. Knight Commander of the Order of Alphonso XII. Author of A History of Spanish Literature; &c.
Spain:Language (in part).
J. G. C. A.John George Clark Anderson, M.A.
Censor and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Formerly Fellow of Lincoln College. Craven Fellow, Oxford, 1896. Conington Prizeman, 1893.
J. G. M.John Gray McKendrick, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Emeritus Professor of Physiology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Physiology, 1876-1906. Author of Life in Motion; Life of Helmholtz; &c.
Sleep; Smell.
J. H. A. H.John Henry Arthur Hart, M.A.
Fellow, Theological Lecturer and Librarian, St John’s College, Cambridge.
Sibylline Oracles.
J. H. P.John Henry Poynting, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Physics and Dean of the Faculty of Science in the University of Birmingham. Formerly Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Joint-author of Text-Book of Physics.
J. H. R.John Horace Round, M.A. LL.D.
Balliol College, Oxford., Author of Feudal England; Studies in Peerage and Family History; Peerage and Pedigree; &c.
Stafford: Family; Stanley: Family (in part).
J. Hl. R.John Holland Rose, M.A., Litt.D.
Christ’s College, Cambridge. Lecturer on Modern History to the Cambridge University Local Lectures Syndicate. Author of Life of Napoleon I.; Napoleonic Studies; The Development of the European Nations; The Life of Pitt; &c.
Sieyès, Emmanuel Joseph; Stein, Baron.
J. H. van’t H.Jacobus Hendricus van't Hoff, LL.D., D.Sc.
See the biographical article VAN'T HOFF, JACOBUS HENDRICUS.
J. K. I.John Kells Ingram, LL.D.
See the biographical article: Ingram, John Kells.
Slavery (in part); Smith, Adam (in part).
J. L. M.John Linton Myres, M.A., F.S.A.,
Wykeham Professor of Ancient History in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Magdalen College. Formerly Gladstone Professor of Greek and Lecturer in Ancient Geography in the University of Liverpool, and Lecturer on Classical Archaeology in the University of Oxford.
Soli (Cyprus).
J. L. N.J. Lane-Notter, M.A., M.D., F.R.S.Med.
Colonel (retired), Royal Army Medical Corps. Formerly Professor of Military Hygiene, Army Medical School at Netley. Author of The Theory and Practice of Hygiene; &c.
Soil: Soil and Disease.
J. M.Sir John Macdonell, C.B., M.A., LL.D.
Master of the Supreme Court, London. Formerly Counsel to the Board of Trade and the London Chamber of Commerce. Quain Professor of Comparative Law, and Dean of the Faculty of Law, University College, London. Editor of State Trials; Civil Judicial Statistics; &c. Author of Survey of Political Economy; The Land Question; &c.
Sovereignty; Spheres of Influence.
J. M. M.John Malcolm Mitchell.
Sometime Scholar of Queen’s College, Oxford. Lecturer in Classics, East London College (University of London). Joint-editor of Grote’s History of Greece.
Solon; Sphinx (in part); Strategus.
J. O. N.Rev. James Okey Nash, M.A.
Hertford College, Oxford. Headmaster of St John’s College, Johannesburg. Formerly Missionary of the S.P.G. in Johannesburg.
J. Pe.John Percival, M.A.
St. John’s College, Cambridge. Professor of Agricultural Botany at University College, Reading. Author of Text-Book of Agricultural Botany; &c.
J. P. E.Jean Paul Hippolyte Emmanuel Adhémar Esmein.
Professor of Law in the University of Paris. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Member of the Institute of France. Author of Cours élémentaire d’histoire du droit français; &c.
J. S. F.John Smith Flett, D.Sc., F.G.S.
Petrographer to the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom. Formerly Lecturer on Petrology in Edinburgh University. Neill Medallist of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Bigsby Medallist of the Geological Society of London.
Sill; Slate:Geology; Spherulites.
J. S. R.James Smith Reid, M.A., LL.M., Litt.D., LL.D.
Professor of Ancient History in the University of Cambridge and Fellow and Tutor of Gonville and Caius College. Hon. Fellow, formerly Fellow and Lecturer, of Christ’s College. Editor of Cicero’s Academica; De Amicitia; &c.
Silius Italicus; Statius.
J. T. Be.John Thomas Bealby.
Joint-author of Stanford’s Europe. Formerly Editor of the Scottish Geographical Magazine. Translator of Sven Hedin’s Through Asia, Central Asia and Tibet; &c.
Siberia (in part); Simbirsk (in part); Smolensk (in part); Stavropol (in part).
J. V. B.James Vernon Bartlet, M.A., D.D.
Professor of Church History, Mansfield College, Oxford. Author of The Apostolic Age; &c.
Stephen, St.
J. W.James Williams, M.A., D.C.L., LL.D.
All Souls’ Reader in Roman Law in the University of Oxford, and Fellow of Lincoln College. Barrister-at-Law of Lincoln’s Inn. Author of Law of the Universities; &c.
J. W. G.John Walter Gregory, D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Geology in the University of Glasgow. Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in the University of Melbourne, 1900-1904. Author of The Dead Heart of Australia; &c.
South Australia:Geology.
J. W. He.James Wycliffe Headlam, M.A.
Staff Inspector of Secondary Schools under the Board of Education. Formerly Fellow of King’s College, Cambridge, and Professor of Greek and Ancient History at Queen’s College, London. Author of Bismarck and the Foundation of the German Empire; &c.
Stephan, Heinrich von.
K. G. J.Kingsley Garland Jayne.
Sometime Scholar of Wadham College, Oxford. Matthew Arnold Prizeman, 1903. Author of Vasco da Gama and his Successors.
Spain: Geography and Statistics.
K. L.Rev. Kirsopp Lake, M.A.
Lincoln College, Oxford. Professor of Early Christian Literature and New Testament Exegesis in the University of Leiden. Author of The Text of the New Testament; The Historical Evidence for the Resurrection of Jesus Christ; &c.
Soden: Hermann von.
K. S.Kathleen Schlesinger.
Editor of the Portfolio of Musical Archaeology. Author of The Instruments of the Orchestra.
Sistrum; Sordino; Spinet; Stringed Instruments.
L. C.Rev. Lewis Campbell, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Campbell, Lewis.
L. D.*Louis Duchesne.
See the biographical article: Duchesne, Louis M. O.
Siricius; Sixtus I.-III.
L. J. S.Leonard James Spencer, M.A.
Assistant in Department of Mineralogy, British Museum. Formerly Scholar of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, and Harkness Scholar. Editor of the Mineralogical Magazine.
Sillimanite; Smaltite; Sodalite; Sphene; Stannite; Staurolite; Stephanite; Stibnite; Stilbite; Strontianite.
L. W. Ch.Laurence Wensley Chubb.
Secretary of the Coal Smoke Abatement Society, and of the Commons and Footpaths Preservation Society.
Smoke (in part).
M. Ca.Moritz Cantor, Ph.D.
Honorary Professor of Mathematics in the University of Heidelberg. Hofrat of the German Empire. Author of Vorlesungen über die Geschichte der Mathematik; &c.
Stevinus, Simon.
M. G.Moses Gaster, Ph.D.
Chief Rabbi of the Sephardic Communities of England. Ilchester Lecturer at Oxford on Slavonic and Byzantine Literature, 1886 and 1891. President of the Folkelore Society of England. Vice-President, Anglo-Jewish Association. Author of History of Rumanian Popular Literature; &c.
Sturdza (family).
M. Ja.Morris Jastrow, Ph.D.
Professor of Semitic Languages, University of Pennsylvania. Author of Religions of the Babylonians and Assyrians; &c.
Sin (Moon-god).
M. M.Max Arthur Macauliffe.
Formerly Divisional judge in the Punjab. Author of The Sikh Religion: its Gurus, Sacred Writings and Authors; &c. Editor of Life of Guru Nanak, in the Punjabi language.
Sikh; Sikhism.
M. N. T.Marcus Niebuhr Tod, M.A.
Fellow and Tutor of Oriel College, Oxford. University Lecturer in Epigraphy. Joint-author of Catalogue of the Sparta Museum.
M. O. B. C.Maximilian Otto Bismarck Caspari, M.A.
Reader in Ancient History at London University. Lecturer in Greek at Birmingham University, 1905-1908.
N. M.Norman McLean, M.A.
Lecturer in Aramaic, Cambridge University. Fellow and Hebrew Lecturer, Christ’s College, Cambridge. Joint-editor of the larger Cambridge Septuagint.
Stephen Bar Sudhaile.
O. A.Osmund Airy, M.A., LL.D.
H.M. Divisional Inspector of Schools and Inspector of Training Colleges, Board of Education, London. Author of Louis XIV. and the English Restoration; Charles II.; &c. Editor of the Lauderdale Papers; &c.
Sidney, Algernon; Somers, Lord.
O. M.David Orme Masson, M.A., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Professor of Chemistry, Melbourne University. Author of papers on chemistry in the transactions of various learned societies.
Smoke (in part).
O. T.Oldfield Thomas, F.R.S., F.Z.S.
Senior Assistant, Natural History Department of the British Museum. Author of Catalogue of Marsupialia in the British Museum.
Skunk (in part).
P. A. A.Philip A. Ashworth, M.A., D.Juris.
New College, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Translator of H. R. von Gneist’s History of the English Constitution.
Simson, Martin E. Von.
P. A. K.Prince Peter Alexeivitch Kropotkin.
See the biographical article: Kropotkin, Prince P. A.
Siberia (in part); Simbirsk (in part); Smolensk (in part); Stavropol (in part).
P. C. M.Peter Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S., D.Sc., LL.D.
Secretary of the Zoological Society of London. University Demonstrator in Comparative Anatomy and Assistant to Linacre Professor at Oxford, 1888-1891. Author of Outlines of Biology; &c.
P. C. Y.Philip Chesney Yorke, M.A.
Magdalen College, Oxford. Editor of Letters of Princess Elizabeth of England.
P. S.Philip Schidrowitz, Ph.D., F.C.S.
Member of the Council, Institute of Brewing; Member of the Committee of Society of Chemical Industry. Author of numerous articles on the Chemistry and Technology of Brewing, Distilling, &c.
P. Vi.Paul Vinogradoff, D.C.L., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Vinogradoff, Paul.
R.Lord Rayleigh.
See the biographical article: Rayleigh, 3rd Baron.
R. A. S. M.Robert Alexander Stewart Macalister, M.A., F.S.A.
St John’s College, Cambridge. Director of Excavations for the Palestine Exploration Fund.
Sodom and Gomorrah.
R. D. H.Robert Drew Hicks, M.A.
Fellow, formerly Lecturer in Classics, Trinity College, Cambridge.
R. H. C.Rev. Robert Henry Charles, M.A., D.D., D.Litt.
Grinfield Lecturer, and Lecturer in Biblical Studies, Oxford, and Fellow of Merton College. Fellow of the British Academy. Formerly Professor of Biblical Greek, Trinity College, Dublin. Author of Critical History of the Doctrine of a Future Life; Book of Jubilees; &c.
Solomon, The Psalms of.
R. H. L.Robin Humphrey Legge.
Principal Musical Critic for the Daily Telegraph. Author of Annals of the Norwich Festivals; &c.
Strauss, Richard.
R. H. V.Robert Hamilton Vetch, C.B.
Colonel R.E. Employed on the defences of Bermuda, Bristol Channel, Plymouth Harbour and Malta, 1861-1876. Secretary of R.E. Institute, Chatham, 1877-1883. Deputy Inspector-General of Fortifications, 1889-1894. Author of Gordon’s Campaign in China; Life of Lieutenant-General Sir Gerald Graham. Editor of the R.E. Journal, 1877-1884.
Strathnairn, Lord.
R. I. P.Reginald Innes Pocock, F.Z.S.
Superintendent of the Zoological Gardens, London.
R. J. M.Ronald John McNeill, M.A.
Christ Church, Oxford. Barrister-at-Law. Formerly Editor of the St James’s Gazette (London).
Sidney, Sir Henry; Simnel, Lambert; Smith, Sir Henry; Somerset, Earls and Dukes of; Stone, Archbishop.
R. L.*Richard Lydekker, F.R.S., F.G.S., F.Z.S.
Member of the Staff of the Geological Survey of India, 1874-1882. Author of Catalogue of Fossil Mammals, Reptiles and Birds in the British Museum; The Deer of all Lands; The Game Animals of Africa; &c.
Sifaka; Sirenia; Skunk (in part); Souslik; Squirrel; Squirrel Monkey.
R. Mu.Robert Munro, M.A., M.D., LL.D., F.R.S. (Edin.).
Dalrymple Lecturer on Archaeology in the University of Glasgow for 1910. Rhind Lecturer on Archaeology, 1888. Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, 1888-1899. Founder of the Munro Lectureship on Anthropology and Prehistoric Archaeology in the University of Edinburgh. Author of The Lake-dwellings of Europe; Prehistoric Scotland, and its place in European Civilization; &c.
Stonehenge; Stone Monuments.
R. M. B. F. K.Richard Makdougall Brisbane Francis Kelly, D.S.O.
Colonel R.A. Commanding R.G.A., Southern Defences, Portsmouth. Served through the South African War, 1899-1902. Chief Instructor at the School of Gunnery, 1904-1908.
R. N. B.Robert Nisbet Bain (d. 1909).
Assistant Librarian, British Museum, 1883-1909. Author of Scandinavia: The Political History of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, 1513-1900; The First Romanovs, 1613-1725; Slavonic Europe: The Political History of Poland and Russia from 1469 to 1706; &c.
Sigismund I., II. and III. of Poland; Skarga, Piotr; Skram, Peder; Skrzynecki, Jan Zygmunt; Sophia Aleksyeevna; Sprengtporten, Count Göran; Sprengtporten, Jakob; Stanislaus I. and II. of Poland; Stephen I. and V. of Hungary; Stephen Báthory; Struensee, Johan F.; Sture (family).
R. P. S.R. Phené Spiers, F.S.A., F.R.I.B.A.
Formerly Master of the Architectural School, Royal Academy, London. Past President of the Architectural Association. Associate and Fellow of King’s College, London. Corresponding Member of the Institute of France. Editor of Fergusson’s History of Architecture. Author of Architecture: East and West; &c.
Stair; Staircase​:​Architecture​; Spire.
R. Sn.Richard Snow.
Examiner in Silk Throwing and Spinning for the City and Guilds of London Institute.
Silk: Trade and Commerce.
R. S. C.Robert Seymour Conway, M.A., D.Litt.
Professor of Latin and Indo-European Philology in the University of Manchester. Formerly Professor of Latin in University College, Cardiff; and Fellow of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Author of The Italic Dialects.
Siculi (tribe).
S. A. C.Stanley Arthur Cook.
Lecturer in Hebrew and Syriac, and formerly Fellow, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Editor for the Palestine Exploration Fund. Author of Glossary of Aramaic Inscriptions; The Laws of Moses and the Code of Hammurabi; Critical Notes on Old Testament History; Religion of Ancient Palestine; &c.
Simeon; Solomon.
S. Bl.Sigfus Blondal.
Librarian of the University of Copenhagen.
Sigurðsson, Jón.
S. F. M.Sir Shirley Forster Murphy, F.R.C.S.
Medical Officer of Health for the County of London.
St G. S.St George Stock, M.A.
Pembroke College, Oxford. Lecturer in Greek in the University of Birmingham.
Simon Magus.
S. N.Simon Newcomb, D.Sc., LL.D.
See the biographical article: Newcomb, Simon.
Solar System.
T. As.Thomas Ashby, M.A., D.LITT.
Director of the British School of Archaeology at Rome. Formerly Scholar of Christ Church, Oxford. Craven Fellow, 1897. Conington Prizeman, 1906. Member of the Imperial German Archaeological Institute. Author of The Classical Topography of the Roman Campagna.
Sicily: Geography and Statistics (in part); Siena (in part); Signia; Soluntum; Sora; Spoleto; Stabiae; Subiaco.
T. A. A.Thomas Andrew Archer, M.A.
Author of The Crusade of Richard I.; &c.
Silvester II.
T. A. C.Timothy Augustine Coghlan, I.S.O.
Agent-General for New South Wales. Government Statistician, New South Wales, 1886-1905. Honorary Fellow of the Royal Statistical Society. Author of Wealth and Progress of New South Wales; Statistical Account of Australia and New Zealand; &c.
South Australia:Geography and Statistics.
T. Ba.Sir Thomas Barclay.
Member of the Institute of International Law. Officer of the Legion of Honour. Author of Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy; &c. M.P. for Blackburn, 1910.
Spy (in part); State.
T. F. C.Theodore Freylinghuysen Collier, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of History, Williams College, Williamstown, Mass.
Sixtus V.
T. Se.Thomas Seccombe, M.A.
Balliol College, Oxford. Lecturer in History, East London and Birkbeck Colleges, University of London. Stanhope Prizeman, Oxford, 1887. Assistant Editor of Dictionary of National Biography, 1891-1901. Author of The Age of Johnson; &c.
Smollett; Stephen, Sir Leslie.
T. W.-DWalter Theodore Watts-Dunton.
See the biographical article: Watts-Dunton, Walter Theodore.
T. W. F.Thomas William Fox.
Statistical Account of Australia and New Stephen, Sir Leslie. Professor of Textiles in the University of Manchester. Author of Mechanics of Weaving.
T. W. R. D.
Thomas William Rhys Davids, M.A., LL.D., Ph.D.
Professor of Comparative Religion, Manchester University. President of the Pali Text Society. Fellow of the British Academy. Professor of Pali and Buddhist Literature, University College, London, 1882-1904. Secretary and Librarian of Royal Asiatic Society, 1885-1902. Author of Buddhism; Sacred Books of the Buddhists; Early Buddhism; Buddhist India; Dialogues of the Buddha; &c.
V. W.The Hon. Lady Welby.
Formerly Maid of Honour to Queen Victoria. Author of Links and Clues; Grains of Sense; What is Meaning?
W. A. B. C.
Fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford. Professor of English History, St David’s College, Lampeter, 1880-1881. Author of Guide du Haut Dauphine; The Range of the Todi; Guide to Grindelwald; Guide to Switzerland; The Alps in Nature and in History; &c. Editor of the Alpine Journal, 1880-1881; &c.
Simler, Josias; Simplon Pass; Sion (town); Soleure (canton); Soleure (town); Splügen Pass; Stans; Stumpf, Johann.
W. A. G.Walter Armstrong Graham.
Adviser to his Siamese Majesty’s Minister for Agriculture. Commander, Order of the White Elephant. Member of the Burma Civil Service, 1889-1903. Author of The French Roman Catholic Mission in Siam; Kelantan, a Handbook; &c.
W. A. J. F.Walter Armitage Justice Ford.
Sometime Scholar of King’s College, Cambridge. Teacher of Singing at the Royal College of Music, London.
Song (in music).
W. A. P.Walter Alison Phillips, M.A.
Formerly Exhibitioner of Merton College and Senior Scholar of St John’s College, Oxford. Author of Modern Europe; &c.
Sir; Spain:History (in part); States-General; Stole (in part).
W. C. D. W.William Cecil Dampier Whetham, M.A., F.R.S.
Fellow and Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. Author of Theory of Solution; Recent Development of Physical Science; The Family and the Nation; &c.
W. E. G.Sir William Edmund Garstin, G.C.M.G.
British Government Director, Suez Canal Co. Formerly Inspector-General of Irrigation, Egypt. Adviser to the Ministry of Public Works in Egypt, 1904-1908.
Sobat (in part).
W. Ho.Wynnard Hooper, M.A.
Clare College, Cambridge. Financial Editor of The Times, London.
Statistics; Stock Exchange.
W. Hu.Rev. William Hunt, M.A., Litt.D.
President of the Royal Historical Society, 1905-1909. Author of History of the English Church, 597-1666; The Church of England in the Middle Ages; &c.
Stubbs, William.
W. L. C.*William Lee Corbin, A.M.
Associate Professor of English, Wells College, Aurora, New York State.
Sparks, Jared.
W. L. G.William Lawson Grant, M.A.
Professor of Colonial History, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada. Formerly Beit Lecturer in Colonial History, Oxford University. Editor of Acts of the Privy Council (Canadian Series).
Strathcona and Mount Royal, Lord.
W. M.William Minto, M.A.
See the biographical article: Minto, William.
Spenser, Edmund (in part); Steele, Sir Richard (in part); Sterne, Laurence (in part).
W. MacC.Sir William MacCormac, Bart.
See the biographical article: MacCormac, Sir William, Bart.
Simon, Sir John.
W. McD.William McDougall, M.A.
Wilde Reader in Mental Philosophy in the University of Oxford. Formerly Fellow of St John’s College, Cambridge.
Subliminal Self.
W. M. F. P.William Matthew Flinders Petrie, F.R.S., D.C.L., Litt.D.
See the biographical article: Petrie, W. M. Flinders.
Sinai: The Peninsula.
W. M. R.William Michael Rossetti.
See the biographical article: Rossetti, Dante Gabriel.
Signorelli, Luca; Sodoma, Il.
W. M. Ra.Sir William Mitchell Ramsay, LL.D., D.C.L., D.Litt.
See the biographical article: Ramsay, Sir W. Mitchell.
Smyrna (in part).
W. N. S.William Napier Shaw, M.A., LL.D., D.Sc., F.R.S.
Director of the Meteorological Office, London. Reader in Meteorology in the University of London. President of Permanent International Meteorological Committee. Member of Meteorological Council, 1897-1905. Hon. Fellow of Emmanuel College, Cambridge. Fellow of Emmanuel College, 1877-1906; Senior Tutor, 1890-1899. Joint author of Text Book of Practical Physics; &c.
W. W. F.*William Warde Fowler, M.A.
Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. Sub-rector, 1881-1904. Gifford Lecturer, Edinburgh University, 1908. Author of The City-State of the Greeks and Romans; The Roman Festivals of the Republican Period; &c.
Sierra Leone.
Sikh Wars.
Skin Diseases.
Smithsonian Institution.
Solomon Islands.
South Carolina.
South Dakota.
South Sea Bubble.
Spanish-American War.
Spanish Reformed Church.
Speranski, Count.
Staten Island.
State Rights.
Stolen Goods.
Straw and Straw Manufactures.
Last edited on 2 April 2011, at 14:27
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