The Russian School of Painting
 The Russian School of Painting] (1916) 
by Alexandre Benois, translated byAvrahm Yarmolinsky
Foreword
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The book was first published in Russian in 1904.
THE RUSSIAN
SCHOOL OF PAINTING
THIS WORK HAS BEEN TRANSLATED
FROM THE ORIGINAL RUSSIAN BY
ABRAHAM YARMOLINSKY
NICHOLAS II
Valentine Syerov
THE RUSSIAN
SCHOOL OF PAINTING
By ALEXANDRE BENOIS
WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY
CHRISTIAN BRINTON
WITH THIRTY-TWO PLATES
NEW YORK • ALFRED A. KNOPF • 1916
COPYRIGHT, 1916, BY
ALFRED A. KNOPF
All rights reserved



COMPOSITION AND ELECTROTYPING BY THE VAIL-BALLOU CO.
PAPER SUPPLIED BY HENRY LINDENMEYR & SONS AND LOUIS DE JONGE AND COMPANY
PLATES ENGRAVED BY THE WALKER ENGRAVING CO.
PRESSWORK AND BINDING BY THE PLIMPTON PRESS
PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
An Epistolary Preface
By
Christian Brinton
My dear Alexandre Benois:—
It is with a sense of pleasure and privilege that I assume the responsibility of commending your résumé of Russian painting to the American public. To you who are so familiar with the intellectual and artistic physiognomy of your country the preparation of these pages was a labour of love into which you put the full measure of your scholarly exposition and discriminating analysis. It was at your congenial quarters in the rue Cambon, Paris, during a memorable engagement of the Ballet Russe, where, as you doubtless recall, we first projected an English version of this work. The pressure of other matters prevented the consummation of our plans, which have meanwhile happily materialized, thanks to the discerning initiative of a young publisher who vies with us in the admiration of Slavonic letters and art.
When, my dear Benois, you and I met so fraternally in Rome, Paris, London, and elsewhere Russian art, and more specifically the art of the theatre, was at its
apogee. You were then Directeur artistique of the Ballet Russe, and not only were you officially allied with that incomparable assembly of mimes, musicians, and metteurs-en-scène, you were also co-author of such productions as Le Pavilion d'Armide and the racy and poignant Petrouchka. For the time being, indeed, the vogue of the ballet obscured the more substantial and not less significant triumphs of Russian brush and palette as seen in studio or on exhibition wall. The general public was ignorant of the fact that such men as Syerov, Roerich, Anisfeld, Golovin, Vrubel, and yourself were painters in the more explicit meaning of the term. And still less did the average person realize that the ballet was but a phase of certain deep-rooted æsthetic impulses which had been coming to focus during the past score of years.
The one thing, however, the public did sense when face to face with these stimulating spectacles was their effective fusion of motives Oriental and Occidental. The Slav looks eastward as well as toward the west, and this, you will assuredly concede, is characteristic of your country's contribution to the field of artistic endeavour. Despite the drastic Europeanizing process inaugurated by Peter and continued under Elisabeth, Catherine, and subsequent sovereigns, that typically Slavonic note which we instantly recognize and relish
was by no means obliterated. Changes took place along all lines of activity. And yet while Peterhof became a miniature Versailles, and French was prattled in the salons and beneath the protecting trees of Tzarskoye Sélo, much that was old continued untouched and echoes of the passionate, enigmatic East still persisted.
In art as in life a sturdy racial integrity is with each Russian an inevitable birthright. The Russ everywhere reveals his power of direct, concrete observation and his ability to grasp the vital aspects of a given scene or situation and to achieve in their presentation a convincing measure of actuality. It is such salutary tendencies that, my dear Benois, mark the earlier portions of your comprehensive and sympathetic monograph. The floodtide of realism whether historic or contemporary was, as you have indicated, reached with the work of Repin and his successor, Valentin Syerov.
The movement during the past two decades has been away from realism and naturalism and in the direction of decorative symbolism. The ideals of the "Mir Iskusstva" men have been continued by the younger spirits who to-day write for "Apollon." Your own contributions whether with brush or pen, as well as those of your colleagues Somov, Bilibin, Ostroumova, Lebedeva, and Lanceray follow logically in the wake of that striving for more purely æsthetic conquests which had
its inception in the early nineties. Colour, a distinct feeling for decorative design, and the free play of fancy and passion are the characteristics of the newer school. The particular group to which you belong has revived the graces of former days and transmuted the fragrance of the eighteenth century into something spirited and modern yet instinct with poetic sensibility.
It is, however, far from my intention to usurp your function as an interpreter of Russian art. In your triple capacity of writer, painter, and dramatist you possess unique qualifications for the task in hand. I can only add that you have here achieved your habitual success, and that I am particularly happy for the opportunity of acknowledging even a small portion of the debt I owe you and your ever complex and inspiring country.
Believe me, my dear Benois,
Faithfully yours,
Christian Brinton.
Ardrossan Park,
September, 1916.
Table of Contents
PAGE
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
xv
Two fundamental currents in painting.—Their blending.—Methodical principles: manysidedness and proportionality.—Their application to the history of Russian art.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17
Old church painting and its destiny.—Foreign masters in Russia under Peter I.—Efforts to implant a national art.—Andrew Matvyeyev.—Ivan Nikitin.—The reign of Queen Elizabeth.—More foreign masters summoned.—I. I. Shuvalov.—Origin of Russian painting.—General character of the Eighteenth Century Russian painting.—Art schools.—Painters.—I. Argunov.—Alexis Antropov.—Shuvalov's Academy.—Losenko.—Rokotov.—Levitzky.—His two manners.—Borovikovsky.—Other portraitists.—Nicholas Argunov.—Shchukin.—Landscape painters.—Byelsky.—Destiny of Russian architectural painting.—Topographical engravings.—Shchedrin.—M. Ivanov.—Fyodor Alexyeyev.—Landscape painters of the old school.—Galaktionov.—Martynov.—M. Vorobyov.—Other painters of the "picturesque" school.—Alexander Bryullov.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55
I. I. Betzkoy, the new head of the Academy.—The second classical Renaissance.—Academies and Classicism.—Academicism and æsthetics.—Academicism and art technique.—"The Russian school of painting."—Akimov.—Ugryumov.—Yegorov, the "Russian Raphael."—Shebuyev, the "Russian Poussin."—Andrey Ivanov, the draughtsman.—F. Tolstoy and Ivan Ivanov.—Minor Academicists.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
67
Romantic efflorescence.—Romanticism in Russian literature.—Inferiority of Russian art to Russian letters.—Echoes of Romanticism in Russian painting.—Kiprensky, the forerunner of Russian Romantic painting.—His portraits.—His decline.—Orlovsky.—His sketches.—Tropinin, the "Russian Greuse."—Karl Bryullov, the Russian Delacroix.—His youth.—Bryullov in
Italy.—"The Last Day of Pompeii."—Bryullov in Russia.—His portraits.—G. G. Gagarin.—Von-Moller.—Bruni, the Nazarene.—His life.—His "Brazen Serpent."—Nature of his talent.—Bryullov's pupils.—K. Makovsky.—"Décadence" of Romanticism.—Makovsky's paintings.—Semiradsky.—Mikyeshin.—Other epigones of Romanticism.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
96
Alexander Ivanov and Romanticism.—His education.—Ivanov in Rome.—"Christ Appearing to the People."—His Biblical sketches.—His mysticism.—Ivanov's followers.—N. Gay.—His unbeautlful art.—His portraits.—Kramskoy.—His "Christ in the Desert."—V. Vasnetzov, the pioneer of neo-idealism.—His aims.—His technique.—Nesterov.—His landscapes.—Vrubel, the true successor of Ivanov.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
114
The place of the realistic strain in the Russian school of painting.—Origin of Russian realistic painting.—The part of foreign masters.—Venetzianov.—The character of his realism.—His school and its destiny.—Realistic portraitists.—"Genre" paintings in Russia.—P. A. Fedotov, the father of "purpose" painting in Russia.—His life.—Art with a social tendency.—Fedotov's satirical pictures.—Perov, the representative of narrative and denunciatory painting.—Historical value of his pictures.—The First Secession: "The Refusal of the 13 Competitors."—Its significance.—Vereshchagin.—His pictorial ineffectiveness.—His place in the history of Russian painting.—I. Repin.—Repin and Kramskoy.—Nature of his talent.—His lack of education.—His portraits.—Other representatives of narrative painting.—The epigones: V. Makovsky.—Pryanishnikov.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
138
Historical painting favourite with Russian realists.—Repin's historical paintings.—"Ivan the Terrible and his son Ivan."—"The Cossacks' Jeering Reply to the Sultan."—Other historical paintings.—Schwarz, the father of Russian national historical painting.—Surikov.—His influence.—His truly Russian colour gamut.—Ryabushkin.—S. Ivanov.—A. Vasnetzov.—V. Vasnetzov.—His influence.—His fairy-tale pictures.—His most remarkable paintings.—His school.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
150
Two currents in the evolution of the Russian landscape.—Silvester Shchedrin.—M. Lebedev.—Evolution of Russian landscape until the seventies.—Ayvazovsky.—M. K. Klodt.—Shishkin.—F. Vasilyev.—V. D. Polyenov.—A. Kuindzhi, the impressionist.—The Landscape in the eighties.—Levitan.—The narrative landscape.—His technique.—His truly Russian landscape style.—The poetry of Russian nature brought to expression.—Levitan's followers.—Nesterov.—Syerov.—His artistic personality.—His landscapes and portraits.—His historical compositions.—K. Korovin, the Bohemian.—His decorative works.—His colour gamut.—Free Realists.—Braz.—Sergey Korovin.—Arkhipov.—Pasternak.—Mary Yakunchikov.—Grabar.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
175
The critical-historical method inapplicable to the treatment of contemporary art.—Absence of a distinct æsthetic system or programme in contemporary Russian painting.—The future of Russian painting.—Contemporary masters.—Vrubel.—His themes.—His genius.—Somov.—His scope and talent.—His technique.—His place in the history of Russian painting.—Malyavin, the bard of Russian peasant-women.—Return to the national past.—V. Vasnetzov.—Count Sollogub.—Miss H. Polyenov.—Her efforts to develop art industries.—Malyutin.—Golovin.—His colour gamut.—His theatrical decorations.—Bakst.—His decorations.—His book illustrations.—The Renaissance of the Russian book.—Lanceray.—Bilibin.—Roerich.—Dobuzhinsky.—Musatov.—The phantasts and symbolists.
List of Illustrations
Valentine SyerovNicholas IIFrontispiece
FACING
PAGE
Dmitry LevitzkyPortrait of Princess Golytzin32
Vladimir BorovikovskyPortrait of F. Borovsky49
Fyodor BruniThe Brazen Serpent80
Orest KiprenskyPortrait of a Lady84
Karl BryullovThe Last Day of Pompeii93
Alexandre IvanovThe Head of the Apostle Andrew97
Alexandre IvanovJohn the Baptist Preaching in the Desert100
Nicolay GayThe Crucifixion102
Victor VasnetzovSt. Nikita of Novgorod107
Mikhail NesterovThe Vision of St. Bartholomew109
Vasily PerovThe Arrival of the Governess116
Vasily VereshchaginThe Mass at the Battlefield125
Ilya RepinThe Bargemen of the Volga132
Ilya RepinIvan the Terrible and His Son141
Ilya RepinThe Cossacks' Jeering Reply to the Sultan144
Vasily SurikovBoyarynia Morozov148
Ivan AyvazovskyThe Wave157
Ivan ShishkinThe Forest in Winter161
Isaak LevitanThe Breeze162
Isaak LevitanThe Pond164
Valentine SyerovOctober166
Valentine SyerovBoys168
Valentine SyerovIda Rubinstein171
Valentine SyerovPortrait of Princess Yusupov173
Mikhail VrubelThe Daemon175
Mikhail VrubelThe Daemon (Final Version, 1902)176
Konstantine SomovAt Evening178
Philip MalyavinA Portrait180
Sergyey MalyutinPortrait of the Artist189
Ivan BilibinIllustration to a Fairy Tale by Pushkin191
Arkady RylovSpring193

 
 This work is a translation and has a separate copyright status to the applicable copyright protections of the original content.
Original:
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926.
The author died in 1960, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 60 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.
 
Translation:
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published before January 1, 1926.
The author died in 1975, so this work is also in the public domain in countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 30 years or less. This work may also be in the public domain in countries and areas with longer native copyright terms that apply the rule of the shorter term to foreign works.
 
Last edited on 30 December 2020, at 17:09
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