In the Lands of the Romanovs: An Annotated Bibliography of First-hand English-language Accounts of the Russian Empire (1613-1917)/Reign of Nicholas II (1894-1917) 11. REIGN OF NICHOLAS II (1894-1917)
Fig. 45 Tsar Nicholas II (1898), photograph by A.A. Pasetti.
See also: I51, I79, I138a, I143, I146, I167, I173, I179, I180, J40, J43, J44, J65, J76, J77, J82, J87, J88, J94, J120, J122, J140
‘Viator’, Overland to Persia. London: John and Edward Bumpus, 1906. xii+169pp.
Anonymous account of a journey undertaken during a summer sometime in the 1890s. In a breezy narrative the English author describes his journey by train from Warsaw to Odessa and his travels with a Russian companion through the Crimean peninsula and along the Black Sea coast. They take the train through Georgia to Tiflis and proceed by horse into Persian territory. The text is enlivened with illustrations by Ambrose Dudley from sketches by the author (pp. 1-105).
Bishop, Isabella Lucy Bird, Korea and her neighbors: a narrative of travel, with an account of the recent vicissitudes and present position of the country. With a preface by Sir Walter C. Hillier. London: John Murray, 1898. 2 vols.
The author of four books of travel under her maiden name of Bird by the time of her marriage to Dr John Bishop (d. 1886) in 1881, Isabella (1831-1904), in 1892 the first woman to be elected F.R.G.S., was in Vladivostok from early November to 10 December 1894 between visits to Korea. In Vladivostok she became close friends with Eleanor Pray (see J138). Bishop visited Korean settlements in Siberia and journeyed along the Trans-Siberian railway as far as Ussuri (vol. I, pp. 213-41).
Harris, Walter Burton, From Batum to Baghdad via Tiflis, Tabriz, and Persian Kurdistan. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1896. xii+335pp.
Harris (1866-1933), F.R.G.S., Times correspondent and Moroccan specialist, who had been in Archangel some years earlier, sailed from Constantinople for Batumi in April 1895 and went by train first to Tiflis and then by carriage to Erevan, and on into Persia, without incident or much of note (pp. 25-84).
Muir, Hal Moncreiff, A tour in Russia. Leith: printed for the author by Mackenzie and Storrie, 1898. 76pp.
A “humble account of travel” by an Edinburgh Scot, author of similar efforts for Switzerland and the Pyrenees, who sailed with three friends from Grangemouth to Cronstadt “several years ago”, presumably c.1895. A conventional description of the sights of Petersburg and its environs and of an excursion to Moscow suddenly changes tack and is followed by a string of “stories” illustrating Russian religious, social and village life (pp. 26-70).
Perris, George Herbert, Russia in revolution. London: Chapman & Hall, 1905. xvi+359pp.
Offered as “a review of the last thirty-five years of Russian public life” and making copious use of printed sources and the active contribution of many Russian revolutionaries in exile, this account, dated 15 April 1905 and thus published before the tragic end of that year, is suffused with Perris’s own memories from numerous visits to Russia during the first decade of Nicholas’s reign. Perris (1866-1920), who had published Leo Tolstoy, the grand mujik (1898), contributed articles while in Russia to various papers including the Daily Chronicle.
Dillon, Emile Joseph, The eclipse of Russia. London & Toronto: J.M. Dent and Sons, 1918. viii+420pp.
Dedicated to the Russian premier Count Witte for whom Dillon had worked as private adviser from 1903 to 1914, this work, representing Dillon’s bleak view of Russia under Nicholas II, also includes a chapter entitled ‘Some personal recollections’ (pp. 61-82). (See also I157
and, under pseudonym of Lanin, J89
Hodgetts, Edward Arthur Brayley, Round about Armenia: the record of a journey across the Balkans through Turkey, the Caucasus and Persia, in 1895. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1896. xii+296pp.
Hodgetts (see I79
) was later to call this trip on behalf of the Daily Graphic
to report on the Turkish massacres of Armenians “the most interesting of the many journeys I had ever undertaken”. It took him to Tiflis and Baku and into both Russian and Turkish Armenia.
Jefferson, Robert Louis, Awheel to Moscow and back: the record of a record cycle ride. With a preface by A.R. Savile. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1895. xii+172pp.
Cycling enthusiast Jefferson’s first venture into Russia, making a round trip from Warsaw to Moscow in fifty days in April-June 1895 (pp. 61-159). (See also K30
Pearson, Henry John, “Beyond Petsora eastwards”: two summer voyages to Novaya Zemlya and the islands of the Barents Sea. With appendices on the botany and geology by Col. H.W. Feilden. London: R.H. Porter, 1899. xiv+335pp.
The Nottingham foundry-owner and dedicated ornithologist (1850-1913), together with his brother Charles, the Rev. Slater, and Col. Feilden, sailed on a small steamer, the Saxon, to Russian Lapland and the islands of Kolguev and Novaia Zemlia in the summer of 1895, recording and collecting birds and their eggs. In 1897, on a larger steamer, the Laura, he and Feilden went as far as the Kara Sea. Their observations were first published in Ibis in 1896 and 1897.
Demidov, Elim Pavlovich, Hunting trips in the Caucasus. London: Rowland Ward, 1898. xvi+319pp.
The immensely rich Demidov (1868-1943), 3rd Prince of San Donato, born in Vienna and dying in Athens, provided a “faithful account of three shooting trips to three different parts of the Caucasus”. The first took him to the Kuban in the autumn of 1895; the second along the Russo-Persian border in the summer of 1896; the third, again to the Kuban, in the autumn of 1896. The last two accounts were in fact written by Dr H.D. Levick
, who accompanied Demidov. The book was dedicated to St. George Littledale, who was also on the third expedition and who had shot in the Caucasus several times in earlier years. (For further expeditions, see K31
Patterson, John Edward, My vagabondage, being the intimate autobiography of a nature’s nomad. London: William Heinemann, 1911. xix+373pp.
Patterson (1866-1919), Yorkshire-born merchant seaman and later novelist, recounts his adventures at sea, including disastrous shore-leave in St Petersburg at the end of the nineteenth century (pp. 252-66).
Kenworthy, John Coleman, A pilgrimage to Tolstoy: being letters written from Russia, to the ‘New Age’, January 1896. Croydon: Brotherhood Publishing Co., 1896. 45pp.
Kenworthy (1863-1946), leader of the Croydon Brotherhood Church, came under the spell of Tolstoi’s writings in 1890 and soon thereafter began a correspondence that led to his visit to Moscow at the end of 1895 and early 1896. In between his meetings with Tolstoi he paid a visit to Kostroma to see the “real” Russia of the countryside.
Palmer, Francis H.E., Russian life in town & country. London: George Newnes, 1901. xii+271pp.
Based on a residence of several years in Russia (the author mentions incidents in 1895 and 1900), Palmer’s contribution to the Newnes’s ‘Our neighbours’ series is a detailed, informed and sympathetic account of the social and domestic life of the Russians in town and village.
Joubert (d. 1906), an Englishman of Huguenot descent, who claimed to have visited as a tramp (brodiaga) almost every part of Russia including Sakhalin during nine years from c.1881, travelled there several times thereafter. It is a journey in 1896 that he recalls in particular in this first of three books he wrote in the space of eighteen months, condemning tyranny, the penal system, and anti-semitism, and sensing revolution.
Olufsen, Axel Frits Olaf Henrik, Through the unknown Pamirs: the second Danish Pamir expedition 1898-99. London: William Heinemann, 1904. xxii+238pp.
Lt. Olufsen (1865-1929) of the Danish army led two expeditions to the Pamirs in the 1890s. The first left Copenhagen on 25 March 1896 and returned on 1 March of the following year, travelling from St Petersburg via Georgia to Baku, across the Caspian, and by the Transcaspian railway to Samarkand, thereafter by tarantas and horse into the Pamirs. This journey was seen as essentially one of reconnoitring for the second expedition that lasted from 23 March 1898 to 22 November 1899. It was this second expedition, following the same outward route as far as Osh and then proceeding deep into south Pamir that produced the material for the book.
Olufsen, Axel Frits Olaf Henrik, The emir of Bokhara and his country: journeys and studies in Bokhara (with a chapter on my voyage on the Amu Darya to Khiva). London: William Heinemann, 1911. xii+599pp.
In a complementary volume to his 1904 work, Olufsen, now retired from the army, a professor and secretary to the Royal Danish Geographical Society, concentrates on a comprehensive study of Bokhara, both before and after it became a vassal state of Russia. Both Danish expeditions spent extended stays as guests of the emir in Bokhara.
Bigham, Clive, A ride through Western Asia. London: Macmillan and Co., 1897. xii+284pp.
Anxious to get to Armenia, Bigham left England on 22 June 1895 by what seemed, given the political situation, the most difficult route via Constantinople. He traversed Persia and eventually entered Russian territory on 20 April 1896. He travelled through Russian Turkestan and visited Bokhara and Samarkand, briefly entered China, and then across the steppe to Omsk and homewards by the Trans-Siberian to St Petersburg, which he reached on 26 June. He calculated that he had travelled in Asia over 8,000 miles, half of which were on horseback (pp. 205-69).
Gordon, Samuel, A handful of exotics: scenes and incidents, chiefly of Russo-Jewish life. London: Methuen & Co., 1897. x+297pp.
In his preface, dated September 1896, Gordon offers, as an amateur ethnographer, a series of “light sketches endeavour[ing] to depict the Russian Jew in his native surroundings”. Two of the ten tales are devoted to non-Jewish subjects, “illustrating the environments in which the Russian Jew moves”.
Malcolm, Ian Zachary, Trodden ways 1895-1930. London: Macmillan and Co., 1930. xii+288pp.
Sir Ian (1868-1944), 17th chieftain of the clan Malcolm and a M.P., was attached to the British embassy for three weeks at the time of the coronation of Nicholas II in May 1896 and he records his impressions in an essay entitled ‘The last coronation’ (pp. 44-68). In 1916 he returned to Russia as British Red Cross commissioner, mainly in Petrograd but also visiting Kiev. He includes a description of his audience with the tsar at Tsarskoe selo (pp. 69-92).
Logan, John Alexander, Jr., In joyful Russia. London: C. Arthur Pearson, 1897. x+275pp.
The American army officer Logan (1865-99) records “a thoroughly delightful” trip and defends his “rose-coloured” view of a country “in holiday attire” for the coronation of Nicholas II in Moscow on 26 May 1896. He even plays down the tragedy at the festival at Khodynskoe pole on 30 May for “it is not best to let the unthinking brood too deeply over the irretrievable” and what happened only underlined the “sympathy” between the people and the throne. Logan, his mother, and his friend G left Moscow for St Petersburg on 7 June, where they enjoyed further delights before “departing the land of the Great White Tsar with regret”.
Grenfell, Francis Wallace, Three weeks in Moscow. London: for the author by Harrison and Sons, 1896. iv+152pp.
Lt-General Sir Francis (1841-1925), afterwards 1st Baron Grenfell, was in the suite accompanying the Duke and Duchess of Connaught to attend the coronation of Nicholas II. In a series of letters to E. (Evelyn, his first wife), he describes their departure from Sheerness on 11 May on board the Victoria and Albert and arrival a week later at the English Embankment in St Petersburg, proceeding to Moscow by train. Five days after the coronation he was also present at the public festival at Khodynskoe pole and reports on the tragedy that ensued. They sailed from St Petersburg on 9 June (pp. 10-116).
Grenfell, Francis Wallace, Memoirs of Field Marshall Lord Grenfell. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1925. xv+236pp.
Grenfell recalls his visit in 1896 (pp. 127-42).
Creighton, Mandell, Life and letters. By his wife [Louise Creighton]. London: Longmans, Green, & Co., 1904. 2 vols.
Creighton (1843-1901), Bishop of Peterborough, represented the Anglican church at the coronation, travelling with W.J. Birkbeck, the acknowledged British authority on the Russian church. He describes his visit in letters to his wife and in a notebook, detailing his meetings with, among others, the patriarch and Pobedonostsev (vol. II, pp. 148-64).
Sykes, Arthur Alkin, The coronation cruise of the ‘Midnight Sun’ to Russia, Whitsuntide, 1896: a record. London: for the author, 1896. 118pp.
Sykes (1861-1939), contributor to Punch
and translator of Gogol’s Revizor
, joined a three-week tour (11 May-6 June) of five northern capitals that was designed to coincide with Nicholas II’s coronation. Grenfell (see K20
) mentions the “cheering” British tourists (168 in fact) on board the Midnight Sun
, who made their way to Moscow for the great event but left before the tragedy of Khodynka (pp. 49-82).
Davis, Richard Harding, A year from a correspondent’s note-book. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1898. x+305pp.
Journalist, novelist, playwright, and F.R.G.S., Davis (1864-1916), later renowned for his war reporting, describes his visit to Russia for the coronation in May 1896 in an article previously published in Harper’s Magazine, but makes no mention of the Khodynka tragedy (pp. 3-65).
[Maude, Aylmer], The tsar’s coronation as seen by “De Monte Alto” resident in Moscow. London and Croydon: Brotherhood Publishing Co., 1896. 128pp.
A healthy counterblast to accounts that “present nothing but the conventional, superficial laudations of a spectacle which enlightened conscience and sober reason must see in a wholly different light”. Maude (see J86
), the “resident” concealing his identity, follows the preparations for the event , the pageant itself, and in graphic detail the “catastrophe” at Khodynka on 18 May 1896, before penning an epilogue, suffused with the teachings of Tolstoi and railing against the perils of ultra-patriotism that affects equally the British.
Addams, Jane, Twenty years at Hull-House, with autobiographical notes. New York: Macmillan, 1910. 462pp.
Social activist, founder of the U.S. Settlement House movement and recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize, Addams (1860-1935) travelled with wealthy debutante Mary Rozet Smith to Russia in July 1896. Addams was yet another enthusiast for Tolstoi’s social writings, but her meeting with him proved awkward and confrontational (pp. 266-74).
A journey undertaken in the summer of 1896 that took Simpson (1873-1934), who had recently graduated from Edinburgh University, along the Trans-Siberian. Offering not so much a travelogue as an investigation into the potential of Siberia and much about the penal system, Simpson sought “the truth” mid-point between the views of Kennan and De Windt, but predicted that revolution was inevitable.
Mavor, Sam, Memories of people and places. London, Edinburgh and Glasgow: William Hodge and Co., 1940. iv+327pp.
Russia played a large role in the life of the electrical engineer and industrialist, whose memoirs, gathered together when he was seventy six, comprise mainly articles he had written at various times for his firm’s Apprentices magazine. Mavor (b. 1863) first went to Russia in the summer of 1896 to inspect the installation of electric lighting at the Thornton woollen mills in St Petersburg (pp. 5-9). He also describes a momentous journey to deliver a Tyne-built steamer from Newcastle to St Petersburg and then by the waterways to Astrakhan (pp. 163-86). In 1899 he made a pilgrimage to Solovetsk from Norway (pp. 187-213). His final visit to St Petersburg was in 1912.
Cycling trip by three friends across the world that began on 17 July 1896 and took 774 days was chronicled by Sir John (1868-1936). They entered Russia from Romania in the autumn en route for Odessa and thereafter cycled through the Crimea to the Caucasus and through Georgia to Erevan. Passing Ararat, they left Armenia and entered Persia (pp. 28-90). (See also K88
Jefferson, Robert Louis, Roughing it in Siberia; with some account of the Trans-Siberian railway, and the gold-mining industry of Asiatic Russia. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Co., 1897. 252pp.
Forsaking for once his bike for the railway, Jefferson (see K7
) accompanies three business associates from Moscow to Krasnoiarsk, the then terminus of the railway, and then down the Enisei in January-April 1897. Visited gold-mines, interviewed owners and miners, gathered samples of ore.
Demidov, Elim Pavlovich, After wild sheep in the Altai and Mongolia. London: Rowland Ward, 1900. xii+324pp.
Demidov (see K9
) travelled with his wife and the great travellers St. George Littledale (1851-1931) and his wife Teresa (1839-1928) from London in April 1897 to shoot the wild sheep (ovis ammon
), and much else.
Gillis, Charles J., A summer vacation in Iceland, Norway, Sweden and Russia. New York: Printed for private distribution, 1898. 55pp.
Seasoned traveller and author of a number of privately printed travel accounts, Gillis joined a party sailing from New York on 26 June 1897 for Scandinavia and Russia. Very brief notes with photographs on their visit to St Petersburg, Moscow, and then Peterhof, before they sailed off for Southampton towards the end of August (pp. 36-52).
Dana, Charles A., Eastern journeys: some notes of travel in Russia, in the Caucasus, and to Jerusalem. New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1898. iv+146pp.
A three-month round trip from New York in the summer of 1897 that takes the American tourists Dana (1819-97) and his wife first to Odessa by boat from Marseilles and then on to Batumi, through Georgia to Rostov and the railway link to Nizhnii and Moscow (pp. 17-101).
Symons, Arthur William, Cities. London: J.M. Dent & Co., 1903. xii+261pp.
In this collection of essays, printed previously in journals, the prolific literary scholar and author Symons (1865-1945) included ‘Moscow’, which he visited in the hot summer of 1897 and which he “hated”, as much as Naples, in contrast to St Petersburg, which had “nothing to say” to him (pp. 155-85).
Ridley, James Cartmell, Reminiscences of Russia: the Ural mountains and adjoining Siberian district in 1897. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: A. Reid & Co., 1898. 100pp.
Prior to attending the International Geological Congress, held in St Petersburg in August 1897, Ridley and another unnamed delegate from Newcastle embarked on a long journey that took them by train via Warsaw to Moscow, where they arrived on 27 July. They then travelled by various forms of transport via Samara as far as Ekaterinburg and looped back to Moscow via Perm and Kazan, before proceeding to the capital for the conference. Highly impressed by “a great country”, they sailed for home on 6 September.
Hayes, Matthew Horace, Among horses in Russia. London: R.A. Everett & Co., 1900. xiv+214pp.
Capt Hayes, a leading authority and author on all things equine, paid four visits to Russia. The first in July-September 1897, at the invitation of the imperial guards stationed at Krasnoe selo outside St Petersburg, was quickly followed by a second in October with further horses and a visit to an imperial stud at Dubrovka in Ukraine. Two further visits followed in March and August 1898, during the second of which he was later joined by his wife, a formidable horsewoman. Much valuable information on the famous Orlov stud and Russian horse-breeding.
Honeyman, Abraham Van Doren, and Mason, Abbie Ranlett, From America to Russia in summer of 1897. Edited by A.V.D. Honeyman. Plainfield, New Jersey: Honeyman & Co., 1897. 167pp.
Two chapters in this third collection of travel accounts by members of Honeyman tourist groups from New York and New Jersey are devoted to their visit to Russia in early August 1897: Mason describes their arrival in St Petersburg from Finland, their tour of the city sights, and a visit to the military review at Krasnoe selo (pp. 88-97); Honeyman (1849-1936) recounts the party’s less enjoyable trip to Moscow, where they note the greater level of poverty and social disorder compared to St Petersburg (pp. 98-114).
Miles, Nelson Appleton, Military Europe: a narrative of personal observation and personal experience. New York: Doubleday & McClure Co., 1898. x+112pp.
U.S. major-general (1839-1925), veteran of the Civil War and Indian wars, arrived in Russia on 15 August 1897, was received by the tsar at Peterhof, and observed the annual manoeuvres of the Russian army at Krasnoe selo, before proceeding to Germany and France (pp. 73-94).
Renshaw, Charles Jeremiah, Travels in Russia. London: National Union Publishing Co., 1900. 32pp.
Dr Renshaw of Ashton-on-Mersey travelled by train to Moscow with a party of thirty men and ten women to attend the 12th International Medical Congress in August 1897. He briefly describes their outward journey, their stay in Moscow, their visit to Petersburg and homewards via Finland.
Kerr, John, Leaves from an inspector’s notebook. London: Thomas Nelson & Sons, . 278pp.
Kerr (1830-1916), senior chief inspector of schools in Scotland, travelled to St Petersburg via Sweden and Finland en route for Moscow, where he also attended the Medical Congress that opened on 19 August in the Bolshoi theatre. He also went to the fair at Nizhnii Novgorod (pp. 158-76).
Flint, Josiah Frederick, Tramping with tramps: studies and sketches of vagabond life. With prefatory note by Hon. Andrew D. White. New York: The Century Co., 1899. xvi+398pp.
In part II of his book in which he details his experiences with tramps in various parts of the world, Flint (b. 1850) includes ‘With the Russian goriouns [unfortunates]’, describing his visit to Russia in 1897, when he not only went to see Tolstoi but also “tramped” for some days in Vitebsk district (pp. 200-28).
Perowne, John Thomas Woolrych, Russian hosts and English guests in Central Asia. London: The Scientific Press, 1898. xvi+198pp.
Perowne, Cambridge graduate and translator from French and German, does “nothing more than describe a journey, made in November and December last, over the Transcaspian Military Railway”. One of a party of twenty-five English who left Constantinople on 6 November 1897, Perowne, styling himself “something of a Russophil”, charts their progress to Batumi and on to Tiflis and Baku, where they take the steamer to Krasnovodsk. There they board the Transcaspian railway for a three-week journey to Samarkand with various stops en route, including a reception by Kuropatkin, the governor-general, on their return to Ashabad.
Phibbs, Isabelle Mary, A visit to the Russians in Central Asia. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., Ltd., 1899. viii+238pp.
Travel writer in the same party as Perowne, although neither names the other, offers her account of the “marvellously interesting journey”, which for her was marred only by a bout of influenza that made the return by train “almost entirely a blank”.
Loch, Emily, The memoirs of Emily Loch: discretion in waiting, Tsarina Alexandra and the Christian family. Edited by Judith Poore. Kinloss: Librario, 2007. 394pp.
Emily (d. 1932), lady-in-waiting to Helena, Princess Christian, accompanied Princess Helena, Princess Christian’s eldest daughter, on visit to the Russian imperial family during the winter of 1897-98 (pp. 183-252).
Cobbold, Ralph Patteson, Innermost Asia: travel & sport in the Pamirs. London: William Heinemann, 1900. xviii+354pp.
With the modest aim of making his book “the standard work of reference on its subject”, Cobbold charts his travels and hunting through the Pamirs in 1897-98. Coming from the Chinese side, he crossed the Russian border at the beginning of January 1898 and travelled to lake Balkash, where he shot his first tiger. He returned to Kashgar before receiving permission to travel in the Russian Pamirs. At one stage detained as a spy, Cobbold is ultimately glad to make his way to “freedom” in British Kashmir (pp. 92-210).
Salter, John Henry, Dr Salter of Tolleshunt D’Arcy in the county of Essex, medical man, freemason, sportsman, sporting-dog breeder and horticulturalist. His diary and reminiscences from the year 1849 to the year 1932. Compiled by J.O. Thompson with an appreciation by the rt. hon. the earl of Lonsdale, K.G. London: John Lane, 1933. xviii+404pp.
It was his love of sporting dogs that brought Salter (1841-1932), vice-president of the Kennel Club, to Russia for the first time in January 1898, where he was a judge at the imperial dog show in Moscow. He was to make eight further trips up to 1912, all meticulously recorded in the diaries he kept for some eighty years (pp. 107-11, 115-18, 120-2, 125-6, 129-31, 142-3, 149-50). In addition to the diary entries there are ten ‘reminiscences’, sympathetic essays on various aspects of his Russian visits, concerned mainly with the judging of dogs, the hunting of wolves, and the shooting of birds (pp. 338-69).
Colquhoun, Archibald Ross, The ‘overland’ to China. London: Harper & Brothers, 1900. xii+465pp.
Much travelled in China over the previous twenty years, Colquhoun, F.R.G.S., was convinced of the importance of the nearly completed Trans-Siberian railway beyond the boundaries of Russia itself and undertook a journey from St Petersburg in late 1898 that took him to the temporary terminus of the railway at Baikal before travelling through Mongolia to Pekin. An attempt at a serious historico-geographical assessment, based on his own observations and “original sources” (pp. 1-149).
Jefferson, Robert Louis, A new ride to Khiva. London: Methuen & Co., 1899. xii+352pp.
Intent on replicating Burnaby’s famous 1875-76 ride to Central Asia but purely for sporting reasons, Jefferson (see K7
) set out from England on the six-thousand mile trek in April 1898, entering Russia via Galicia. He made his way to Moscow and accompanied by Russian cycling friends, went to Nizhnii Novgorod and followed the Volga and on across the Kirghiz steppe until his reception by the khan of Khiva. He returned to England by ship via Constantinople and by train from Marseille (pp. 71-312).
Vanderlip, Washington Baker, In search of a Siberian Klondike. As told to Homer B. Hulbert. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1906. 315pp.
American prospector Vanderlip (1863-1949) seached for gold and copper deposits in Siberia, Kamchatka and Sakhalin in 1898-89 and again in 1900. He describes wildlife and the indigenous peoples and narrates his encounters with rival prospectors and foreign adventurers.
Stadling, Jonas Jonsson, Through Siberia.
Edited by F.H.H. Guillemard. London: Archibald Constable & Co., 1901. xvi+315pp.
Stadling (see J113
) set out from Stockholm on 20 April 1898 on an unsuccessful expedition to find the Swedish explorer Andrée lost in northern Siberia. They travelled deep into Siberia, reaching the Enisei, before turning back, arriving in Stockholm (after another visit to Iasnaia Poliana) at the end of December after a journey of 15,500 miles.
Bookwalter, John Wesley, Siberia and Central Asia. New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1899. xxxi+548pp.
The American manufacturer (1837-1915) records in detail and in numerous photographs his extensive travels throughout Siberia, the Caucasus, and Central Asia during the summer and autumn of 1898. He showed particular interest in the transport infrastructure in the regions he visited as well as in their industries and commercial potential.
Russell-Cotes, Annie Nelson, Letters from Russia. London: for the author, 1899. iv+50pp.
Undemanding tourist’s letters sent by Lady Russell-Cotes, née Clark, to her daughter E., beginning in St Petersburg on 28 August 1898 and ending in Göteborg on 22 September. From the capital they journeyed to Moscow and then to Nizhnii Novgorod, returning to Moscow and back to Petersburg (pp. 1-39).
Reid, Arnot, From Peking to Petersburg. London: Edward Arnold, 1899. viii+300pp.
An unremarkable account of a journey on the Trans-Siberian by a traveller, an “average indoors-man”, who having arrived in Singapore, wanted to travel home to England by a different route. Entered Siberia at Kiakhta on 21 September 1898 and reached St Petersburg exactly fifty days after leaving Pekin (pp. 131-274).
Leroy-Beaulieu, Pierre Paul, The awakening of the East: Siberia—Japan—China. Translated from the French by Richard Davey. With a preface by [Sir] Henry Norman. William Heinemann, 1900. xxvii+298pp.
French economist (1843-1916), after extensive travels in 1898-99 through Siberia, Japan and China, writes a comparative study, drawing particular attention to the significance of the almost completed Trans-Siberian railway (pp. 1-80).
Hammond, John Hays, The autobiography of John Hays Hammond. New York: Farrar & Rinehart, 1935. 2 vols.
American mining engineer and diplomat (1885-1936) records his experiences of three trading missions to Russia between 1898 and 1912. In 1898, invited by the Minister of Finance Witte and accompanied by the English financier L. Hirsch, he surveyed mines and mineral resources in the Ural and Altai Mountains. He went again in 1910, meeting the tsar at Tsarskoe selo and negotiating an agreement over the use of American capital to finance Russian industries (vol. II, pp. 454-78). During a third visit to St Petersburg and Moscow in mid-May 1912 Hammond held talks with the prime minister and Witte (pp. 603-06).
Oudendyk, William J., Ways and by-ways in diplomacy. London: Peter Davies, 1939. xii+386pp.
The Dutch diplomat Oudendyk (b. 1874) received his first posting to the Dutch legation in China at the age of nineteen and spent much of his first long spell of leave from late 1898 to early 1900 in Moscow, where he learnt Russian. He visited Kiev and St Petersburg before taking the Trans-Siberian to Irkutsk and then proceeding to Vladivostok (pp. 78-92). In the summer of 1907 he arrived in St Petersburg as head of the Dutch legation, remaining until May 1908, when he was again appointed to China (pp. 133-47). After further service in China and Persia, whence he visited Russian Turkestan (pp. 183-90), he was in Russia at least three times in 1914-16 (pp. 201-10), before returning to Petrograd as temporary minister in the spring of 1917 and remaining until the end of 1918 (pp. 212-312).
Beeby-Thompson, Arthur, Oil pioneer: selected experiences and incidents associated with sixty years of world-wide petroleum exploration and oilfield development. With a foreword by Herbert Hoover. London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1961. 544pp.
Newly employed by the European Petroleum Company, Beeby-Thompson (b. 1872) travelled out to Baku in November 1898. He combines technical data with his impressions of life in the area, where he remained until 1903. He returned to London to begin his career as a consultant oil engineer, published in 1904 a solid tome entitled The oil fields of Russia and the Russian petroleum industry, and was to pay one further short visit to the oilfields in 1905, when he witnessed violence between Armenians and Tartars (pp. 52-76).
Pares, Bernard, My Russian memoirs. London: Jonathan Cape, 1931. 623pp.
Sir Bernard (1867-1949), the pioneer of Russian studies at the universities of Liverpool and London, first visited Russia in 1898-99, when he attended lectures at Moscow University, and thereafter visited the country in many guises and on many occasions through WWI and finally left from Siberia in 1919. (See also K59
Pares, Bernard, A wandering student: the story of a purpose. Utica, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1948. xv+448pp.
In this version of his memoirs, completed in 1947, Pares includes and reworks material on Russia included in his earlier books.
Eagar, M., Six years at the Russian court. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1906. xvi+283pp.
Irish Miss Eagar arrived in Petersburg in February 1899 as governess to the infant Grand Duchesses Olga and Tatiana and remained with the imperial family until the end of 1904. Her “slight sketches of life in the Palaces”, offered as “plain, unvarnished truth”, are naïve and undemanding but nonetheless provide intimate and unusual glimpses of the family in its Petersburg palaces and on holiday in the Crimea.
Ossendowski, Ferdynand Antoni, Man and mystery in Asia. In collaboration with Lewis Stanton Palen. London: Edward Arnold & Co., 1924. xii+295pp.
The first forty years of the colourful and adventurous life of the Pole Ossendowski (1878-1945) were inextricably bound with the fortunes of Russia from his birth in Russian Poland, through his education in Petersburg, extensive travels throughout the empire, political activity, imprisonment, and much else. In a first volume Beasts, men and gods (1923), he wrote of his escape from the Bolsheviks into Mongolia; here he returns to his earlier adventures in Siberia as far as Sakhalin from about 1899.
Ossendowski, Ferdynand Antoni, The shadow of the gloomy East. Translated [from the Polish] by F.B. Czarnomski. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1925. 223pp.
His self-styled “sketches” represent an attempt “to lay bare before the civilised world the true face of the Russian people”, interesting above all for his personal memories, his three meetings with Rasputin, and service with Kolchak.
Morton, Rosalie Slaughter, A woman surgeon: the life and work of Rosalie Slaughter Morton. London: Robert Hale & Co., 1937. 355pp.
Shortly after graduating from medical school, Dr Morton (1876-1968), who was to become one of the most distinguished female doctors in America, went abroad to continue her studies in Germany. She spent the Christmas vacation of 1899 in St Petersburg, appalled by the contrasts of wealth and degrading poverty and with hindsight concluding that “here was Red Russia in the making, her garments dyed in blood”. She then travelled to Moscow, where she visited Tolstoi on three occasions at his home in Khamovniki, recording in detail their conversations (pp. 75-86).
Müller, Max, Reminiscences of a roving life. Exeter: William Pollard & Co., 1906. xii+125pp.
Müller, not the famous Prof. Müller of Oxford University as he points out in his preface, recounts “the life of a wanderer – a vagabond – and nothing more”. He made many cruises on the s.y. Argonaut, one of which that took him in 1899 to St Petersburg, whence he travelled to Moscow and Nizhnii Novgorod, and a later one to the Crimea, but he says little of any interest (pp. 118-23).
Pearson, Henry J., Three summers among the birds of Russian Lapland, with history of Saint Triphon’s monastery and appendices. London: R.H. Porter, 1904. xvi+216pp.
In his second book, Pearson (see K8
) describes three visits to Russian Lapland in 1899, 1901, and 1901 to observe, record, and photograph bird life (pp. 1-169). There follows a translated version of a Russian history of the monastery by the Pechenga river.
Curtin, Jeremiah, A journey in southern Siberia: the Mongols, their religion and their myths. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1909. xiv+319p.
Curtin (see I51
) journeyed from Moscow into southern Siberia to study the language, religion, and customs of the Buriats, living around Lake Baikal and on the only island within it. The account of his travels, from his arrival in Irkutsk on 9 July 1900 to his departure on 15 September, occupies pp. 18-91.
Hill, Elizabeth, In the mind’s eye: the memoirs of Dame Elizabeth Hill. Edited by Jean Stafford Smith. Lewes: The Book Guild Ltd., 1999. viii+520pp.
Dame Elizabeth (1900-96), first professor of Slavonic studies at the University of Cambridge from 1948 to 1968, recalls her upbringing in St Petersburg in an Anglo-German family before their departure for England at the end of 1917 (pp. 3-55).
Kenworthy, John Coleman, Tolstoy: his life and works. London and Newcastle-on-Tyne: Walter Scott Publishing Co., 1902. 255pp.
In 1900 Kenworthy (see K11
) went to Russia for a second time to see Tolstoi at Prince Obolenskii’s country house outside Moscow for five days before proceeding alone to Iasnaia Poliana to absorb the atmosphere (pp. 210-28). Also included is the previously published description of his 1895 visit (pp. 47-98).
Demidov, Elim Pavlovich, A shooting trip to Kamchatka. London: Rowland Ward, 1904. xvi+304pp.
Travelling again with his fellow passionate sportsman St George Littledale, Demidov (see K9
) completed the round trip from London across Siberia to Vladivostok by train and by steamer to Kamchatka in April-September 1900, shooting whatever moved whenever the opportunity arose.
Clark, Francis Edward, A new way around an old world. New York & London: Harper & Brothers, 1901. xiv+212pp. [also published as The Great Siberian Railway: what I saw on my journey. London: S.W. Partridge and Co., 1904.]
President of the United Society of Christian Endeavor and the World’s Christian Endeavor Union, Dr Clark (1851-1927), his wife, and son reached Vladivostok from Japan on 31 May 1900 and began the six-week journey by the newly opened Trans-Siberian and by steamer to Moscow and home via St Petersburg – the first Americans “to go around the world by the new route”.
Clark, Francis Edward, Memories of many men in many lands. Boston: United Society of Christian Endeavor, 1922. 704pp.
Succinct description of his 1900 journey across Siberia to Moscow (pp. 239-56).
Roberts, James Hudson, A flight for life and an inside view of Mongolia. Boston: Pilgrim, 1903. 402pp.
A missionary for the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions based in Tientsin, Roberts (1851-1945) describes his and his mission’s escape from China during the Boxer Rebellion in the summer of 1900. Travelling through Mongolia, he arrives in Russia at Kiakhta on 13 August and makes his way to Irkutsk, where he boards the Trans-Siberian railway. He reaches St Petersburg in mid-September (pp. 279-331).
Meakin, Annette M.B., A ribbon of iron. London: Archibald Constable & Co., 1901. 320pp.
Anthropologist, biographer, translator, Meakin (1867-1959), F.R.G.S., travelled with her mother along the Trans-Siberian railway from Moscow to Vladivostok in 1900.
Benn, Edith Annie Fraser Parker, An overland trek from India by side-saddle, camel, and rail; the record of a journey from Baluchistan to Europe. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1909. 343pp.
The Russian stage of her journey took Mrs Benn through the Caucasus mountains and on to Georgia during late 1900 and early 1901 (pp. 274-96).
Thwing, Charles Franklin, Universities of the world. New York: Macmillan Co., 1911. xvi+284pp.
The president of Western Reserve University (1853-1937) visited over “years not a few” nineteen of the twenty universities he featured in a series of essays, including the university of St Petersburg. The year of his visit is not specified but would seem to be from the turn of the century (pp. 167-78).
Norman, Henry, All the Russias: travels and studies in contemporary European Russia, Finland, Siberia, the Caucasus, & central Asia: London: William Heinemann, 1902. xvi+476pp.
Norman (see J95
), recently elected to Parliament, nevertheless undertook four journeys throughout the Russia empire in 1900-01 “to present a picture of the aspects of contemporary Russia of most interest to foreign readers”, including the almost obligatory visit to Tolstoi at Iasnaia Poliana (pp. 47-63).
Holmes, Burton, The Burton Holmes lectures. With illustrations from photographs by the author. Battle Creek, Michigan: The Little-Preston Company, 1901. 10 vols.
The famous and successful American traveller and innovative travel lecturer (1870-1958) visited St Petersburg for the first time in April 1901 and then moved on to Moscow in May, taking a trip to Iasnaia Poliana, where he met and filmed Tolstoi. On 19 June he began his nine-day journey on the Trans-Siberian to Irkutsk. Crossing Baikal by ferry, he proceeded by train to the Cossack settlement of Stretensk, arriving in early July (vol. VIII, pp. 1-336). He then undertook a hazardous and seemingly endless journey along the Amur from Stretensk to Khabarovsk, before finally reaching Vladivostok (vol. IX, pp. 3-112). In his later guide to the Soviet Union, The traveler’s Russia (1934), Holmes was to recall his earlier visits, particularly the meeting with Tolstoi.
Beveridge, Albert Jeremiah, The Russian advance. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1904. ix+486pp.
American historian and senator for Indiana, Beveridge (1862-1927) travelled through Russian and Siberia in 1901, intent on assessing the changing role of Russia in international politics. Much of his material was published in the Philadelphia Saturday Evening Post in the same year.
Baring, Maurice, The puppet show of memory. London: Heinemann, 1922. ix+457pp.
Baring (1874-1945), poet, dramatist, novelist, and translator with a profound love of Russia and its people, went to Russia for the first time in July 1901 as guest of Count Konstantin Benkendorf at his Tambov estate of Sosnovka (pp. 219-24). Many further visits, as family guest and as newspaper correspondent, ensued, all described in his autobiography, which covers the period up the outbreak of WWI (pp. 260-390). (See also K134
Morgan, Christopher A., From China by rail: an account of a journey from Shanghai to London via the Trans-Siberian Railways. Edinburgh: Ballantyne, Hanson and Co., 1902. 139pp.
British tourist describes his journey on the Trans-Siberian between 19 June and 20 August 1901, concentrating on the section between Vladivostok and Irkutsk.
Senn, Nicholas, Around the world via Siberia. Chicago: W.B. Conkey Co., 1902. 402pp.
Articles originally published in the Chicago Tribune by the professor of surgery at Rush Medical College and surgeon-general of Illinois (1844-1908), some of which describe his journey from St Petersburg to Vladivostok between 19 July and 25 August 1901 (pp. 36-198).
Landor, Arnold Henry Savage, Across coveted lands; or, a journey from Flushing (Holland) to Calcutta, overland. London: Macmillan, 1902. 2 vols.
Grandson of the poet, Landor (1865-1924), painter, traveller, and author, travelled from Warsaw to Kiev in 1901 and then on to Rostov and Baku, where he embarked on the mail steamer for Persia (vol. I, pp. 1-28).
Meakin, Annette M.B., In Russian Turkestan: a garden of Asia and its people. London: George Allen, 1903. 304pp.
Meakin’s (see K73
) journey through Russian central Asia in 1901 before her return to England in March 1902 takes her from Krasnovodsk on the Caspian via Askhabad and Merv to Bokhara (which she had first visited in 1896), Samarkand and Tashkent.
British anthropologist and associate director of Boston museum of fine art, Hawes (1867-1943) sailed from Japan to Vladivostok in August 1901, travelled to Khabarovsk, then went by boat along the Amur to Nikolaevsk before crossing to Sakhalin, “the island of punishment”, where he observed the lives of both native tribes and imperial prisoners. After fifty adventure-filled days on the island, he returned by boat to Vladivostok and thence by train to Moscow and on to London, which he reached at the end of the year (pp. 15-464). Hawes was later to write the Handbooks on Eastern Siberia and on Sakhalin for the Foreign Office and published in 1920.
Gerrare, Wirt, [pseudonym of Greener, William Oliver], Greater Russia. The continental empire of the old world. London: Heinemann, 1903. 310pp.
Greener (1862-1935), author of The story of Moscow
(1900), uses two journeys east and west to see “greater” Russia, i.e. particularly the areas east of Baikal and Russia’s “port-hole on to the Pacific”, and also slips in disguise into Manchuria. (See also K136
Adams, Henry, The education of Henry Adams: an autobiography. Cambridge, Mass.: Riverside Press, 1918. 519pp.
Adams (1838-1918), American journalist and member of the famous Adams political family, visited St Petersburg and Moscow between 17 August and 7 September 1901 (pp. 406-10).
Adams, Henry, Letters of Henry Adams, 1892-1918. Edited by Worthington Chauncey Ford. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1938. 2 vols.
Letters Adams sent to his friends Elizabeth Cameron and John Hay, describing his trip to Russia in 1901 (vol. II, pp. 339-50).
“A mission of curiosity” at the behest of the owner of the Yorkshire Post
saw Fraser (see K29
) leave Moscow on 22 August 1901 by train, but not the Trans-Siberian. He travelled as far as Stretensk, from where he sailed by steamer down the Shilka and Amur rivers to Blagoveshchensk and then on to Khabarovsk. After his “dash” into Manchuria (pp. 208-55), he returned to Irkutsk at the end of October and boarded the Trans-Siberian for Moscow.
Palmer, Frederick, With my own eyes: a personal story of battle years. London: Jarrolds, 1934. 350p.
The experienced American war correspondent (1873-1958) travelled with senators Beveridge and Cabot Lodge from Tokyo to Moscow on the Trans-Siberian en route for London in 1901, noting in particular the threat the railway brought to Japan and China (pp. 188-93). Palmer, very sympathetic to the Japanese cause, was to publish in 1904 With Kuroki in Manchuria.
There was inevitably much in Fraser’s earlier works (K29
) about convicts and exiles in Siberia and in this book of essays he recounts an encounter at Irkutsk with a political prisoner ‘Ivan Ivanovitch’, returning to his native Moscow after fifteen years’ exile (pp. 33-57). In another sketch on ‘the cloaks of religion’ he recalls his visit to Kiev and its cathedral (pp. 76-82).
Morgan, Wilma, Glimpses of four continents, being an account of the travels of Richard Cope Morgan. London: Morgan & Scott, 1911. xii+388pp.
As the “constant companion during the last eleven years” of her husband (1827-1908), founder of The Christian
, Mrs Morgan was able to supplement extracts from his diaries and writings with her own personal observations. Unlike Morgan, who was exclusively concerned with visiting missions, preaching, and writing, she remarks on the places and countryside they saw. In September 1901 they were persuaded by Dr Baedeker (see I143
) to accompany him to Russia. They went first to Rostov-on-Don and travelled through Georgia and on to Baku, Batumi, and the Crimea, visiting prison and meeting believers of various sects (pp. 123-36).
After failing in 1896 to travel by land from New York to Paris, De Windt succeeded in the opposite direction, leaving Paris on 19 December 1901 and reaching New York on 25 August 1902. The primary aim of the expedition was to assess the possibility of a Paris-New York rail link, but De Windt’s three-man expedition travelled by rail, sled and foot to reach the Bering Strait at the end of April 1902 (pp. 1-193).
Swenson, Olaf, Northwest of the world: forty years’ trading and hunting in Northern Siberia. London: Robert Hale, 1951. 221pp.
Swenson (1883-1938), born in Michigan to Swedish parents, sailed from Alaska to Siberia for the first time in 1902 with a group of prospectors from the North-eastern Siberian Company and made many further trips as a trader from 1905 through the 1930s. He came to know and admire the native Chukchi.
Macdonell, Aeneas Ranald, …And nothing long. London: Constable & Co., 1938. vii+328pp.
In 1902 Macdonell (1875-1941), by then 21st chief of Clan Ronald of Knoydart and Glengarry, accepted a position with an unidentified British company in Russia and after a few months in Moscow arrived in turbulent Baku, where he was later to become British vice-consul and remain during the years of revolution and civil war (pp. 61- 325). Employed by the Foreign Office, he was awarded the OBE in 1919 and CBE the following year for his services in often dangerous circumstances . On his return to England he became a journalist and later a grocer in Swanage. His memoirs, penned from memory many years after the events, contained, according to his eldest son, many fascinating stories based on other people’s experiences rather than his own.
Shoemaker, Michael Myers, The great Siberian railway from St. Petersburg to Pekin. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons (The Knickerbocker Press). 1903. x+243pp.
The Kentucky traveller and author Shoemaker (1853-1924) left St Petersburg in April 1902 to travel the Trans-Siberian as far as Chita (pp. 1-121), before crossing into Manchuria and on to Pekin. His aim was to present a description of the railway and the country it passes through, without worrying about prisons or politics.
Cary, Clarence, The Trans-Siberian route or notes of a journey from Pekin to New York in 1902. New York: Evening Post Job Printing House, 1902. 53pp.
American journalist Cary provides a discursive commentary on a journey taken along the Chinese Eastern and then Trans-Siberian railways between 5 August and 18 August 1902, detailing his own experiences and offering tips for future travellers.
Lynch, George, The path of empire. London: Duckworth & Co. 1903. xx+257pp.
Journalist and explorer Lynch (1868-1928) evaluates the potential political and economic impact of the Trans-Siberian following a journey along it during late 1902. Two early chapters describe his travels around the commercial terminus at Dalnii and the military terminus at Port Arthur (pp. 50-74). After discussing his travels in China, he returns to his westwards journey on the railway to Moscow (pp. 152-257).
Edwards, William Seymour, Through Scandinavia to Moscow. Cincinnati: Robert Clarke Co., 1906. xiv+237pp.
The Virginia lawyer Edwards (1856-1915) and his wife visited Russia as part of their honeymoon trip, arriving in St Petersburg from Stockholm early in September 1902. In a series of letters to his father, beginning on 16 September, he describes their short stays in the capital and Moscow and their exit via Smolensk on 21 September. He was highly aware of the vast abyss between rich and poor, predicting “a saturnalia of blood and tears, a squaring of ten centuries’ accounts, more fraught with human anguish and human joy than ever dreamed a Marat and a Robespierre” (pp. 136-213).
Polhill[-Turner], Arthur Twistleton, Across Siberia with a baby, & a visit to a Chinese prison. Edited with a preface by Robert Skinner, D. D. Cambridge: Deighton, Bell & Co., 1904. xii+84pp.
Rev. Polhill (1863-1935) was one of the “Cambridge Seven” missionaries who worked for the China Island Mission from 1885 until he fled during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900. In the autumn of 1902 he returned to China, travelling on the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow on 5 October and departing from Port Arthur on 29 October. His account is based on a series of letters he sent to his brother and fellow missionary Cecil (pp. 1-54).
Shoemaker, Michael Myers, The heart of the Orient: saunterings through Georgia, Armenia, Persia, Turkomania, and Turkestan, to the vale of Paradise. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons (The Knickerbocker Press). 1904. xiv+416pp.
In the winter of 1902 Shoemaker (see K94
) travelled from Constantinople to Georgia and on to Baku, before reaching Persia (pp. 14-89). Leaving Persia once more for Baku, he then travels through Russian Central Asia, visiting Bokhara and Samarkand (from where he travels by tarantas
). Returning finally to Baku, he takes the train to Moscow and on to St Petersburg (pp. 211-409).
Miles, Nelson Appleton, Serving the republic: memoirs of the civil and military life of Nelson. A. Miles. New York and London: Harper and Bros., 1911. x+340pp.
Shortly before his retirement from the army, Miles (see K38
) by then a lieutenant-general, paid an official visit to China and Japan at the end of 1902, visiting also Port Arthur, where he met General Alekseev, and travelling on the Trans-Siberian on his way home via Paris and London (pp. 308-09).
Vay de Vaya and Luskod, Peter, Empire and emperors of Russia, China, Korea, and Japan: notes and recollections. Preface by John Murray. London: John Murray, 1906. xxxii+399pp.
Hungarian aristocrat and later bishop, Count Vay (1863-1948) was sent by Pope Leo XIII to investigate Catholic institutions in the east and was received by the tsar and tsaritsa at Peterhof, prior to his departure from St Petersburg for Siberia, Manchuria and beyond in 1902 (pp. 1-62).
Turner, Samuel, Siberia: a record of travel, climbing, and exploration. With an introduction by Baron Heyking. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1905. 361pp.
Turner (1869-1929), F.R.G.S., went to Siberia to assess the dairy industry, but then, an expert climber, he explored the Altai mountains and climbed Mount Belukha during a visit lasting from March to May 1903.
Turner, Samuel, My climbing adventures in four continents. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1911. 283pp.
Turner recapitulates his climbing expedition of 1903, but now including “quite a lot of details” previously omitted (pp. 91-166).
Overton, Kathleen (Toni), An odious child? memories 1903-1932. Edited by Catherine Archer. Hertford: privately printed, 2000. ii+75pp.
Mrs Overton, née Ward (1903-98) was born to British parents in St Petersburg, where her father was an engineer. She describes her childhood years in the Russian capital which they quitted in October 1916 during WWI to move to England (pp. 3-19).
Fell, Edward Nelson, Russian and nomad: tales of the Kirghiz steppes. London: Duckworth & Co., 1916. xviii+201pp.
American director of a London mining company that acquired coal and copper mines in the midst of the steppes near the headwaters of the river Ishim, Fell (b. 1857) spent several years between 1903 and 1908 working and mixing on friendly terms with Russian and Kirghiz. One ‘tale’ and the concluding ‘Eagle’s song’ were written by his young daughter Marian (pp. 155-69, 200-01).
Ronaldshay, Dundas, Lawrence John Lumley, Earl of, On the outskirts of empire in Asia. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1905. xxii+408pp.
Ronaldshay (1876-1961), later 2nd Marquess of Zetland, F.R.G.S., politician, and author, was aide-de-camp to Lord Curzon, viceroy of India, during the years he travelled extensively in Asia. In April 1903 his travels took him from Persia to Baku and then to Krasnovodsk and the Transcaspian railway by which he went to Bokhara and Samarkand. He travelled across Turkestan to shoot wild sheep in the Altai. He completed the Russian part of his travels on the Trans-Siberian and by steamer eastwards towards Kharbin, which he reached at the beginning of October (pp. 155-315).
Ronaldshay, Dundas, Lawrence John Lumley, Earl of, An eastern miscellany. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1911. xiv+422pp.
A collection of essays and speeches, mostly already published and concerned principally with India and Japan, contains ‘A Siberian mystery’, on a visit to Tomsk and the legend of Alexander I/Fedor Kuzmich (pp. 36-44), an essay on Baku in 1905 (pp. 73-88), and ‘Notes on a journey across Asia’, partly in Russia (pp. 143-63).
Swayne, Harold George Carlos, Through the highlands of Siberia. London: Rowland Ward, 1904. xiv+259pp.
A major in the Royal Engineers, F.R.G.S., and inveterate hunter and photographer, Swayne (b. 1860) used three months of a year’s furlough from service in India to travel in June 1903 to St Petersburg and Moscow with his wife and then on with his companion Seton Karr to Siberia and the Altai mountains to shoot wild rams.
Pumpelly, Raphael, Davis, William Morris, Pumpelly, Raphael Welles, and Huntington, Ellsworth, Explorations in Turkestan with an account of the basin of Eastern Persia and Sistan: expedition of 1903, under the direction of Raphael Pumpelly. Washington, D.C.: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1905. xii+324pp.
The volume consists of five contributions from the four members of the Carnegie-sponsored expedition that left America in the spring of 1903 with the aim of investigating “the past and present physico-geographical conditions and archaelogical remains” of Turkestan. The members pursued somewhat different itineraries and it is ‘A journey across Turkestan’, the extensive contribution of Davis (1850-1934), professor of geology at Harvard, whose travels extended into Siberia, that is of general interest (pp. 23-119).
Cockerell, Sydney Carlyle, Friends of a lifetime: letters to Sydney Carlyle Cockerell. Edited by Viola Meynell. London: Jonathan Cape, 1940. 384pp.
In July 1903 Sir Sydney (1867-1962), then a process engraver in partnership with Emery Walker and later director of the Fitzwilliam Museum in Cambridge, paid a visit with two American friends to Tolstoi at Iasnaia Poliana (pp. 78-86).
Thomas, Joseph B., Jr., Observations on borzoi called in America Russian wolfhounds, in a series of letters to a friend. Foreword by Henry T. Allen. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1912. viii+123pp.
All one needs to know about the borzoi, as communicated in letters to Major Allen, who had been American military attaché in St Petersburg. In letters 4 and 5 Thomas, Boston architect and financier and wolfhound fanatic and breeder, recalls his visits to St Petersburg, Tula and Moscow in August 1903 and in 1904 to visit kennels and to hunt (pp. 39-70).
Story, Douglas, To-morrow in the East. London: Chapman & Hall, 1907. x+267pp.
The Scottish journalist (1872-1921) offered his book as “the result of ten years” observation as war-correspondent and special correspondent in the countries of the East”, but he also included a chapter devoted to the powerful tsarist minister Count Witte, whom he interviewed in St Petersburg in August 1903 (pp. 227-42). For Story’s reporting of the Russo-Japanese war, see K133
Grafton, Charles Chapman, The works of the Rt. Rev. Charles C. Grafton, S.T.D., LL.D. Edited by B. Talbot Rogers. New York and London: Longmans, Green, and Co., 1914. 8 vols.
The bishop of Fond du Lac, Wisconsin (1830-1912) left New York on 22 August 1903 and returned on 8 November after a brief visit to St Petersburg, Moscow and Sergiev posad to promote “fraternal relations between the Eastern Church in Russia and the Church in America” (vol. IV, pp. 252-70). He was accompanied by the English scholar W.J. Birkbeck (see J82
). Original American edition A journey Godward
(Milwaukee: Young Churchman Co., 1910).
Spring-Rice, Cecil Arthur, The letters and friendships of Sir Cecil Spring Rice: a record. Edited by Stephen Gwynn. London: Constable & Co., 1929. 2 vols.
A career diplomat, Sir Cecil (1859-1918) served in the British embassy in St Petersburg from September 1903 until April 1906, when he was appointed minister in Persia. He was in St Petersburg throughout the Russo-Japanese war and the revolutionary events of 1905. His letters provide an informed view of events, not least those addressed to his close friend Mrs Roosevelt, wife of the American president (vol. I, pp. 362-504, II, pp. 1-76).
Weale, Bertram Lenox Putnam [pseudonym of Simpson, Bertram Lenox], Manchu and Muscovite: being letters from Manchuria written during the autumn of 1903, with an historical sketch entitled ‘Prologue to the crisis’, giving a complete account of the Manchurian frontiers from the earliest days and the growth and final meeting of the Russian and Chinese empires in the Amur regions. London: Macmillan and Co., 1904. xx+552pp.
Commissioned to write a series of articles on Manchuria, Simpson (1877-1930) travelled extensively through the country from September to November 1903. He was highly critical of Russian presence in the area and dedicated his book to the “gallant Japanese nation”. (see also K163
Ready, Oliver George, Through Siberia and Manchuria by rail. London: Chapman & Hall, 1904. 26pp.
Following the declaration of war between Russia and Japan, Ready (1864-1940), English travel writer and author of Life and Sport in China, decided to publish his travel diary that was originally intended for private circulation in typescript. He travelled from London to Shanghai via the Trans-Siberian, boarding the train in Moscow on 21 October 1903, and reaching Dalnii on 4 November, where he pronounced “the railway in its entirety is flimsy and liable to collapse almost everywhere”.
Onslow, Richard William Alan, Sixty-three years: diplomacy, the Great War and politics, with notes on travel, sport and other things. London: Hutchinson, 1944, 204pp.
British diplomat and civil servant, Earl Onslow (1876-1945), then Viscount Cranley, arrived in Petersburg to become personal secretary to the ambassador, Sir Charles Scott, and his immediate successors, Sir Charles Hardinge and Sir Arthur Nicolson, between January 1904 and January 1906 and between May and September 1906. His recollections cover social and diplomatic life in the capital, momentous events like the Bloody Sunday massacre and the Russo-Japanese war, and fond memories of hunting and fishing trips (pp. 88-132).
Ganz, Hugo Markus, The downfall of Russia: behind the scenes in the realm of the czar. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1904. 320pp. [In the same year there appeared another version: The land of riddles: Russia of to-day. Translated from the German by H. Rosenthal. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1904. 330pp.]
The German-born journalist (1862-1922) travelled from Vienna via Warsaw to St Petersburg at the very beginning of 1904 and was present, for instance, at the funeral of Nikolai Mikhailovskii on 10 February 1904, before travelling on to Moscow (pp. 33-320). His book contains much of interest, not least an assessment of the work of Repin (pp. 147-62), and includes a long account of his visit to to see Tolstoi at Iasnaia Poliana (pp. 274-320). Translated from the German original Vor der Katastrofe (1904).
Maud, Renée Elton, One year at the Russian court: 1904-1905. London: John Lane, 1918. vii+222pp.
In memoirs written in 1917 Mrs Maud (née Gaudin de Villaine) recalls her visit as a young woman to Russia from early summer 1904 to the summer of 1905. Through her French and Russian connections (her maternal grandmother was Baroness Nikolay) she frequented court and diplomatic circles in St Petersburg, visited the Nikolay estate of Monrepos near Vyborg and stayed in Tiflis with other relatives. Back in the capital, she was unsumpathetic to the events of Bloody Sunday. The fourth and final part of her book (pp. 1107ff.) is devoted to Rasputin, based on what she later heard and read.
Villari, Luigi, Russia under the great shadow. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1905. 330pp.
The Italian historian, traveller and diplomat (1876-1959) offered in part a record of observations noted during travels in Russia in the summer and autumn of 1904, but in the main an impersonal analysis of the state of Russian government, society and economy during the Russo-Japanese War. Arriving in St Petersburg in July 1904, he travelled on to Moscow and the fair at Nizhnii Novgorod, before taking the steamer down the Volga to Saratov, proceeding overland through Ukraine to Odessa and back to Kiev.
Harper, Samuel Northrup, The Russia I believe in: the memoirs of Samuel N. Harper, 1902-1941. Edited by Paul V. Harper with the assistance of Ronald Thompson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1945. xiv+279pp.
Harper (1882-1943), who was to become professor of Russian language and institutions at the University of Chicago, where he taught from 1912, and be recognized as the first American-born scholar to devote an academic career to the study of Russia, made eighteen trips to Russia between 1904 and 1939. In the opening chapters of his autobiography he describes his early studies at the University of Moscow, his observation of the working of the Dumas between 1906 and 1910, his extensive travels through Russia when he was a lecturer at the University of Liverpool (1910-12), and finally his experiences during WWI and the subsequent Revolution, initially as adviser to Ambassador Francis in 1916 and then in 1917 as adviser and interpreter to the Root Mission (pp. 1-108).
Bryan, William Jennings, Under other flags: travels, lectures, speeches. Lincoln, Nebraska: Woodruff-Colliers Printing Co., 1904. 397pp.
Three-times defeated Democrat candidate for the American presidency and speech-maker extraordinary, Bryan (1860-1925) and his wife took a European sabbatical that included a visit to Russia in 1904. They travelled from Warsaw to Moscow, from where they made a trip to Iasnaia Poliana to see Tolstoi, whose “colossal strength lies in his heart more than in his mind” (pp. 96-108). Proceeding to St Petersburg, they were taken to Tsarskoe selo by the American ambassador to meet the tsar (pp. 77-85).
Garnett, David, The golden echo. London: Chatto and Windus, 1935. 272pp.
Twelve-year old David (1892-1981) accompanied his mother, the famous translator Constance Garnett, on her second visit to Russia in the summer of 1904. Arriving in St Petersburg on 16 May they moved after two weeks to Moscow and thence to stay with the novelist and landowner Aleksandr Ertel at his estate in Tambov province. They travelled back to England overland and arrived on 13 August (pp. 74-93).
Joubert, Carl, The truth about the tsar and the present state of Russia. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1905. 265pp.
In his second book, finished in December 1904, Joubert (see K13
) writes of the Russo-Japanese conflict, but also takes issue with British apologists of the tsar, whom he dubs with prescience “the last of the Romanoffs”.
Pares (see K58
) was in close and constant contact with key liberal figures in the Duma. In this study of Russia before the revolution of 1905 and its aftermath he offers an informed analysis events based on his studies and his diaries and notebooks.
Pares, Bernard, The fall of the Russian monarchy: a study of the evidence. London: Jonathan Cape, 1939. 510pp.
This is Pares’s retrospective on the causes of the 1917 revolutions, based on both published evidence and on the numerous interviews with leading players that he conducted from 1904 to 1914.
Meakin, Annette M.B., Russia: travels and studies. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1906. xx+450pp.
The third and weightiest work by the Russian-speaking anthropologist (see K73
), based on her extensive travels in 1904 that took her from St Petersburg via Moscow and Kharkov to the Crimea, and then via Odessa and Kishinev and Kiev on to Georgia and the Caucasus. She was yet another visitor to Tolstoi.
McCullagh, Francis, With the Cossacks, being the story of an Irishman who rode with the Cossacks throughout the Russo-Japanese war. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1906. xiv+392pp.
In August 1903 McCullagh (1874-1956) gave up his job with the English-language Japan Times and moved to Port Arthur, staying briefly en route in the Russian port of Dalnii. He was working for the Russian paper Novyi krai, when the Russo-Japanese war broke out in February 1904, and became “embedded” with the Russian forces until he was captured by the Japanese during the retreat from Mukden in March 1905 and taken to Japan as a prisoner of war. He was in Moscow by the end of the year, editing his book, which was based on dispatches he had sent to the New York Herald. He returned to Russia in 1920 during the Intervention and was captured by the Reds.
McCormick, Frederick, The tragedy of Russia in Pacific Asia. London: Grant Richards, 1909. 2 vols.
American journalist McCormick (b. 1870) provides a comprehensive account of the key battles of the Russo-Japanese War, during which he was stationed with the Russian forces. Interspersing descriptive narrative with personal experiences, he begins before the outbreak of war in Port Arthur in January 1904 and describes events and battles until the cessation of hostilities. The second half of vol. II provides an account of the psychology, abilities and material situation of the average Russian soldier.
McCully, Newton Alexander, The Russo-Japanese War. Edited by Richard von Doenhoff. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press, 1977. xiv+338pp.
Report of US navy Lt-Commander McCully (1867-1951), written in late 1905 and based on a diary he kept while assistant naval attaché in St Petersburg and subsequently with the Russian forces in the Far East during the Russo-Japanese War. It contains detailed accounts of his travels between 15 March 1904 and 18 July 1905 and his observations on the places and peoples he witnessed in Siberia and Manchuria.
McKenzie, Frederick Arthur, From Tokyo to Tiflis: uncensored letters from the war. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1905. x+340pp.
Special correspondent of the Daily Mail, the Canadian McKenzie (1869-1931) was with the Japanese army, sending his dispatches from the battlefields of the Russo-Japanese war. He also reported from Warsaw and Tiflis on the strikes and unrest in 1905 (pp. 285-327). McKenzie was later to write two accounts (1923, 1930) of his visits to Soviet Moscow under NEP.
Kennard, Howard Percy, The Russian peasant. London: T. Werner Laurie, 1907. xvi+302pp.
Dr Kennard (d. 1915) wrote the preface to his book in May 1907 from Samara, where he was helping in famine relief, and his work reflects his deep sympathies for the Russian peasantry among whom he had lived in many parts of European Russia since the time of the Russo-Japanese war. The first part of his book offers a comprehensive anthropological description of village life, focusing on customs, beliefs, family relationships and ceremonies. The second part is an historical overview of pre- and post-serfdom Russia, while the third is a sustained critique of the impact of bureaucracy, policing, censorship and surveillance, and the Church on the lives of the Russian peasantry.
Gilliard, Pierre, Thirteen years at the Russian court (a personal record of the last years and death of the Czar Nicholas II and his family). Translated from the French by F. Appleby Holt. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1921. 304pp.
Gilliard (1879-1962) arrived in the Crimea in the autumn of 1904 as French tutor to Duke Sergei of Leuchtenberg and a year later, he became tutor to the tsar’s daughters Olga and Tatiana. He remained with the imperial family virtually until the end, following them into Siberia, but was himself separated from them at Tiumen on 22 May 1918. He eventually returned to France in September 1920.
Wilton, Robert Archibald, Russia’s agony. London: Edward Arnold, 1918. xii+356pp.
Although born in Norwich, Wilton (1868-1925) was the son of a British mining engineer working in Russia and he dates his personal experience of the country back “nearly half a century” in the preface to his book (13 January 1918). It is, however, the last fourteen years he had been The Times’s correspondent that provide the material for his tracing of Russia’s destiny through revolution and war “without fear or favour”. Subsequently Wilton went to Siberia, but following the fall of Kolchak, escaped to Paris.
Story, Douglas, The campaign with Kuropatkin. London: T. Werner Laurie, 1904. xii+301pp.
Story (see K112
) travelled from Hong Kong via Tokyo to Mukden, where he was received by the Russian viceroy Alekseev and became the first foreign correspondent formally accredited to the Russian army on 24 April 1904. He wrote positively of the Russian officer and particularly of the ordinary soldier ‘Ivan Ivanovitch’. He travelled home via the Trans-Siberian and on to St Petersburg.
Baring, Maurice, With the Russians in Manchuria. London: Methuen & Co., 1905. xv+205pp.
In April 1904 Baring (see K79
) was appointed as the Morning Post
’s correspondent to cover the Russo-Japanese war and his book comprises the dispatches he sent to the paper. He travelled from Moscow on the Trans-Siberian railway and arrived in Kharbin on 19 May. He travelled on to Mukden and then nearer to the battlefields. He left Mukden for England at the beginning of December 1904. In August 1905 he left St Petersburg once more en route for Manchuria, where he was to remain until October. His book was dedicated to Guy Brooke (see K135
Brooke, Leopold Guy Francis Maynard Greville, An eye-witness in Manchuria. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1905. viii+312pp.
Brooke (1882-1928), later 6th Earl of Warwick, the Reuter’s special correspondent covering the Russo-Japanese war, travelled with Baring from Moscow to Kharbin in May 1904. He remained for nine months with the Russian army, for which he expressed great admiration, and returned to England via St Petersburg.
Greener, William Oliver, A secret agent in Port Arthur. London: Archibald Constable & Co., 1905. viii+316pp.
Greener, writing under his real name (cf. Wirt Gerrare, see K85
) was sent to Port Arthur to report events of the Russo-Japanese war. He describes his journey from Moscow by rail, the ferry across Baikal, and on to Vladivostok before entering Manchuria (pp. 18-38). “The status of a secret agent is that of a special correspondent travelling incognito” and he reported back to both The Times
and the China Times
on what he witnessed.
Henry, James Dodds, Baku: an eventful history. Introductory note by Sir Boverton Redwood. London: Archibald Constable & Co., 1906. xviii+256pp.
Editor of the Petroleum World
, Henry (b. 1864) returned from the oilfields of Baku in February 1905 and attempted in his book to provide an informed update on Marvin’s work of 1884 (J26
) and an objective assessment of the city and its industry’s potential.
Joubert, Carl, The fall of tsardom. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1905. 255pp.
Joubert (see K13
) welcomed the 1905 revolution and the inexorable progress, as he hoped, towards a constitution.
Noble, Algernon, Siberian days: an engineer’s record of travel and adventure in the wilds of Siberia. London: H.F. and G. Witherby, 1928. 223pp.
Noble (d. 1975) provides a non-chronological account of his involvement in copper and coal mining in the Kirghiz steppe and in prospecting for gold in Siberia from Tomsk to Baikal, between 1905 and 1914.
Meyer, George von Lengerke, George von Lengerke Meyer, his life and public services. By Mark Antony DeWolfe Howe. New York: Dodd, Mead and Co., 1919. 556pp.
Meyer (1864-1960) was American ambassador to Russia from April 1905 to January 1907, arriving in the midst of the Russo-Japanese War. His biographer includes generous selections from his letters (to President Roosevelt, Senator Lodge and his wife) and diary entries, particularly for 1905, but more selectively for 1906-07, where the focus is on the Algericas Conference and the first meeting of the Russian Duma on 10 May 1906 (pp. 137-335).
Anet, Claude [pseudonym of Schopher, Jean], Through Persia in a motor-car by Russia and the Caucasus. Translated by M. Beresford Ryley. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1907. xvi+281pp.
Arriving in Russia in April 1905, Schopher (1868-1931), a Swiss professional tennis player and successful writer, drove through Bessarabia, the Caucasus and the Crimea. In Yalta he met Maksim Gorkii. In Georgia he noted the social tensions, strikes, and civil unrest. He took the train from Tiflis to Baku and the boat from there for Persia at the end of April (pp. 1-83).
Sarolea, Charles Louis-Camille, Count L.N. Tolstoy, his life and work. London: T. Nelson and Sons, 1912. viii+384pp.
The Belgian scholar (1870-1953), later professor of French at Edinburgh University and author of several books on Russia, was another pilgrim to Iasnaia Poliana, visiting “the Master” in May 1905 (pp. 316-36).
Sarolea, Charles Louis-Camille, Europe’s debt to Russia. London: William Heinemann, 1916. x+251pp.
“An attempt to give a systematic and co-ordinated survey of Russian history and policy”, following his further visit in 1915, Sarolea’s work includes, at the “insistence” of Tolstoi, his personal impressions of 1905 and “the tragic events of the Russian Annus Mirabilis” (pp. 188-228).
Villari, Luigi, Fire and sword in the Caucasus. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1906. 347pp.
Villari (see K118
) provides an account of political unrest, ethnic tensions and violence in the Caucasus region during a stay in August-October 1905. His extensive travels took him to Batumi, Tiflis, Baku, and Erevan and he was in Vladikavkaz on the day the October Manifesto was published.
Winter, Nevin Otto, The Russian Empire of to-day and yesterday. The country and its peoples, together with a brief review of its history, past and present, and a survey of its social, political, and economic conditions. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 1913. xvi+487pp.
Ohio lawyer and author, Winter (1869-1936) offers an extensive descriptive account of the Russian Empire, based to a large degree on personal observations made during visits in the early 1905 and 1912. In the first half he covers a variety of topics, including St Petersburg and Moscow, the status of Jews, the Russian character and social customs and structure, the education system and Russian literature, while in the second he provides a historical survey.
Baring, Maurice, A year in Russia. London: Methuen & Co., 1907. xx+319pp.
The year he covered in more letters sent to the Morning Post was from 8 August 1905 to 6 August 1906. Begins with his departure again for Mongolia and return to Moscow by 3 November and then alternates between Moscow and St Petersburg. He was witness to the revolutionary events that unfolded in the old capital and attended meetings of the Duma in the Taurida Palace. His “collection of notes, a bundle of impressions” includes an item on the 25th anniversary of the death of Dostoevskii.
Ular, Alexander, Russia from within. London: Heinemann, 1905. xii+290pp.
Ular (b. 1876) provides an account of the causes of the 1905 revolution which lays the blame primarily in the hands of the Russian political leadership and the tsar. Ular was in Russia at the time (the preface is dated May 1905), but his account is presented as a description of the basic facts, supplemented by the occasional reference to personal experiences and interviews he has undertaken.
Walling, William English, Russia’s message: the true world import of the revolution. London: A.C. Fifield, 1909. xviii+476pp.
The prominent American socialist (1877-1936), who believed that “official Russia is in a land of lies”, arrived in Petersburg for the first time at the end of 1905. Over the next two years he spent many months there, latterly with his new wife Anna Strunskaia, sending back numerous articles to American papers and journals and intent on “gaining a rounded view”. He met and interviewed countless prominent Russian officials, ministers, and intellectuals, including Tolstoi, and concluded that the Russian revolution (of 1905) offered a message of hope for a new world civilization.
Nevinson, Henry Woodd, The dawn in Russia or scenes in the Russian revolution. London and New York: Harper & brothers, 1906. xiv+349pp.
Nevinson (1856-1941), sent to Petersburg by the Daily Chronicle as its special correspondent, offered his book as a description of “scenes which I witnessed in Russia during the winter of 1905-1906”, some published in the newspaper, but all re-arranged and re-structured to give a general view of events not only in the capital, but also in Tula, Moscow, Odessa and elsewhere.
Nevinson, Henry Woodd, More changes more chances. London: Nisbet & Co., 1925. xviii+427pp.
In the second volume of his autobiography Nevinson recounts events already included in his 1906 book but also adds his subsequent travels through Georgia and the Crimea in 1906-07 (pp. 98-211). Later included in his condensed autobiography, Fire of life (1935), pp. 181-209.
Hedin, Sven, Overland to India. London: Macmillan and Co., 1910. 2 vols.
On his way to India and sailing from Constantinople across the Black Sea, Hedin (see J132
) is caught up with events of the 1905 revolution, when his ship puts into Batumi at the end of October 1905. He details strikes and unrest in Batumi and decides to travel to Poti and take the train to Tiflis, but is forced to turn back and sail to Trebizond (vol. I, pp. 1-21).
Bullard, Arthur, The Russian pendulum: autocracy-democracy-bolshevism. New York: Macmillan, 1919. xvi+256pp.
American journalist and noted socialist Bullard (1879-1929) recalls in the opening chapters his first visit to Russia in the years 1905-08, when he sent back numerous articles to American journals, mostly under the pseudonym of Albert Edwards. In July 1917 he returned to Petrograd as head of the Russian branch of the American government’s Committee on Public Information. He left from Archangel in June 1918, but returned to Vladivostok until November.
Henderson, Nevile Meyrick, Water under the bridges. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1945. 221pp.
In the course of a long diplomatic career, Sir Nevile (1882-1942) served on two occasions in the British embassy in St Petersburg. He arrived in December 1905 and remained until April 1909 (pp. 24-48). After a spell in Tokyo, he left for St Petersburg again in January 1912, travelling via the Trans-Siberian. He served under Sir George Buchanan until April 1914 (pp. 61-68). His posthumously published memoir is predominantly concerned with the routines of embassy life.
Washburn, Stanley, The cable game: the adventures of an American press-boat in Turkish waters during the Russian revolution. London: Andrew Melrose, 1912. 222pp.
The Minneapolis lawyer-turned-journalist Washburn (1878-1950), having just covered the Russo-Japanese war for the Chicago Daily News, was sent to Russia to report on the final stages of the 1905 revolution. He arrived in Odessa in December 1905 and then travelled on to Sevastopol and Batumi in search of newsworthy incidents of unrest and violence.
Preston, Thomas, Before the curtain. London: John Murray, 1950. iv+313pp.
Preston (1886-1976), later Sir Thomas, 6th baronet, “lived in Russia, off and on, since 1905, in almost every corner of this vast continent and amongst the most varied communities”. He first worked in Batumi and for a mining company at Dzhanzhul, prior to entering Cambridge University in 1907. He then returned to prospecting and mining in Siberia until his appointment in 1913 as British vice-consul, subsequently consul, at Ekaterinburg, where he was still in post at the time of the murder of the imperial family. He remained in Siberia under the Whites until October 1920, but was to return to Russia in 1922 and remained as British official agent in Leningrad until 1926 (pp. 14-230).
Decle, Lionel, The new Russia. London: Eveleigh Nash, 1906. 279pp.
Stirred by the events of 1905, the British author Decle (1859-1907) arrived in St Petersburg in January 1906 to interview ministers and high officials in order to provide “a general aperçu of the present system under which the administration, the law, education, taxation are organized”. In his preface he prides himself that many of his predictions had been realized, although the final sentence of his book had suggested that “there is only one thing impossible in Russia, and that is to understand the Russians”.
Durland, Kellogg, The red reign: the true story of an adventurous year in Russia. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1908. xxvi+533pp.
American journalist and adventurer Kellogg (1881-1911) provides a detailed account of his extensive travels throughout Russia between January and December 1906. His intention was to portray as accurately as possible a country in revolution and witnessed in different contexts and circumstances. Thus he travelled to the Caucasus with a group of Cossack officers; observed the effects of famine around Saratov; interviewed the “terrorist” Maria Spiridonova at Tambov; attended the opening session of the Duma in St Petersburg; was in Cronstadt during the August mutiny; visited the British-run model industrial town of Iuzovka, before travelling to see Tolstoi at Iasnaia Poliana. In December he left Odessa for Constantinople.
Bainbridge, Henry Charles, Twice seven: the autobiography of H.C. Bainbridge. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1933. xi+312pp.
Bainbridge (1874-1954) was the manager of the Fabergé shop in London at 48 Dover Street and, after it re-located in 1911, at 173 New Bond Street until its closure in 1915. He paid the first of his annual visits to Russia in late 1906 and his last in 1913, spending most of his time with the Fabergés in St Petersburg (“He who not seen Petersburg in her hey-day has seen nothing”), but also frequenting the Fabergé summer house at Levashova near the Finnish border. Much given to name-dropping and philosophizing on the enigma of Russia, he offers surprisingly little of interest (pp. 24-34, 178-82, 247-58). In 1949 he published Peter Carl Fabergé, goldsmith and jeweller to the Russian imperial court, incorporating material from his earlier autobiography.
Niedieck, Paul, Cruises in the Bering Sea, being records of further sport and travel. Translated from the German by R.A. Ploetz. London: Rowland Ward, 1909. xvi+252pp.
Leaving London in March 1906, Niedieck, indefatigable hunter and specimen-collector, arrived in Kamchatka, via the USA and Japan, in April, remaining until July. He describes in detail his hunting of bears and walruses, but also provides descriptions of the lives of the various tribes and nomadic people he encounters (pp. 3-107). German original Kreutzfahrten in Beringmeer (1907).
Bouillane de Lacoste, E.A. Henri de, Around Afghanistan. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1909. Preface by M. Georges Leygues. Translated from the French by J.G. Anderson. xxxii+218pp.
Major Bouillane de Lacoste (1894-1937) journeyed around Afghanistan’s perimeter in the summer of 1906, entering Russian territory at Gaudan on the Persian-Turkestan border on 18 May, travelling on to Askhabad, where he took the Transcaspian railway to Andijan. Accompanied by a Kirghiz family, he travelled through the Alai and Trans-Alai region, leaving Russian territory at the Beik Pass (pp. 34-75).
Fraser, David, The marches of Hindustan, the record of a journey in Thibet, Trans-Himalayan India, Chinese Turkestan, Russian Turkestan, and Persia. Edinburgh and London: William Blackwood and Sons, 1907. xvi+521pp.
Setting out in January 1906 on a 5630-mile journey, Fraser entered Russian Turkestan in October. He travelled through the mountains to Osh and Tashkent, from where he took the railway to Askabad and then crossed into Persia. He provides a history of Russian penetration into the area and an assessment of its military strength (pp. 284-376).
Fraser, John Foster, Red Russia. London: Cassell and Co., 1907. xii+288pp.
Fraser (see K29
) travelled through large areas of the Russia empire throughout 1906, assessing the mood and situation after the revolutionary events of 1905. Various chapters reflect his visits to St Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhnii Novgorod, Samara, Kazan, Bessarabia, the Caucasus and the Crimea, as well as Warsaw and Finland.
De Windt, Harry, Through savage Europe; being the narrative of a journey (undertaken as special correspondent of the “Westminster gazette”), throughout the Balkan states and European Russia. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1907. 300pp.
De Windt departed from Trieste in the summer of 1906 by boat on a journey that was to take him through Montenegro, Bosnia, Bulgaria, and Romania, and finally into Russia, “the land of mystery, gloom, and death”, where the “red flag” flew after the events of 1905. He visited Odessa, Rostov, Vladikavkaz, and Baku (pp. 261-89).
Weale, Bertram Lenox Putnam [pseudonym of Simpson, Bertram Lenox], The coming struggle in eastern Asia. London: Macmillan and Co., 1908. xiv+656pp.
Simpson offers his volume as the fourth and final in a series of “political treatises”, opened by Manchu and Muscovite
(1904) (see K114
), that sought to examine Russo-Japanese rivalry. In the autumn of 1906 he sailed from Korea to Vladivostok, of which he provides a detailed assessment, and devotes Part I of his book to ‘Russia beyond Lake Baikal’, including Russian Manchuria (pp. 1-322).
Gerhardi[e], William Alexander, Memoirs of a polyglot, London: Duckworth, 1931. 381pp.
Son of the British industrialist Charles Alfred Gerhardi, the novelist and critic (1895-1977) describes his upbringing and education in St Petersburg between 1906 and 1912. Having moved to England, he found himself back in wartime and revolutionary Petrograd attached to the British embassy between 1916 and 1918. He was subsequently with the British intervention forces in Siberia until 1920 (pp. 1-153).
Barrett, R.J., Russia’s new era. Being notes, impressions and experiences – personal, political, commercial and financial – of an extended tour in the empire of the tsar. With statistical tables, portraits, snapshots and other illustrations. London: The Financier and Bullionist, Ltd., 1908. 292pp.
Barrett, F.R.G.S., travelled extensively through Russia in the spring and summer of 1907 and provided a detailed social and economic account of Russia, with the primary focus on the commercial and investment opportunities available to the British.
Barzini, Luigi, Pekin to Paris: an account of Prince Borghese’s journey across two continents in a motor-car. Translated by L.P. de Castelvecchio. London: E. Grant Richards, 1907. 645pp.
In the summer of 1907 the Italian war correspondent Barzini (1874-1947) accompanied Prince Scipione Borghese (1871-1927) in a famous motor race from Pekin to Paris. They drove to victory an Itala car on a 10,000-mile journey that took them through China into Siberia. Entering Siberia from Mongolia on 25 June, they travelled via Irkutsk, Tomsk, Omsk and Nizhnii Novgorod to Moscow, and then to St Petersburg, which they left on 1 August for Poland (pp. 297-594). The book is illustrated with numerous unique photographs, showing memorable encounters and the many breakdowns of the car. The Italian original was entitled La metà del mondo vista da un’automobile da Pechino a Parigi in sessanta giorni.
Barrows, Isabel Chapin, A sunny life: the biography of Samuel June Barrows. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1913. xii+323pp.
In her biography of her husband (1845-1909), the American Republican congressman and prison reformer, Isabel (1845-1913) records the trip the couple made in the summer of 1907 to visit prisons in St Petersburg, Moscow, and Nizhnii Novgorod. They then went down the Volga to Samara to see the lingering effects of the famine, and on their return journey, visited Tolstoi at Iasnaia Poliana (pp. 192-96, 204-05). In the spring of 1909 Isabel went alone to St Petersburg in connection with the arrest of Ekaterina Bereshkovskaia (1844-1934), “the little grandmother of the Revolution” (pp. 240-41).
Jackson, Abraham Valentine Williams, From Constantinople to the home of Omar Khayyam: travels in Transcaucasia and Northern Persia for historic and literary research. New York: Macmillan Co., 1911. xxxiv+317pp.
Jackson (1862-1937), American traveller and professor of Indo-Iranian languages at Columbia University, provides a combination of archaeological and linguistic scholarship and travel account of trips made through the Caspian and Transcaspian regions in 1907, 1908 and 1910. It is a synthesis of observations and experiences from numerous research trips, but presented as a geographically consistent travel narrative that takes him into Russia at Sevastopol, through the Crimea and by steamer to Batumi, then via Tiflis to Baku. A second section focuses on the city of Baku; a third on a research trip to the city of Derbent in 1910 (pp. 12-84).
Fischer, Emil Sigmund, Overland via the Trans-Siberian railway: description of a trip from the Far East to Europe and the United States of America. Tientsin: Tientsin Press, 1908. ix+44pp.
Fischer (1865-1945), best known for his later travels and writings on China and Japan, describes his return home from China in the summer of 1907.
Foulke, William Dudley, A random record of travel during fifty years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1925. 241pp.
Noted journalist, author, and reformer, and from 1903 president of the American Society of Friends of Russian Freedom, Foulke (1848-1935) visited Finland and Russia from Norway in 1907. Routine tourist impressions of St Petersburg and Moscow (“a far more interesting place”) also include description of a visit to the Duma and meeting with Prof. Miliukov (pp. 94-111).
Young, Charles Christian, Abused Russia. New York: Devin-Adair Co., 1915. 109pp.
Dr Young (b. 1875) travelled to Russia in 1907 and again between 1912 and 1914. He attempts in his book to refute some of the criticisms and misconceptions held by Americans with regard to Russian society and politics and to urge a renewal of close links with Russia. A final chapter deals with Young’s experiences when travelling as a sheep salesman through Turkmenistan between 1912 and 1914 and his observations on the region and the city of Bokhara.
Lydekker, Richard, A trip to Pilawin, the deer-park of Count Joseph Potocki in Volhynia Russia. With a preface by Count Joseph Potocki. London: Rowland Ward, 1908. xiv+115pp.
Naturalist, geologist, and cataloguer of the Natural History Museum’s fossil mammals, birds, and reptiles, Lydekker (1849-1915) was invited to visit the Pilawin preserve near the Potocki palace of Antoniny in present-day Ukraine. Travelling from London with his daughter, he arrived on 22 August 1907 and left on 4 September. He describes in expert detail and with excellent photographs the animals in the extensive forest preserve.
Bayne, Samuel Gamble, Quicksteps through Scandinavia, with a retreat from Moscow. New York and London: Harper & Brothers, 1908. 64pp.
Irish-born Bayne (1844-1924), having made his fortune in banking and oil in America, indulged a liking for travel and authorship, visiting St Petersburg and Moscow in the summer of 1907. His visit to the Russian capital coincided with the opening ceremony of the Church of the Resurrection of Christ (‘On the blood’) which he mistakenly calls of the Ascension (pp. 17-31).
Baring, Maurice, Russian essays and stories. London: Methuen & Co., 1908. xvii+295pp.
A collection of eleven essays and seven stories, mostly originally published in the Morning Post, which cover a wide range of non-political (Baring’s description) topics – travels, conversations, incidents, many of them literary.
Baring, Maurice, What I saw in Russia. London: Nelson, 1913. 381pp.
A compilation of selected chapters from his first three books about Russia, covering the period 1904-1907. The final three chapters (from Russian essays) describe his journeys down the Volga in August-September 1907 and to Vologda in the north in November of the same year.
Foulke, William Dudley, A random record of travel during fifty years. New York: Oxford University Press, 1925. viii+241pp.
The American travel writer recounts his trip to Russia, arriving from Finland in 1907, intermixing descriptions of life as a tourist in St Petersburg and Moscow with an assessment of the political climate and an account of a visit to the Duma while in St Petersburg (pp. 98-111).
Murray, Robert H., Around the world with Taft: a book of travel, description, history. Detroit, Michigan: F.B. Dickerson Company, 1909. 412pp.
Associated Press correspondent Murray was attached to then American secretary of war William Taft during a diplomatic mission to the Philippines that involved the party circumnavigating the world. Sailing from Manila, the Taft party arrived in Vladivostok on 17 November 1907 to board the Trans-Siberian that took them to Moscow. In early December they were in St Petersburg, where Taft met the tsar at Tsarskoe selo and they attended a military review (pp. 325-76).
Wood, John Nicholas Price, Travel & sport in Turkestan. London: Chapman & Hall, 1910. xx+201pp.
Wood, a captain in the 12th Royal Lancers, travelled from India in May 1907 to indulge a long-held dream of shooting along the borders of Mongolia and to return to England through Russian Turkestan. He was allowed into Russia on 23 November and travelled by train via Orenburg and Samara to Moscow, which he left for London on 20 December (pp. 179-94).
Nostitz-Azabal, Madeleine, Romance and revolutions. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1937. 258pp.
Three-times-married Iowa-born actress Madeleine Bouton, also known as Lilie, moved from her first husband, the German Count Guido von Nimptsch, to become the wife of Count Grigorii Nostitz, who took her to Russia in 1907, first to the family estate in Ukraine and then to Petersburg (pp. 66-89). There followed five years at the Russian embassy in Paris before they returned to Russia in 1914 and eventually escaped via Kiev and the Crimea at the end of 1918 (pp. 131-238).
Tracey, Margot, Red rose. Newton Abbot and London: David & Charles, 1978. 230pp.
Mrs Tracey (b. 1907), née Girard, born in Moscow to a rich French industrialist and his Russian wife, recounts her childhood and her and her sister’s harrowing experiences during the revolution and the first years of Soviet rule until their eventual departure for France in 1921 (pp. 11-131). The second part of the book is devoted to an account of her visit as a tourist to Moscow in 1970. The book’s title refers to the Soviet name for her family’s Moscow factory.
Scott, A. MacCallum, Through Finland to St. Petersburg. London: Grant Richards, 1908. 291pp.
Essentially a guide-book to “this enterprising little country”, Finland, with three concluding chapters on St Petersburg, where “the English visitor may study institutions and ways of life so strangely different from those he knows at home”.
Reynolds, Rothay, My Russian year. London: Mills & Boon, 1913. xii+304pp.
The year would seem, from vague internal evidence, to have been 1908, but there are references to 1905 and 1906. A fluent speaker of Russian, the British traveller and correspondent of the Daily News, Reynolds offers a series of sketches of people and places, designed “to make the reader see Russia as I have seen it”, i.e. in all its variety and contradictoriness, as “the land of ideals”, “the home of melodrama”, “the land of liberty undreamt of by the shackled West”, and much else.
Reynolds, Rothay, My Slav friends. London: Mills & Boon, 1916. vii+312pp.
A second volume, very much in the style and spirit of the first, without evidence of later visits. His aim was “to write of people I have met, of cities I have visited”, etc., using secondary sources to bolster his narration wherever necessary. There is a greater emphasis on the desirability of Anglo-Russian friendship and understanding without betraying the “truth” that the British public deserves.
Calina, Josephine, Scenes of Russian life. London: Constable and Co., 1918. 302pp.
Calina (c.1890-1962), born and bred in Poland, spent several years “walking in the small dirty villages of Russia” after release from a Russian prison c.1908 and offered her sketches of prison and peasant life as taken “from the very depth of Russian life with its sadness and its humour”. About the time of the October revolution she sought refuge in England, where she was to marry the eminent Shakespearean scholar Allardyce Nicoll and herself write Shakespeare in Poland (1923).
Farmborough, Florence, Nurse at the Russian front: a diary 1914-18. London: Constable, 1974. 422pp.
Florence (1887-1978) originally went to Russia in 1908 as a governess and teacher of English, first in Kiev and later in Moscow. She trained as a nurse with the outbreak of WWI and served almost continuously at the front until 1917. When her unit was disbanded, she made her way back to England via the Trans-Siberian railway and steamers.
Farmborough, Florence, Russian album 1908-1918. Edited by John Joliffe. [Salisbury]: M. Russell, 1979. 96pp.
Stunning photographs, covering the whole of Florence’s ten years in Russia.
Zur Mühlen, Hermynia, The end and the beginning: the book of my life. Translated, annotated and with an introduction by Lionel Gossman. Cambridge: Open Book Publishers, 2010. 297pp.
Countess Zur Mühlen (1883-1951), the Austrian translator and author, lived six unhappy years on her husband’s estate of Eigstfer in Russian Estonia between 1908 and 1913. She paints a vivid picture of life among a prejudiced and intolerant German community and reveals her sympathies for the oppressed. She also spent a summer in Petersburg (pp. 98-150). The present translation is an improved version of the original by Frank Barnes that appeared under the title The runaway countess in New York in 1930.
Craig-McKerrow, Margaret, Distant journeys, 1908-1928. London: Baylis & Son, 1930. 369pp.
In the spring of 1908 the German Mrs Craig-McKerrow (née Reibold) travelled from Japan to Russia, first via boat to Vladivostok, and then by the Trans-Siberian to Moscow. She describes her train journey and stay in Moscow (pp. 15-37). She re-visited Russia in 1928 (pp. 349-69).
Close, Etta, Excursions and some adventures. London: Constable, 1926. 296pp.
In September 1908 Miss Close, F.R.G.S., and a companion after a short stay in St Petersburg proceded to Moscow, where they boarded the Trans-Siberian to Kharbin (pp. 220-37). Following visits to China, Japan and Korea, they returned by train across a now wintery Siberia (pp. 292-95)
Gibbes, Charles Sydney, Tutor to the tsarevich: an intimate portrait of the last days of the Russian imperial family compiled from the papers of Charles Sydney Gibbes now in the possession of George Gibbes. By J.C. Trewin. London: Macmillan, 1975. 148pp.
Cambridge-educated Gibbes (1876-1963) was English tutor to the tsarevich and teacher to the four grand duchesses from the autumn of 1908 virtually until the murder of the imperial family in July 1918 in Ekaterinburg. Trewin’s narrative incorporates long extracts from notes and diaries kept by Gibbes during the period.
Browning, Oscar, Memories of later years. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1923. 223pp.
Browning (1837-1923), following his retirement as history don at King’s Cambridge, was invited to lecture on English literature and education at Petersburg university in the autumn of 1908 (pp. 116-19).
Austin, Herbert Henry, A scamper through the Far East, including a visit to Manchurian battlefields. London: Edward Arnold, 1909. xvi+336pp.
Major Austin (1868-1937), of the Indian army and author of several books of exploration and travel, returns from leave in London via the Trans-Siberian in September 1908 (pp. 1-27). He left the train at Kharbin in order to visit the Russo-Japanese battlefields (pp. 28-164).
Graham, Stephen, Part of the wonderful scene: an autobiography. London: Collins, 1964. 320pp.
Graham (1884-1974), the most prolific and influential of British writers on Russia in the first decades of the twentieth century and proponent of Holy Russia, recalls his obsession with Russia, his first brief holiday in 1906, and his numerous visits from 1908 to 1917 to almost all of the regions of a vast country that spawned no less than nine books over the same period (pp. 14-149). (See K232
Bates, Lindon Wallace, Jr., The Russian Road to China. London, Constable and Co., 1910. 391pp.
An American engineer, who had first been to Russia in 1896, Bates (1883-1915) travels from Russia to China during 1909, first by the Trans-Siberian Railway and then by sledge through Transbaikalia (pp. 1-172). A subsequent chapter provides political and ethnological observations on Russia’s status in the world (pp. 273-321).
Taft, Marcus Lorenzo, Strange Siberia along the Trans-Siberian railway: a journey from the Great Wall of China to the skyscrapers of Manhattan. New York: Eaton & Mains, 1911. 260pp.
Following years as a missionary in China, Taft (1850-1936) describes a final journey on the Trans-Siberian with his wife and daughter in the spring of 1909. He draws attention to the large Lutheran communities encountered along the railroad and comments on such topics as the steppes, architecture, and differences in American and Russian entrepreneurs. Their journey ends with quarantine for cholera upon leaving St Petersburg on 19 June, and an apology regarding the removal by the censors of six pages on Russia’s policy towards the Jews.
Loew, Charles E., Reminiscences of the Nordland, or, glimpses of Scandinavia, Russia, Germany and the Netherlands. New York: D.T. Bass, 1910. 322pp.
Loew describes a tourist trip he and a group of friends made to Russia in August-September 1909 (?), visiting the sights of St Petersburg and Moscow, before moving on to Berlin (pp. 157-258).
Aflalo, Frederick George, An idler in the near East. London: John Milne, 1910. xvi+279pp.
Angler and naturalist, Aflalo (1870-1918) took a cruise on the Black Sea in the summer of 1909 after a long stay in Turkey and the Holy Land. He disembarked at Batumi and went to Tiflis, which he regarded as “a wonderful monument of bluff” (pp. 241-60).
Hubback, John, Russian realities, being impressions gathered during some recent journeys in Russia. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1915. xvi+279pp.
Recollections of eleven short journeys to Russia undertaken by the author between 1909 and 1914, frequently accompanied by his wife. He travelled extensively through southern Russia – Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, and down the Volga.
Hone, Joseph Maunsell and Dickinson, Page Lawrence, Persia in revolution. With notes of travel in the Caucasus. London: Fisher Unwin, 1910. xvi+218pp.
Account by Hone (1882-1959) and Dickinson (b. 1881) of their travels through Transcaucasia and Persia during 1909, largely written by the former. They describe their outward journey from Warsaw to Resht (pp. 1-13) and their return from Persia, reaching Baku by steamer from Enzeli, and travelling through western Georgia to Kutais and Batumi. They note in particular signs of political unrest and growing Georgian nationalism (pp. 144-218).
Hoover, Herbert, The memoirs of Herbert Hoover: years of adventure 1874-1920. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1951. xii+496pp.
Hoover (1874-1964), thirty-first President of the United States, recalls the short yearly visits he paid to Russia between 1909 and 1914, when as a freelance mining engineer he was involved in projects in the Urals and later Altai mountains (pp. 102-09).
Ingham, Ernest Graham, From Japan to Jerusalem. London: Church Missionary Society, 1911. viii+232pp.
Rt Rev. Ingham (1851-1926), secretary of the Church Missionary Society and formerly bishop of Sierra Leone, accompanied by his wife travelled from London via Berlin to Moscow, where they arrived on 23 August 1909 and joined the Trans-Siberian which took them to Vladivostok by 4 September (pp. 6-18). They were en route for Japan and China to visit church missions and then made their way to India and Ceylon before returning home via Palestine and Egypt.
Sara, Muriel, Russia remembered. With a foreword by Cuthbert Bardsley. Hayle, Cornwall: for the author, 1971. 62pp.
Wife of a geologist-consultant to an oil company, Mrs Sara, née Tiack (1885-1975) joined her husband in St Petersburg and travelled to the oil fields at an unspecified place in the Caucasus, where they remained until the outbreak of WWI. They left Russia via Scandinavia in the winter of 1915 (pp. 7-48).
Dukes, Paul, The unending quest: autobiographical sketches. London: Cassell & Co., 1950. 260pp.
Famed and knighted for his exploits as a British secret agent in Russia following the October Revolution, recounted in his Story of “ST 25” (1938), Sir Paul (1889-1967) had arrived in the Russia empire for the first time in the summer of 1909, teaching English in Riga, before moving to St Petersburg, where he studied music at the conservatoire and became immersed in the musical and artistic life of the capital. He studied piano under Professor Anna Esipova and became close to the Petersburg-born conductor Albert Coates, as well as dabbling in fashionable spiritualism and working during WWI in the British embassy under Ambassador Buchanan (pp. 17-115).
Harrison, Ernest John, Peace or war, east of Baikal. Yokohama: Kelly & Walsh, 1910. 563pp.
Leading English expert on judo and later author of anti-Soviet novels, Harrison (1873-1961) was sent to Russia as a special correspondent of the Yokohama Japan Herald in 1909 to investigate the likelihood of a future Russo-Japanese or American-Japanese conflict. He spent the month of September travelling through eastern Siberia from Chita to Khabarovsk, before returning to Japan from Vladivostok (pp. 63-211).
Bowra, Cecil Maurice, Memories, 1898-1939. London: Wiedenfeld and Nicholson, 1966. [vi]+369pp.
In September 1909 the young Bowra (1898-1971) returned to China, where he had been born and where his father worked for Chinese Customs, travelling on the Trans-Siberian and delighting in the countryside (pp. 18-19). In May 1916 he accompanied his mother and siblings to Beijing, again on the Trans-Siberian, and returned by the same route in September, but stayed for three weeks in Petrograd in the flat of The Times
correspondent Robert Wilton (see K132
), gaining some knowledge of Russian and enjoying the rich musical and literary life of the capital (pp. 60-9). After service in France during WWI, Bowra began his illustrious career at Oxford, serving as Warden of Wadham and Vice-Chancellor of the University and knighted in 1951, a renowned and productive Classical scholar, who also edited two books of Russian verse (1943, 1948).
Latimer, Robert Sloan, With Christ in Russia. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1910. x+239pp.
Latimer followed his books on Dr Baedeker (see I143
) and Under three tsars
, a study of religious movements in the post-Crimean war period, with his own experiences in Russia in 1909, although offering it principally as a biography of the Russian Stundist Dr Wilhelm Fetler, his close friend and companion. Probing the religious situation in contemporary Russia, Latimer travelled extensively, visiting not only St Petersburg and Moscow but also Kiev, Tiflis and Baku.
Etherton, Percy Thomas, Across the roof of the world: a record of sport and travel through Kashmir, Gilgit, Hunza, the Pamirs, Chinese Turkistan, Mongolia and Siberia. London: Constable and Co., 1911. xvi+437pp.
Lt. Etherton (b. 1879), Indian army and F.R.G.S., embarked on his four-thousand mile journey from Lansdowne in the Himalayas in the spring of 1909, drawn by the politics of the region but more by the opportunities of shooting the wild sheep that had attracted the guns of his compatriots for the past two decades. He eventually entered Russian territory from Mongolia, following the river Irtysh, early in January 1910. He proceeded across the steppes by sledge via Ustkamenogorsk towards Barnaul to join the Trans-Siberian at Novonikolaevsk on 17 February (pp. 395-429).
Kemp, Emily Georgiana, The face of Manchuria, Korea & Russian Turkestan. London: Chatto & Windus, 1910. xvi+248pp.
Miss Kemp (b. 1860), F.R.G.S. and author of a book on China, accompanied by a friend, Miss MacDougall, decided to observe the present state of Manchuria and Korea under the twin threats of Japan and Russia. They travelled out on the Trans-Siberian on 1 February 1910 and back again four months later, when they decided to make a detour from Samara down to Turkestan, visiting Bokhara and Samarkand before travelling home across the Caspian to Baku and Tiflis and Vienna (pp. 151-240).
Bax, Arnold, Farewell, my youth. London: Longmans, Green & Co. 1943. 112pp.
The visit of the famed English composer Sir Arnold (1883-1953) to Russia in the late spring and summer of 1910 was in pursuit of the daughter of a wealthy Ukrainian landowner, Liubov’ (Liuba) Nikolaevna Korolenko, who sadly did not return his love. Arriving in Petersburg from Lausanne in April, he travelled on to Moscow and then to the Korolenko estate near Lubny in Ukraine (pp. 63-79).
Goodrich, Joseph King, Russia in Europe and Asia. Chicago: A.C. McClurg & Co., 1912. x+302pp.
After several years teaching in the Imperial Government College, Kyoto, the American Goodrich (1850-1921), who seems to have visited Vladivostok for the first time in 1899, travelled from Japan in July 1910 and described in detail his fifteen-day journey on the Trans-Siberian to Moscow (pp. 112-29). His attempt at a comprehensive account of Russia is primarily based on secondary literature and discussions Goodrich had with Russians and those involved in Russian affairs while he was based in Japan.
Hertz, Carl, A modern mystery merchant: the trials, tricks and travels of Carl Hertz, the famous American illusionist. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1924. 319pp.
Hertz (1859-1924), born in San Francisco to a Russian father and Polish mother, writes of his visit to Russia in the summer of 1910. The magician and his wife (stage name Emilie D’Alton) performed for two months at the Iar restaurant in Moscow, before visiting St Petersburg, where he apparently gave a command performance before the tsar and tsaritsa (pp. 227-31).
Washington, Booker Taliaferro, The man farthest down: a record of observation and study in Europe. With the collaboration of Robert E. Park. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1912. 390pp.
In a chapter entitled ‘A Russian border village’ the African-American political leader and author (1856-1915) on a European tour describes his brief visit in August 1910 to a village called Barany on the Russian side of the Austrian Poland/Russian Poland border and compares the status of the Russian peasant with that of the Mississippi Afro-American farmer (pp. 276-95).
Crawford, Laura MacPherson, Dear family: the travel letters and reminiscences of Laura MacPherson Crawford. Edited by Ruth Saunders. Claremont, California: privately printed, 1946. xx+360pp.
Canadian society wife and later Red Cross worker Mrs Crawford describes in a letter home her and her husband’s visit to St Petersburg and Moscow, as well as to the Ponafidin estate near Ostashkov (see J40
) in May 1910 (pp. 107-16).
Eddy, Sherwood, A pilgrimage of ideas; or the re-education of Sherwood Eddy. New York: Farrar & Reinhart Inc., 1934. xiv+336pp.
Intellectual autobiography of the American Protestant missionary and prolific author (1871-1963), who visited Russia some ten times between 1910 and 1930 and had published an analytical work entitled The challenge of Russia in 1931. In the final chapter he briefly discusses his two visits to imperial Russia in 1910 and 1912, before turning to his experiences during the Soviet period. In 1912 he attended student meetings in Kiev, Moscow and St Petersburg, noting an epidemic of suicide (pp. 313-23).
Wood, Ruth Kedzie, Honeymooning in Russia. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1911. vi+341pp.
The honeymoon in Russia of an American couple, Mr and Mrs Philip D. Houghton, in the summer of 1910, related as much in dialogue as in descriptive prose by Joyce, Mrs Houghton, the alter ego, one assumes, of Ruth Wood (1880-1950), the author. It is nonetheless an informed and detailed tourist’s visit to the attractions of St Petersburg, Vologda, and Iaroslavl’, where they take the steamer down the Volga to Nizhnii Novgorod. They travel to Moscow and from there, through Ukraine to the Crimea and Odessa. They then journey to Kiev and exit to Warsaw. Contains Wood’s translations of poems by such as Krylov, Nikitin, Nekrasov, Lermontov, and Kozlov.
Christie, Isabella [Ella] Robertson, Through Khiva to golden Samarkand: the remarkable story of a woman’s adventurous journey alone through the deserts of Central Asia to the heart of Turkestan. London: Seeley, Service & Co., 1925. 280pp.
Renowned Scottish traveller and gardener, Christie (1861-1949), F.R.G.S., describes on the basis of her diaries her two expeditions as sole female traveller to Russian Turkestan in 1910 and 1912. Her first journey was from Constantinople to Andijan (pp. 1-217); and the second from St Petersburg to Khiva, which she was the first British woman ever to enter (pp. 218-63).
McCaig, Archibald, Wonders of grace in Russia. Riga: The Revival Press, 1926. 251pp.
Dr McCaig, Principal of Spurgeon’s College in London, went to Russia for the first time in June 1910, accompanying the evangelical pastor William Fetler (author of The Stundist in Siberian exile and other poems) whom he had initially met as a student at the college, to initiate the building of the missionary society’s tabernacle in St Petersburg. He also visited Novgorod, Schüsselburg and Moscow. He returned to Russia for the opening of the tabernacle in 1912 and paid two further visits in June 1912 and 1913 (pp. 11-185). His book is largely based on articles he wrote for various church periodicals during this period.
Dobson, George, St. Petersburg. London: Adam & Charles Black, 1910. xii+158pp.
The first of three Russian guides commissioned by the Blacks, all enhanced by the paintings of the Belgian artist F. de Haenen (see K246
). A lively contemporary account by the former long-time Times
correspondent in St Petersburg (see J78
Garstin, Denis, Friendly Russia. With an introduction by H.G. Wells. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1915. 248pp.
Garstin (1890-1918) first went out to Russia as a tutor in about 1910, after leaving Cambridge, and living initially, it would seem, in the Crimea (pp. 15-184). The final section of his book (based largely on articles he contributed in 1913-14 to newspapers such as the Morning Post and the Daily News) was entitled ‘The Russians in war’ (pp. 185-248). After service in WWI, Garstin returned to Russia with the British Propaganda unit (under Hugh Walpole) and lost his life in north Russia, fighting against the Bolsheviks.
Price, Morgan Philips, Siberia. London: Methuen & Co., 1912. xviii+308pp.
Price (1885-1973), who was to write several books on Russia (see K322
), provides a description of life in western and central Siberia, based on a trip undertaken during the spring and summer of 1910. In the first half of the book Price uses his stay in a number of locations to explore the social, religious and economic aspects of Siberia: Krasnoiarsk inspires an account of municipal life in a growing commercial town; the provincial town of Minusink allows him to explore a life less affected by “Western commercialism”; and the frontier village of Kushabar, on the north side of the Mongolian frontier on the Upper Enisei presents the life of the frontier peasant.
Curtis, William Eleroy, Turkestan: “the heart of Asia”. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911. 344pp.
Curtis, who had first visited Russia in the reign of Alexander III (see J68
), spent the spring and early summer of 1910 in Turkestan, writing a series of detailed descriptions of the region that were to appear first in the Chicago Record-Herald
. The photographs were taken by John T. McCutcheon during his earlier visit to Turkestan in the summer of 1906.
Curtis, William Eleroy, Around the Black Sea, Asia Minor, Armenia, Caucasus, Circassia, Daghestan, the Crimea, Roumania. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1911. 456pp.
Essentially a sequel both in time and manner to his previous book and similarly composed from letters sent to a Chicago paper. Curtis spent the rest of the summer and the autumn of 1910, visiting countries adjacent to the Black Sea, including Georgia (pp. 85-128), Baku and Daghestan (pp. 214-51), Odessa and the Crimea (pp. 252-347).
Simpson, Eugene E., Eugene E. Simpson’sTravels in Russia, 1910 and 1912. Taylorville, Ill.: for the author, 1916. 126pp.
Based on articles Simpson (1871-1929) sent to the New York Musical Courier during visits down the Volga and to the Crimea in the two summers. Simpson was an enthusiast of Russian music, classical and folk, and an admirer of Tchaikovsky, whose home at Klin he visited.
Lied, Jonas, Return to happiness. London: Macmillan, 1943. xii+318pp. [American edition entitled: Prospector in Siberia: the autobiography of Jonas Lied. New York: Oxford University Press, 1945.]
The Norwegian entrepreneur (1881-1969), inspired by the example of Captain Wiggins, paid his first of many visits to Russia in May 1910 to investigate trading possibilities in Siberia on behalf of a London firm. In 1913 he sailed to the Kara Sea with Nansen. Thereafter he made frequent trips both to St Petersburg and Siberia, meeting important Russian businessmen, political figures, and the tsar. The October revolution brought his highly successful shipping and trading business to an end, but he continued to visit and live in the Soviet Union until 1931 (pp. 52-293).
Lied, Jonas, Siberian Arctic: the story of the Siberian Company. London: Methuen, 1960. 217pp.
Lied’s history of the Siberian Company, which he helped found, repeats much of what appears in his autobiography but expectedly provides less detail about his own actions (pp. 50-111).
Buchanan, George, My mission to Russia and other diplomatic memories. London: Cassell & Co., 1923. 2 vols.
After relating his career as a diplomat from 1876, Sir George (1854-1924) describes in detail his long years as British ambassador in Petersburg from September 1910 to January 1918 (vol. I, pp. 91-253; II, pp. 1-248).
Buchanan, Meriel, Diplomacy and foreign courts. With an introduction by Sir Bernard Pares. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1928. 288pp.
A devoted daughter’s parallel account of her father’s postings and a vigorous defence of his character and actions during WWI and the revolutionary events of 1917. Meriel (1886-1959), from 1925 Mrs Knowling, also provides descriptions of the social life of high society in St Petersburg and her own experiences of the effects of war and revolution (pp. 133-243).
Buchanan, Meriel, Ambassador’s daughter. With a foreword by Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart. London: Cassell & Co., 1958. ix+239pp.
In the last of the books she devoted to Russia and published in the year before her death, Meriel returns to her defence of her father’s conduct, reworking much already familiar material (pp. 89-194).
Buchanan, Meriel, Recollections of imperial Russia. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1923. vii+277pp.
Essentially a re-hash of previous books which soon goes beyond personal memories of her arrival and early years in Petersburg to unoriginal histories of eighteenth-century rulers and spun-out descriptions of places with minimal personal input.
Buchanan, Meriel, The dissolution of an empire. London: John Murray, 1932. 304pp.
Meriel herself acknowledges that she might be “accused by some people of repeating myself to a monotonous degree”, and this book, tracing her family’s stay in Russia from 1910 to 1918 with added material for the following years, was not to be the last example.
Buchanan, Meriel, Victorian gallery. London: Cassell & Co., 1956. x+219pp.
Includes chapters devoted to people, Russian and British, whom she knew in Russia, such as Princess Zinaida Iusupova and Sir Henry Wilson (pp. 28-67, 103-95).
Baring, Maurice, The Russian people. London: Methuen & Co., 1911. xix+366pp.
A history and geography of Russia, based on the reading of many secondary sources, but also a summation of Baring’s years of studying the Russian people in situ and constantly illuminated by his own anecdotes and observations. His intention was “to supply the average reader with an introduction to the course of Russian affairs”.
Graham, Stephen, A vagabond in the Caucasus. With some notes of his experiences among the Russians. London: John Lane, 1911. vii+311pp.
Graham’s long years “tramping” throughout Russia (and later America) began with his travels through the Caucasus in 1910. After spending a long winter in Kharkov, he remained in Moscow until Easter (to p. 116). The rest of the book concerns his time in the Caucasus as he moved from Vladikavkaz through the Gorge of Dariel to reach, months later, Tiflis. Amusingly, his book finishes with “a chapter for prospective tourists” (pp. 301-08).
Graham, Stephen, A tramp’s sketches. London: Macmillan, 1912. xiii+339pp.
“Not so much a book about Russia as about the tramp”, it is a paean to the joys of unfettered wanderings through the south of Russia, by the Black Sea, into Georgia, in the Crimea, and accompanying peasant pilgrims to Jerusalem (see K247
Graham, Stephen, Undiscovered Russia. London: John Lane, 1912. xvi+337pp.
The particular area of Russia Graham was “discovering” for his readers was the north to which he had travelled from the Caucasus by way of Moscow in 1911. From Archangel he made long expeditions along the courses of the rivers Pinega and Dvina. When he finally left Archangel he returned to Moscow via Vologda and Kostroma, finishing his tramping at Vetluga, before making a detour to Rostov.
Donner, Kai [Karl] Reinhold, Among the Samoyed in Siberia. Translated by Rinchart Kyler. Edited by Genevieve A. Highland. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files, 1954. xx+176pp.
The Finnish linguist, ethnographer, and pioneer of Finno-Ugrian studies (1888-1935) describes two trips he made to Siberia, the first from August 1911 to June 1913 and the second in June-October 1914, illustrated by scores of his own photographs. He first travelled along the upper reaches of the Ob and the Enisei, describing the life of the Samoed peoples with whom he lived; and on his second journey he reached the northern slopes of the Saian mountains of south-eastern Siberia. The original account, Bland Samojeder i Sibirien åren 1911-1913, 1914 was first published in 1915.
Digby, George Bassett, Tigers, gold, and witch-doctors. London: John Lane, (The Bodley Head), 1928. 341pp.
Digby (1888-1962), F.R.G.S., offered an account of “things that I found out in the course of my wanderings in Siberia”, including not only those in his title, but also bears, wolves, mammoths, and much else. Well-read in earlier accounts of Siberia, he offers a lively narrative of several undated journeys in the years before WWI.
Wright, Richardson Little, and Digby, George Bassett, Through Siberia: an empire in the making. London: Hurst and Blackett, 1913. viii+260pp.
American journalist Wright (1887-1961) and British prospector Digby decided to travel “with the Russians” by third-class slow train from Moscow to Siberia in the spring of 1911. They went on to Kharbin and into Japanese Manchuria. In many ways a familiar route, but with some unusual encounters and interesting detail.
Herbert, Agnes, Casuals in the Caucasus: the diary of a sporting holiday. London: John Lane, 1912. xii+331pp.
Accompanied by her cousins Cecily Windus and Kenneth Baird (of the Petersburg Bairds), Miss Herbert sailed from Gibraltar to Batumi to “shoot a little, climb a little” during the summer of 1911 in the Caucasus. A frothy, gossipy travelogue from an author who had already shot her way around Somaliland and Alaska (pp. 27-331).
Phelps, William Lyon, Autobiography with letters. London: Oxford University Press, 1939. xxiii+986pp.
Phelps (1865-1943), Yale professor and author of Essays on Russian novelists (1917), paid his first and only visit to Russia with his wife in September 1911. They visited St Petersburg and Moscow, but only Nevskii Prospekt seems to have impressed him (pp. 522-28).
Perry-Ayscough, Henry George Charles, and Otter-Barry, Robert Bruère, With the Russians in Mongolia. With a preface by Sir Claude Macdonald. London: John Lane, The Bodley Head, 1914. xxiv+344pp.
Perry-Ayscough of the Chinese Postal Service, F.R.G.S., and Captain Otter-Barry (b. 1879) of the Royal Sussex regiment, F.R.G.S., travelled through Mongolia at different times, the latter, in 1911, just before the Chinese Revolution, the former, in 1913, when Mongolia was already under Russian protection. Collaborating on the general chapters devoted to Mongolian history and Russo-Mongolian relations, the authors provide independent accounts of their travels through Mongolia and parts of Siberia. Only the final pages of Otter-Barry’s contribution concern Siberia as he passes through the border town of Kiakhta to Verkhne-Udinsk to meet his wife from the Trans-Siberian on 12 July 1911 (pp. 175-84). In February 1913 Perry-Ayscough travelled from China through Manchuria and went by train to Verkhne-Udinsk on his way to the Mongolian capital (pp. 189-94). In April, leaving for England, he crossed into Siberia at Kosh Agach, proceeded to Biisk, and from there by steamer to Novonikolaevsk to catch the Trans-Siberian (pp. 241-94).
Shaft, Arthur, My Russian and English connections. Broadstone: for the author, 1993. xiii+154pp.
Shaft (b. 1911), the youngest son of Anglo-French parents, both of whom had also been born in Russia, remembers his happy early years in Moscow and on an estate near Rzhev and then the increasingly difficult times under Soviet rule until the family was allowed to depart for England via Finland in the spring of 1920 (pp. 1-61).
Lockhart, Robert Hamilton Bruce, Memoirs of a secret agent, being an account of the author’s early life in many lands and of his official mission in 1918. London and New York: Putnam, 1931. xii+355pp.
Lockhart (1887-1970) arrived in Moscow in January 1912 as British vice-consul, but was to serve throughout WWI as acting consul-general. His narrative of his life, or lives, “Russian and unofficial” and “official and mainly English”, over the next five years is anecdotal, often amusing, and informative. In early September 1917 he was recalled to London (pp. 53-192). The second half of the book is devoted to his more “famous” exploits after his return to Soviet Moscow in January 1918, his arrest in September for involvement in the alleged anti-Bolshevik “Lockhart plot”, and expulsion in early October.
Lockhart, Robert Hamilton Bruce, My Europe. London: Putnam, 1952. x+273pp.
In the opening two chapters, ‘Moscow before the wars’ and ‘Prelude to revolution’, Lockhart recalls his Moscow years from 1912 to 1917 (pp. 3-28).
Lockhart, Robert Hamilton Bruce, Giants cast long shadows. London: Putnam, 1960. 253pp.
In his collection of essays devoted to distinguished people in all walks of life is ‘Missionaries of sport’, in which Lockhart recalls Lancashire-born Clem Charnock, credited with introducing soccer into Russia in 1887 and members of the Charnock clan with whom he played for the “Morozovtsy” in Moscow in 1912 (pp. 172-80).
Lockhart, Robert Hamilton Bruce, The diaries of Sir Robert Bruce Lockhart. Edited by Kenneth Young. London: Macmillan, 1973-80. 2 vols.
Lockhart’s brief diary entries from January 1915 to his departure in September 1917 with gap between March 1916 and March 1917 (vol. I, pp. 21-9. On Moscow and a vsit to Kiev. Glimpses of such as Gor’kii and Kerenskii (to whom Lockhart was to devote a chapter entitled ‘Russian optimist’ in his book Friends, foes, and foreigners (1957), pp. 107-18).
Young, Ernest, From Russia to Siam, with a voyage down the Danube: sketches of travel in many lands. London: Max Goschen, 1914. xii+328pp.
Young (1869-1952), travel writer, published a book on Finland in 1912. It was during his sojourn that he sailed from Sortovala (then in the Grand Duchy) to visit the Russian Orthodox monastery on the island of Walamo/Valaam in Lake Ladoga. He spent five days in a guest cell, interviewing the monks and observing their way of life (pp. 3-35).
Grove, Henry Montgomery, Moscow. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1912. viii+142pp.
The companion to Dobson’s book on St Petersburg (see K217
), Grove’s follows the same mixture of historical and contemporary commentary to accompany de Haenen’s paintings. (see also K261
). Grove was the long-serving British consul-general in Moscow.
Graham, Stephen, With the Russian pilgrims to Jerusalem. London: Macmillan and Co., 1913. x+306 pp.
It was in Constantinople in 1912 that Graham joined the boat containing some 500 Russian peasant pilgrims bound for Jaffa and then travelling on to Jerusalem but it was as if he found himself “in a populous Russian village on a market day”. Thus not strictly a travelogue through Russia, it merits inclusion for its vivid evocation of Russian peasants and their stories. He returned to Odessa after Easter to begin more solitary tramping.
Graham, Stephen, Changing Russia. London: John Lane, 1913. ix+309pp.
“The journal of a tramp” through southern parts of Russia in 1912, mainly to Batumi via such resorts as Sochi and Sukhumi, and, later, through the Crimea. Written, allegedly, “with an eye to the ways and thoughts of the Intelligentsia” during a period of rapid change.
Cripps, Frederick Heyworth, Life’s a gamble. With a foreword by Lord Burnham. London: Odhams Press, 1957. 208pp.
The hon. Fred Cripps, later 3rd Lord Parmoor (1885-1977), went to Russia in about 1912 as a merchant banker and he remained until the summer of 1914, when he returned to England to join the army. Although his office was in Peterburg, he travelled to other parts of Russia, including the Urals. Among his close friends was Shaliapin (pp. 81-97). In 1919 he went to Soviet Moscow and over the next five or six years was engaged in an astonishing variety of business and leisure activities, including organizing his own ballet company (pp. 127-55).
After attending her daughter’s wedding in Shanghai, Mrs Lee sails to Dalnii in September 1912 to begin her long lone train journey to Moscow, where her account ends. Boarding the Trans-Siberian Railway (or the Chinese Eastern Railway extension) at Chang Chung, she travels to Irkutsk, where she breaks her journey and dines with exiles and discusses the Siberian prison system. She then makes a detour to Tomsk and visits the university. Her declared aim was to spread knowledge in America of Siberia (pp. 40-220).
Fraser, Eugenie, A house by the Dvina: a Russian childhood. Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Co., 1984. ii+281pp.
Daughter of a Russian father and a Scottish mother, Eugenie, née Sholts (1905-2002) was brought up in Archangel. She relates her family story from 1912 to 1920, when she and her mother escaped to Scotland. She and her husband visited the family home in 1972, described in The Dvina remains (1996).
Bury, Herbert, Russian life to-day. London, A.R. Mowbray & Co., 1915. vii+270pp.
Bury (1853-1933), Anglican bishop of Northern and Central Europe, travelled extensively throughout Russia in 1912-14, visiting Anglican congregations in western Russia and beyond the Urals as far as Petropavlovsk, and into the Kirghiz steppe. Offers his book as an “impressionistic description of Russian life” and includes a very respectful audience with the tsar at Tsarskoe selo.
Wood, Ruth Kedzie, The tourist’s Russia. London: Andrew Melrose, 1912. viii+253pp.
The first of several contributions by Wood (see K214
) to the ‘Tourist’s’ series (Spain, California, etc.), adapted for both American and British publics. It is her substitute for an English-language Baedeker, the lack of which she regretted in her earlier book but which was to appear in 1914 (see K271
Steveni, William Barnes, Things seen in Russia. Seeley, Service & Co., 1913. 260pp.
A contribution to the popular small-format ‘Things seen’ series that includes the statutory, but delightful, fifty illustrations, written by a long-time British resident of St Petersburg (see J111
), who concentrates mainly on the capital, Moscow and Kiev.
Butler, Frank Hedges, Through Lapland with skis & reindeer with some account of ancient Lapland and the Murman coast. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1917. xii+386pp.
Butler (1855-1928) F.R.G.S., was already well-known for his many roles as intrepid balloonist, treasurer of the Royal Automobile Club, founder of the Royal Aero Club, and travel writer, when he undertook his journey to Lapland in March 1913. Accompanied by his Lapp interpreter Johann Thürri, Butler travelled through Norway and Lapland and entered Russian Lapland en route for the monastery at Pechenga, the history of which is described in detail (pp. 141- 91).
Forse, Edward John George, From Warsaw to Moscow: from the travel diaries of Edward J.G. Forse. Southbourne: for the author. xvipp.
Rev. Forse (1877-1942), F.R.G.S., vicar of Southbourne, Bournemouth and author of several books of travel and art history, describes in some detail his train journey, begun in Warsaw on 3 September 1913, to the old Russian capital. He explores the streets and famous, mainly religious, buildings of Moscow, which he leaves on 8 September, at which point his narrative comes to an abrupt end.
Ransome, Arthur, The autobiography of Arthur Ransome. Edited, with prologue and epilogue, by Rupert Hart-Davis. London: Jonathan Cape, 1976. 368pp.
Author and journalist Ransome (1884-1967) first went to Russia in June-September 1913 to study the language and folklore and returned in May-August of the following year to write a guide to St Petersburg (pp. 159-70). On 30 December 1914 he was back in newly-named Petrograd and thereafter in and out of Russia (and later the Baltic states) until 1924, reporting war and revolution, writing, fishing, and wooing Trotskii’s secretary (pp. 159-319).
Le Blond, Elizabeth, Day in, day out. [With a foreword by E.F. Benson.] London: John Lane, 1928. 264pp.
The three-times married Mrs Le Blond, née Hawkins-Whitsted (1861-1934), the greatest lady mountaineer of the age, not to mention her prowess as cyclist and car driver, accompanied her husband on a tour that took them to China and Korea in 1912 and then by the Trans-Siberian railway to Moscow in June 1913. Her husband obliged to return to England, she remained sightseeing in Moscow and then St Petersburg (pp. 165-77).
Wheeler, William Webb, The other side of the earth. St. Joseph, Missouri: privately printed, 1913. 208pp.
American merchant and author of various travel accounts, Wheeler (1845-1925) passed from Manchuria into Russia in June 1913 and travelled east on the Trans-Siberian. He proceeded to St Petersburg and then travelled to Moscow, noting the usual sights (pp. 169-201).
Shelley, Gerard, The blue steppes: adventures among Russians. London: John Hamilton, 1925. 268pp.
Shelley (b. 1892) produced two versions of his memoirs of his years in Russia from 1913, when he was invited by Count and Countess Torlov to stay on their estate near Kharkov, to 1920, when he escaped from Petrograd to Finland. He spent time in Petrograd and Moscow and also visited the Crimea before the revolution. A linguist who quickly acquired Russian and worked for some time as an interpreter for the Russians during WWI, Shelley also translated the Russian poets, including Pushkin, Lermontov, and Blok.
Shelley, Gerard, The speckled domes: episodes of an Englishman’s life in Russia. Duckworth, 1925. 256pp.
A less sprightly version of Shelley’s adventures, but also different in other respects, not least in the manner of his ultimate escape, here disguised as a woman! In both accounts there is much on his acquaintance with Rasputin, whom he met for the first time in April 1915 and whom he defended.
Stewart, Hugh, Provincial Russia. London: Adam and Charles Black, 1913. viii+173pp.
The final volume in a series that was re-issued in the same year as a single volume under the title Russia
, displaying to the full the talent of the painter de Haenen (see K217
). Stewart (1884-1934) who had travelled widely through Russia from about 1906, provided a succinct account of the various regions.
Johnson, William Eugene, The liquor problem in Russia. Westerville, Ohio: American Issue Publishing Co., 1915. 230pp.
The American social reformer and prohibition campaigner Johnson (1862-1945) travelled to Russia in 1913 to do “some muckraking in connection with the vodka monopoly”, but found a welcome change in government attitudes towards alcohol production.
Bruce, Henry James, Silken Dalliance. London: Constable, 1946. viii+183pp.
After service in Vienna and Berlin Bruce (1880-1951) was posted as Head of Chancery to the British embassy in Petersburg at the end of August 1913 and remained there for five momentous years, before he and his wife, the ballerina Tamara Karsavina, whom he married in the Russian capital in 1915, finally left from Murmansk in July 1918. His memoirs are a curious mixture of personal adventures and observation and potted eighteenth-century Russian history (pp. 135-75).
Bruce, Henry James, Thirty-dozen moons. London: Constable and Co., 1949. 189pp.
In his second book of memoirs Bruce describes his courting of Diagilev’s prima ballerina Karsavina from autumn 1913 to the following summer (pp. 1-10).
Vecchi, Joseph, “The tavern is my drum”: my autobiography. Preface by Negley Farson. London: Odhams Press, 1948. 224pp.
The Italian restaurateur (d. 1961) moved from Claridge’s in London to the Kaiserhof in Berlin, and in September 1913, on to the newly-opened hotel Astoria in St Petersburg, where he managed the French restaurant until the hotel was requisitioned in April 1916. He then worked at the Felicien and the Bear, before going to Kiev’s Grand Hotel. He returned to Petrograd in March 1917 and a final venture, The Little Palace. At the end of 1917 he left his “beloved” Russia via Murmansk, eventually settling in London (pp. 29-152).
Steveni, William Barnes, The Russian army from within. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1914. 184pp.
Steveni (see J112
) travelled from the capital to the Caucasus in 1913 to report on the state of the Russian army at the behest of London newspapers.
Mears, John Henry, and Collyer, Charles B.D., Racing the moon (and winning): being the story of the swiftest journey ever made, a circumnavigation of the globe by airplane and steamship in 23 days, 15 hours, 21 minutes and 3 seconds by two men and a dog. New York: Rae D. Henkle Co., 1928. 320pp.
It is not the journey of 1928, when Broadway producer Mears regained the world record, but his original journey in 1913 to gain the record for the first time that is relevant. Mears (1878-1956) left New York on 2 July 1913 and returned thirty-five days, twenty-one hours, thirty-five minutes, eighteen and four-fifths seconds later. In the course of that journey, by steamship and train, he passed, twelve days on, through St Petersburg and took the Trans-Siberian in Moscow to Omsk, then went into China (pp. 245-85).
Nansen, Fridtjof Wedel-Jarlsberg, Through Siberia, the land of the future. Translated from the Norwegian by Arthur G. Chater. London: William Heinemann, 1914. xvi+478pp.
The Norwegian scientist and explorer Nansen (1861-1930), who was to win the Nobel Peace Prize in 1922, set out from Norway in August 1913 with, among others, Jonas Lied (see K223
) to attempt “to open up a regular trade connexion with the interior of Siberia, via the Kara Sea and the mouth of the Yenisei”. They arrived back in Petrograd after penetrating as far as the Manchurian border, at the very end of October.
Dickinson, Duncan, Through Spain: the record of journey from St. Petersburg to Tangier, by way of Paris, Madrid, Cordova, Seville and Cadiz; and thence to Gibraltar, Ronda and Granada. London: Methuen & Co., 1914. xxiv+197pp.
The author, it would seem, was born or raised in Russia (“home”) and thus in the summer of 1913 begins his long train journey to Spain at the Warsaw station in Petersburg, briefly describing the scenery on his way to the border (pp. 1-4).
Bryce, James, Memories of travel. London: Macmillan, 1923. 300pp.
Posthumously published collection of travel sketches includes Lord Bryce’s recollections, written in 1922, of a journey on the Trans-Siberian in August-September 1913 with an excursion via Tomsk to the Altai mountains (pp. 254-95). Bryce had previously visited Russia in 1876 (see I137
Baedeker, Karl, Russia with Teheran, Port Arthur, and Peking: handbook for travellers. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1914. lxiv+590.
Published on the eve of WWI, the travellers’ indispensable vade mecum, prepared with meticulous detail and accuracy by the “Baedeker” editor and his associates, “who have repeatedly explored the country with a view to procuring the latest possible information”. It was so soon to become a historical document.
Keller, Otto, St. Petersburg and its environs, Finland, Moscow, Kiev, Odessa, Warsaw, Riga, a tour on the Volga, the Crimea and the Caucasus, with plans of St. Petersburg and of the environs of St. Petersburg, railway map of Russia, sketches of the Hermitage and the museum of Alexander III. London: Siegle, Hill & Co., 1914. ii+168pp.
Keller (1838-1927) had been in resident in St Petersburg for ten years at the time of writing and the guide book is based on his personal experiences and specifically slanted for the English visitor.
Williams, Harold Whitmore, Russia of the Russians. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons, 1914. x+430pp.
Although specifically written for the series ‘Countries and peoples’ and suppressing the personal element, it reflects the deep knowledge and love of pre-WWI Russia of the astonishing New-Zealand linguist and esteemed newspaper correspondent. Hugely informative about all aspects of contemporary Russia, particularly the arts, it is especially notable for the chapter (pp. 389-424) on St Petersburg, where Williams (1876-1928) arrived for the first time in December 1904 and left finally in March 1918.
Baring, Maurice, The Mainsprings of Russia. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1914. xi+328pp.
An attempt to provide “a single idea of the more important factors in Russian life” based on Baring’s personal observations and travels over many years. The book is dedicated to H.G. Wells, recalling the time they spent together in St Petersburg in 1914.
Byford, Charles Thomas, The soul of Russia. London: Kingsgate Press, 1914. 396pp.
Based on his extensive travels through Russia, including the Baltic States and the Crimea during presumably the early years of the century, Byford’s study aimed to present “a concise view of the spiritual and religious forces at work” in contemporary Russia, with an overarching theme of the growth in religious liberty in the Russian Empire. Each chapter, devoted to the Orthodox church and to sects such as the Dukhobors and Molokans, is prefaced by a list of secondary sources he has consulted.
Graham, Stephen, The way of Martha and the way of Mary. London: Macmillan, 1915. xii+291pp.
In his quest for the essence of Eastern Christianity Graham travelled from Paris to Kiev in January 1914 and then to Moscow, where he completed his book in September of the following year. He visited the Convent of Martha and Mary in Moscow to see Nesterov’s painting of the saints, who embodied for him the paths of faith and service. In the third and final section he describes his journey in May 1915 to Egypt to visit monasteries and shrines and thence “to make a journey to Russia the way Christianity came to her”.
Graham, Stephen, The death of yesterday. London: Ernest Benn, 1930. iii+179pp.
In the essay ‘At the Moscow Art Theatre: 1914’, Graham recalls his visits to see performances of Hamlet, Chekhov’s The cherry orchard and Andreev’s Anathema (pp. 129-46).
Keeling, H.V., Bolshevism: Mr. Keeling’s five years in Russia. Edited by E.H. Haywood. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919. 212pp.
Keeling was sent to Russia in February 1914 to assist in the setting up of a patent photo-litho process in St Petersburg and to train Russian workers. He stayed on for five years, working as a jobbing mechanic in the capital and other towns, before escaping via Finland. The editor contributed both preface and final chapter entitled ‘The theory of Bolshevism’ (pp. 199-212).
Bartlett, Robert A., The last voyage of the ‘Karluk’, flagship of Vilhjalmar Stefannson’s Canadian Arctic expedition of 1913-1916. As related by her master Robert A. Bartlett, and here set down by Ralph T. Hale. Boston: Small, Maynard and Co., 1916. vi+329pp.
The Canadian captain “Bob” Bartlett (1875-1946) recounts the ill-fated last voyage of the Karluk, which was crushed by ice and sank on 11 January 1914. In their overland trek to safety, Bartlett and others reached Wrangell Island on 12 March 1914, but only he and one companion then proceeded to cross over to the north-east Siberian mainland, which they reached on 4 April and encountered a settlement of Chukchis. After many further exploits and surprising meetings, he finally stepped on American soil on 28 May (pp. 161-281).
Bartlett, Robert A., The log of Bob Bartlett: the true story of forty years of seafaring and exploration. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1928. xii+252pp.
Includes a succinct account of the Karluk expedition (pp. 254-79).
Moore, Benjamin Burges, From Moscow to the Persian Gulf, being the journal of a disenchanted traveller in Turkestan and Persia. New York and London: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915. xx+450pp.
The journal of an American traveller, reflecting his non-definitive “unfavourable opinion of Persia and her people”. He begins his journey from Moscow on 8 February 1914, en route for Samarkand and Bokhara in Russian Turkestan, before he crosses into Persia on 20 February (pp. 3-70).
Dawe, Rosamond E., A memoir of an English governess in Russia, 1914-1917. Chichester: Bishop Otter College, 1973. vi+26pp. [Revised edition, Woking: Unwin Brothers, 1976. x+45pp.]
The eighteen-year-old Rosamond (1896-1990) left Norwich in May 1914 to teach English to the three eldest Naumov daughters on the family estate near Samara on the Volga. Two years later, she moved to the Tolstoi family at Tsarskoe selo and, finally, held a position with the Miklashevskii family, taking her to Kislovodsk before returning to Petrograd, where she witnessed the aftermath of the February revolution. She returned to England in June 1917 via Scandinavia.
Wardell, John Wilford, In the Kirghiz Steppes. London: Gallery Press, 1961. 190pp.
Wardell, a draughtsman and engineer with the London firm of Walter Perkins, was sent on a three-year contract to work for the British-owned Spasskii Copper Mine Ltd in southern Siberia. He left England on 16 May 1914 but it was the end of September 1919 before he and his wife Lily (who had joined him in July 1914) and other British, caught by war and revolution, were able to leave from Vladivostok for China and home. Unusual and fascinating account of life and work among the Kazaks.
Czaplicka, Marya Antonina, My Siberian year. London: Mills & Boon, 1916. 306pp.
The Polish-born Oxford anthropologist (1884-1921), already author of Aboriginal Siberia (1914), based on printed sources, spent a year of fieldwork between May 1914 and the spring of the following year in the northern tundra by the Enisei, accompanied by the American anthropologist Hubert Hall.
Anderson, Herbert Foster, Borderline Russia. London: Cresset Press, 1942. 238pp.
Recently graduated, Anderson (b. 1890) accepted a position as manager of an estate in Tambov guberniia, where he remained from June 1914 to the summer of the following year, when he sought to return to England on hearing of the declaration of war (pp. 1-29).
Levings, Grace M., Travel sketches of Norway, Sweden, Russia, Austria, Belgium and Holland. Boston: Richard G. Badger; Toronto: Copp Clark Co., 1916. 168pp.
A European tour by an American couple – Mrs Levings refers to her husband throughout as “Doctor” – that took them from Stockholm by boat to Petrograd. Routine tourist notes of the sights of Petrograd and Moscow, before they move on to Vienna (pp. 64-103). No dates and no mention of the war, but use of Petrograd, if not afterthought, suggests possibly summer of 1914.
Boultbee, Rosamond, Pilgrimages and personalities. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1924. 328pp.
The Canadian journalist (1878-1957) paid a first brief visit to Russia in early 1914 to visit friends in Kiev (pp. 64-66). She returned for a second time in July 1915, spending two months in Petrograd, before leaving in September for Kiev. After a lengthy stay in Kiev, she moved to Odessa, where she was to remain for three months, before departing for Romania via Kishinev in the spring of 1916. In April she returned to Odessa and then visited Moscow, which delighted her and where she stayed until July (pp. 96-148, 176-89).
Graham, Stephen, Through Russian Central Asia. London, New York: Cassell and Co., 1916. xii+279pp.
In the early summer of 1914 Graham left Vladikavkaz by train for Bokhara and Tashkent. A little beyond Tashkent he began his travels on foot, by cart, and horse and eventually crossed into Siberia and reached Semipalatinsk, the place of Dostoevskii’s exile. His articles to the Times
chronicled his progress at the time, but he delayed publication of the book until after its successor (K289
Graham, Stephen, Russia and the world. A study of the war and a statement of the world-problems that now confront Russia and Great Britain. London: Cassell and Co., 1915. xi+259pp. [Revised and enlarged edition, 1917. 301pp.]
Graham was in the Altai mountains by the Mongolian frontier when news of the outbreak of WWI reached him in July 1914. He travelled to Moscow in September (pp. 3-32). The rest of the book is devoted to general essays and memorable meetings, before he made his first ever visit to St Petersburg/Petrograd on his way home to England (pp. 243-46).
Haviland, Maud Doria, A summer on the Yenisei (1914). London: Edward Arnold, 1915. xii+328pp.
The ornithologist Miss Haviland, inspired by the writings of Seebohm, joined the expedition to the Enisei, organized by Marya Czaplicka and Hubert Hall. She and the artist Dora Curtis reached Golchika on the Enesei on 29 June 1914 and remained there for two months, observing and registering birds. Leaving their other two companions, they returned to a Britain at war, via Norway, on 9 October.
Nicholas, Prince of Greece, Political memoirs 1914-1917: pages from my diary. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1928. 319pp.
In July 1914 Prince Nicholas (b. 1872) and his family travelled from Athens to pay their yearly visit to his mother-in-law Grand Duchess Vladimir and, two days before the declaration of war, reached Tsarskoe selo, where they met the tsar (pp. 18-22). In July 1916 he was sent to Russia on an unsuccessful mission from the Greek government to explain Greek neutrality in the war. He was received by the tsar at Mogilev, before he proceeded to Petrograd, where he had meetings with Russian ministers and foreign ambassadors. He left in October (pp. 133-80).
Lethbridge, Alan Bourchier, The new Russia: from the White Sea to the Siberian steppe. London: Mills and Boon, 1915. xvi+314pp.
Lethbridge had been in Russia several times, including Siberia in 1907, before he resolved to undertake his northern journey in 1914, inspired by a reading of Kliuchevskii “to whet the appetite for a first-hand experience of that wonderful North that is so bound up with the creation of the modern Russian Empire”. He and his wife Marjorie followed a route that took them from Archangel to Solovets and via Velikii Ustiug and Viatka to Perm and across the Urals to Ekaterinburg. They went as far as Tiumen and Omsk, before returning to Petrograd by train, but, because of the war, were obliged to return to England from Archangel.
Lethbridge, Marjorie Colt and Lethbridge, Alan Bourchier, The soul of the Russian. London: John Lane, 1916. xii+238pp.
A collection of twenty-eight sketches, ten written by Marjorie (b. 1882), who also published semi-fictional tales under the title Russian chaps (1916), and eighteen by Alan, on a wide variety of subjects, historical, cultural, geographical, and social, appearing originally in London newspapers and journals in 1914-15.
Merry, Walter Mansell, Two months in Russia July-September, 1914. Oxford: B.H. Blackwell, 1916. iv+202pp.
Invited to St Petersburg to be the temporary chaplain to the British community, Rev. Merry, vicar of St Michael’s, Oxford, arrived in the Russian capital on 13 July 1914 and left with considerably more difficulty on 3 September for Sweden. Offers selections from his journal without additions other than the division into three parts: before the war; the beginning of the war, when he undertook a journey to Odessa in the vain hope of leaving via the Black Sea; and wartime Petrograd and ultimate departure (pp. 8-172).
Scudder, Jared Waterbury, Russia in the summer of 1914, with discussion of her pressing problems. Boston: Richard G. Badger, 1920. 193pp.
American theologian and missionary, best known for his Latin textbooks, Scudder (1863-1934) arrived at Cronstadt from Stockholm on 23 July 1914. After a few days of sightseeing in St Petersburg, he was in Moscow when war was declared, witnessed anti-German riots, and hurried back to the capital, eventually managing to leave for Finland on 11 August.
Gaunt, Mary, A broken journey; wanderings from the Hoang-Ho to the island of Saghalien and the upper reaches of the Amur River. London: Werner Laurie, 1919. 295pp.
Tourist travelling from China to Russia, partly via train, partly via steamer along the Amur River, found herself in the Russian far east in July 1914, just as war is declared. Describes her long, arduous return journey to St Petersburg and then the difficulty in getting from Russia to Finland (pp. 157-268).
Paléologue, Maurice, An ambassador’s memoirs. Translated from the French by F.A. Holt. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1924-25. 3 vols.
France’s last ambassador to imperial Russia, Paléologue (1859-1944) kept meticulous diaries of his four-year sojourn in St Petersburg, beginning with the entry for 20 July 1914, marking the visit of President Poincaré, and ending with 17 May 1917, when he was already in Finland.
Kroeger, Theodor, The forgotten village: four years in Siberia. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1936. 320pp.
Russian-born and educated, but a German national, Kroeger (1891-1958) recalls twenty years after the events his experiences as a POW during WWI. He had attempted to flee to Germany following the declaration of war in August 1914, but was arrested on suspicion of being a spy and sent first to Schlüsselberg, then to a camp near Baikal. Charges against him were dropped in March 1916, but he had married and continued to live in Siberia until his eventual departure for Germany after the death of his wife in late 1919.
Fortescue, Granville Roland, Russia, the Balkans and the Dardanelles. London: Andrew Melrose, 1915. 285pp.
Fortescue (1875-1952), American soldier and military attaché during the Russo-Japanese war, was the special correspondent of the Daily Telegraph with the Russian army in Poland in 1914-15, before illness forced him to leave for England. He considered “the campaigns I had witnessed there will rank among the greatest military events in history” and believed “the Russian infantryman one of the finest soldiers in the world” (pp. 15-139).
Morse, John, An Englishman in the Russian ranks. London: Duckworth & Co., 1915. vi+337pp.
When WWI began, Morse, an English businessman, was in Germany and to avoid internment he crossed over into Russian Poland on 2 August 1914. Intent on returning home, in the event he stayed and fought for nine months with the Russian army, until he was captured by the Germans. He was to escape and make his way to the Russian lines. He eventually reached Riga, which he left on 20 May 1915 for Sweden and England.
Fraser, John Foster, Russia of today.
London: Cassell and Co., 1915. viii+289pp.
Fraser (see also K29
) had first visited Russia in 1896 and his ‘Russia of today’ was the Petrograd and Moscow with its “happy British colony” that he visited in 1914 at the beginning of WWI. He ends with guarded optimism for the changed Russia that will emerge after the war!
West, Julius, Soldiers of the tsar and other sketches and studies of the Russia of to-day. London: The Iris Publishing Co., 1915. xvi+167pp.
West (1891-1918), born in Russia but leaving when two months old with his journalist father Semen Rappoport, returned during the first months of WWI. He offers an attractive collection of sketches based on “long chats with Russians of all classes”, alongside articles on Petrograd, Moscow and Warsaw in wartime, and on the vogue for translations from Russian literature (several of which – from Andreev and Chekhov – he himself made).
Brändström, Elsa, Among prisoners of war in Russia and Siberia. Translated from the German by C. Mabel Rickmers. With a preface by Nathan Söderblom. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1929. 284pp.
Daughter of the Swedish ambassador to Russia and living in St Petersburg since 1908, Brändström (1888-1948) describes her activities and experiences as an official Swedish Red Cross delegate from winter 1914 until summer 1920, during which time she travelled to all the concentration centres for prisoners of war in European Russia and in Siberia as far as Vladivostok, her work bringing her in touch with an estimated 700,000 POWs. The German original was entitled Unter Kriegsgefangenen in Rußland und Sibirien, 1914–1920 (Leipzig, 1927).
Gibson, William J., Wild career: my crowded years of adventure in Russia and the Near East. London: George G. Harrap, 1935. 288pp.
Born in Canada, but brought up in St Petersburg, Gibson volunteered for the Russian army in the summer of 1914. He subsequently worked for the Russian secret service in Central Asia. He was in Petrograd, working as a newspaper correspondent, during the February Revolution and witnessed Lenin’s arrival at the Finland Station. After a spell as a Soviet commissar, he eventually left Petrograd at the end of 1918 (pp. 1-200).
Buchanan, Meriel, Petrograd the city of trouble, 1914-1918. [With a foreword by Hugh Walpole.] London: W. Collins & Sons, 1918. 262pp.
The first published of Meriel’s books on Russia, it describes in detail her experiences of life in Petrograd from the declaration of war through to the rise and succession to power of the Bolsheviks.
Bauermeister, Alexander (‘Agricola’), Spies break through: memoirs of a German secret service officer. Translated [from the German] and introduced by Hector C. Bywater. London: Constable and Co., 1934. 185pp.
The leading German spymaster on the Eastern Front in WWI, Lt. Bauermeister (1899-1940), was born in St Petersburg, which he left in 1914 and was based in Königsberg, decoding Russian communiqués. He assumed a prominent role in the Russo-German armistice negotiations in November 1917.
Dietrich, Johann, Tovarish; the odyssey of a Siberian exile. Narrated by Paul Cölestin Ettighoffer. Translated from the German by M.H. Jerome. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1935. 288pp.
The account of an escape from Siberia by the German telepathist and hypnotist Johann Dietrich (b. 1885), as told to the novelist Ettighoffer (1896-1975). Dietrich, in St Petersburg on business just as WWI began, sought to flee Russian territory, but was arrested at Orenburg and exiled in early 1915. In 1917 he escaped to Irkutsk, where he developed his telepathic skills, and left Russia via Vladivostok in the autumn.
Arbenina, Stella, Through terror to freedom: the dramatic story of an Englishwoman’s life and adventures in Russia before, during & after the Revolution. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1930. 288pp.
Née Whishaw, member of a British family that had been in Russia since the eighteenth century, Stella (1885-1976) was the wife of Baron Pavel Meyendorf at the time of the October revolution. She relates in somewhat chaotic fashion her early life, her passion for acting, and her experiences during and after the revolution, before they escaped initially to Revel (pp. 9-273). It was in Berlin in 1921 that she assumed the stage name of Arbenina, which she retained in England, where she arrived in June 1923.
Pares (see K58
) left England in August 1914, spent six weeks in newly-named Petrograd, and begins his day-by-day account on 8 October from Vilna and ends on 19 June 1915, when he left the front. The book finishes with the diary of an Austrian officer serving in Galicia, March-May 1915 (pp. 261-82).
Hanbury-Williams, John, The Emperor Nicholas II as I knew him. London: Arthur L. Humphreys, 1922. xii+271pp.
Major-General Sir John (1859-1946) was chief of the British Military Mission in Russia between August 1914 and April 1917. He was attached to the G.H.Q. of the Russian armies at Mogilev and had a unique opportunity to observe and converse with the tsar. His book consists principally of diary entries, followed by sketches of the emperor, the tsarevich, Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich and General Alekseev (pp. 217-64).
Knox, Alfred William Fortescue, With the Russian army 1914-1917, being chiefly extracts from the diary of a military attaché. London: Hutchinson & Co., 1921. 2 vols.
Military attaché at the Petersburg embassy from 1911 and a fluent Russian speaker, Major-General Sir Alfred (1870-1964), later a Conservative politician, was appointed liaison officer to the Russian army in 1914-17 and kept the detailed diaries which form the substance of these volumes, augmented by additional later comment and analysis. The first volume describes warfare on the eastern front, particularly in Poland, between September 1914 and September 1915; the second continues with an account of the fighting during 1916, particularly the Brusilov Offensive. The later chapters describe Knox’s observations of growing political unrest within the Russian army and an eye-witness account of the February Revolution, subsequent rapid decline of order within the army, the failed Kerenskii offensive and the October Revolution. He left Russia on 8 January 1918.
Blair, Dorian, Russian hazard: the adventures of a British secret agent in Russia. Edited (?) by C.H. Dand. London: Robert Hale & Co., 1937. 288pp.
Allegedly born in St Petersburg c.1893 to Scoto-Russian parents, Blair returned to Russia in August 1914 to embark on a succession of increasingly implausible undercover adventures that involved burning the body of Rasputin, plotting to kidnap the tsar, and later, Trotskii and Lenin, at the instigation of Kerenskii. (pp. 13-147). The “scarlet pimpernel”, as he styles himself, was captured by the Cheka on 31 December 1917, but survived to be involved in even more unlikely exploits before escaping to England in 1920.
Washburn, Stanley, Field notes from the Russian front. London: Andrew Melrose, 1915. 291pp.
Washburn, who had covered the Russo-Japanese war (see K154
), returned to Russia in 1914 as the special war correspondent of The Times
with the Russian armies. The dispatches, which were largely published in The Times
and American newspapers, begin with his report from Petrograd on 10 September 1914 and continue from the Polish front, from where his final report is datelined 15 January 1915. This became the first volume of a trilogy of dispatches (see K340
). The book is also notable for the photographs by the Daily Mirror
’s George Mewes, the only “official” English photographer with the Russian armies.
Britnieva, Mary, One woman’s story. London: Arthur Barker, 1934. 287pp.
Born to Anglo-Russian parents in Russia, Mary (maiden name unknown) begins her “story” on 29 September 1914, the day she, a new Red Cross nurse, was to leave with her field hospital for the eastern front. She recounts her experiences in East Prussia, on the Warsaw front, and in Warsaw itself up to the beginning of the great retreat in July 1915. During a period of leave in April 1916 she visited her mother’s estate at Chistopol in Kazan province (pp. 9-64). The rest of the book is devoted to her life from the beginning of 1918, when she married Aleksandr Britnev, the head doctor, her departure for England in 1922, her subsequent return visits, and final farewell in 1930.
Walpole, Hugh, Hugh Walpole: a biography. By Rupert Hart-Davis. London: Macmillan & Co., 1952. xiv+503pp.
The prolific and once-popular novelist (1884-1941) arrived in Russia at the end of September 1914 as a correspondent for the Daily Mail and Saturday Review. He also found material and inspiration for his two Russia-centred novels The dark forest (1916) and The secret city (1919). He joined a Russian Red Cross unit in the Carpathians, before leaving for England in October 1915. He returned in February 1916 as head of a new British propaganda unit in Petrograd. He left finally for home on 8 November 1917, the morning after the start of the October Revolution. Excerpts from his journal and his letters, especially to Henry James (pp. 123-64). The text of the long memorandum on the February Revolution that he composed at the request of the British ambassador is on pp. 449-69.
Marye, George Thomas, Nearing the end in imperial Russia. London: Selwyn & Blount, 1929. 479pp.
Lawyer and banker Marye (1849-1933) arrived in Petrograd on 24 October 1914 as the American ambassador to Russia. He remained until mid-March 1916. Although his title was obviously influenced by later events, Marye stresses that he was publishing his “notes and jottings” with their “first impressions of events” just as they were written.
Thurstan, Violetta, Field hospital and flying column, being the journal of an English nursing sister in Belgium & Russia. London and New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1915. viii+184pp.
Red Cross nurse Thurstan (1879-1978), after service in Belgium, volunteered for the Russian Red Cross. She left Copenhagen on 24 October 1914 for Petrograd via Lapland and Finland and was sent to Warsaw and the eastern front. Wounded by shrapnel and ill with pleurisy, she convalesced in Petrograd, where she finished her journal of an eventful 1914 (pp. 106-78).
Roberts, Carl Eric Bechhofer, Russia at the cross roads. With an introduction by A.H. Murray. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co, 1916. viii+201pp.
The work arose from a year-long stay in Russia from late 1914 by Roberts (1894-1949), styling himself at that period Bechhofer, and offers in ten chapters his thoughts on the Russian character and society, developments in literature and ideas, and musings on Russia’s future.
Roberts, Carl Eric Bechhofer, A wanderer’s log: being some memories of travel in India, the Far East, Russia, the Mediterranean & elsewhere. London: Mills & Boon, 1922. 246pp.
In late 1914 Bechhofer, wanting to learn Russian, took a post as a tutor with a Ukrainian family, before leaving it to go to Kiev, and then to Batumi. Back in Petrograd, he recalls his visit to the literary cabaret, ‘The Stray Dog’, and his encounter with Rasputin (pp. 127-54). A further chapter describes his experiences with Denikin’s army around Moscow in 1919 and a final trip to Moscow and around the Volga as a newspaper correspondent in the autumn of 1921, the subjects of subsequent books (pp. 155-82).
Farson, Negley, The way of a transgressor. London: Victor Gollancz, 1935. 640pp.
In his lively autobiography, the American adventurer (1890-1960) recounts his first visit to Russia in the winter of 1914 to sell munitions to the Russian military authorities. He also visited Archangel, Moscow and the Crimea until illness forced him to return to America (pp. 126-226). He returned in 1916 to a Petrograd inexorably moving towards revolution and describes in detail events of “the Kerensky revolution” and its aftermath before he left to join the American air force (pp. 252-316). In 1928-29 he was in Soviet Russia with his wife for an extensive tour (pp. 542-81).
Krist, Gustav, Prisoner in the forbidden land. Translated from the German by E[mily] O[verend] Lorimer. London: Faber & Faber, 1938. 344pp.
“Gurk” Krist (1894-1937), an Austrian POW, captured by the Russians on the eastern front in November 1914, describes his long years of captivity in Turkestan, first at Katta-Kurgan, near Samarkand, from which he escaped into Persia, but was re-captured and remained in camps into the Soviet period. He was finally repatriated in late 1921. German original entitled Pascholl plenny! (Vienna, 1936).
Price, Morgan Philips, War and revolution in Asiatic Russia. London: Allen & Unwin, 1918. 296pp.
Price (see K219
) returned to Russia in November 1914 as special correspondent for the Manchester Guardian.
Frustrated in his attempt to report from the eastern front, he made his way to the less controlled Caucasus, where he spent much of 1915 and all of 1916. His book, written in Tiflis and completed in Petrograd in 1916-17, provides an overview of the Caucasus campaign, followed by an account of Price’s activities as journalist and relief worker in the region, and finishes with his analysis of Russian involvement in Central Asia and the impact of the February revolution.
Cantacuzène, Julia, My life here and there. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1921. 322pp.
Princess Cantacuzène, née Grant, also styled Countess Speranskaia (1876-1975), the granddaughter of U.S. president Ulysses Grant, married the Russian diplomat Prince Mikhail Cantacuzène (Kantakuzen) in 1899 and moved to Russia, where she was to remain until 1917. In this, the last of her three books to be published, she recalls her first years in Russia.
Cantacuzène, Julia, Revolutionary days: recollections of Romanoffs and Bolsheviki 1914-1917. London: Chapman & Hall, 1920. vi+411pp. [See Revolutionary days, including passages from My life here and there 1876-1917. Edited by Terence Emmons. Chicago: R.R. Donnelly & Sons, 1999. lx+442pp.]
Princess Cantacuzène in the first of her three books to be published traces her family’s fortunes from the beginning of WWI, in Petrograd, Kiev and the Crimea, to their escape to Finland in 1917.
Cantacuzène, Julia, Russian people: revolutionary recollections. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1920. 358pp.
Chapters on Kolchak and Denikin as well as vignettes of Russian life, first published in the Saturday Evening Post.
Urch, Reginald Oliver Gilling, “We generally shoot Englishmen”: an English schoolmaster’s five years of mild adventure in Moscow (1915-1920). London: Allen & Unwin, 1936. 300pp.
“Five years in Russia of a rather ordinary English family not connected with any official missions, consulates, or services, but sharing the lot of average families then living in Russia.” The Urches, husband, wife, and two children had apparently been for some time in Riga before being forced by war events to move to Moscow in the autumn of 1915. There Urch began to teach at the re-established Riga Polytechnic as lecturer in commerce and his wife established an English kindergarten until the Bolsheviks won the battle for Moscow (pp. 19-93). Thereafter it is a tale of Urch’s vicissitudes under the Soviets, including imprisonment in the Butyrskii prison.
Son of a missionary, Madagascar-born, Oxford-educated, Price (1880-1964), later professor of English at University of Michigan, was drafted into the German army while lecturing at Bonn in 1915. Captured by the Russians on the eastern front, he was marched to a POW camp near Stretensk in Siberia. Released following the February Revolution, he moved to Irkutsk, working as a tutor in a Russian family until he escaped in 1918 with the help of the British consul (pp. 94-243). His book consists of a series of articles he contributed to the China Illustrated Weekly between November 1918 and February 1919.
Fyfe, Henry Hamilton, My seven selves. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1935. 320pp.
The renowned Scottish newspaper editor and war correspondent (1869-1951) was sent from the Western front to Russia in 1915, and was eventually allowed to the Galician front the following year. In August 1916 he was ordered to Bucharest, from where he returned in December, reaching Petrograd on the 30th, the day after the murder of Rasputin, which he was the first British journalist to report (pp. 191-202, 210-13). Many of his (censored) articles from Russia appeared in such publications as the War Illustrated, but, sadly, his war articles and “a vast quantity of matter that could not be printed” have never been collected.
Pierce, Ruth, Trapped in “Black Russia”: letters June-November 1915. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1918. 150pp.
A series of letters that the American traveller Mrs Pierce sent to her parents from Kiev, where she stayed between 30 June and early November 1915. For six weeks in August-September she was under house arrest for alleged espionage. She witnessed the transportation of Galician Jews through Kiev to Siberia, visited a Jewish detention camp, and recorded scenes in the city as the Germans approached after the fall of Warsaw.
Cresson, William Penn, The Cossacks: their history and country. New York: Brentano’s, 1919. x+239pp.
One-time captain in the American Expeditionary Force and formerly secretary at the American embassy in Petrograd, Cresson (1873-1932) attempts to produce a “comprehensive study of Cossack life and history”, based in part on his travels through Cossack regions between 1915 and 1917 (see particularly pp. 196-239).
Pollock, John, War and revolution in Russia: sketches and studies. London: Constable & Co., 1918. xviii+280pp.
Sir John (1878-1963), 4th Baronet of Haddon and a former Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge, went to Poland in 1915 as a representative of the Great Britain to Poland Committee, set up to aid refugees during WWI. He subsequently became an International Commissioner with the Russian Red Cross. He was in Petrograd during both revolutions and visited Kiev, Saratov, Voronezh, and Ekaterinodar. He also acted as correspondent for the Manchester Guardian and other English newspapers and his book, completed in Russia in September 1917, largely comprises articles he sent to them.
Pollock, John, Time’s chariot. London: John Murray, 1950. xii+280pp.
In his memoirs Sir John recalls succinctly (pp. 213-35) the four years he spent in Russia from March 1915 to May 1919, the “red” months of which he described in his Bolshevik adventure (1919).
Sykes, Ella Constance, and Sykes, Percy, Through deserts and oases of Central Asia. London: Macmillan, 1920. xii+340pp.
In March 1915 Miss Sykes (d. 1939) accompanied her brother, Brigadier-General Sir Percy (1867-1945), to Kashgar in Chinese Turkestan, where he was to deputise for the British consul-general. They were obliged to travel via Scandinavia to Petrograd and then they took the train to Tashkent and proceeded by carriage to their destination (pp. 7-35). They later set out on a tour to the Russian Pamirs and the “roof of the world”, crossing into Russian territory on 18 June and returning in mid-July (pp. 129-47). Miss Sykes wrote all the initial chapters of travel and adventure which form part I; her brother contributed the (non-Russian) material on Chinese Turkestan in part II.
Dwinger, Edwin Erich, The army behind barbed wire: a Siberian diary. Translated by Ian F. D. Morrow. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd, 1930. 341pp.
German soldier, nationalist, and prolific author Dwinger (1898-1981) relates experiences as POW in Siberia between 1915 and 1918 and his enduring relationships and friendships with fellow POWs. Taken prisoner at Windau in Latvia, Dwinger spent much of 1915 recuperating in a Moscow hospital, before being sent in 1916 to Siberia, imprisoned in various camps until his eventual release and departure from Russia in late 1918.
Liddell, Robert Scotland, On the Russian front. London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent, 1916. x+273pp.
Liddell (1885-1972) arrived in Petrograd in the spring of 1915 and soon moved to Warsaw, where he served as a member of the Group of Polish Red Cross Volunteers with the Russian army. He also contributed articles to the Sphere as its special correspondent, writing “nearly every line to the accompaniment of guns”. He describes the Russian retreat through Poland in May-August, evincing great admiration for the ordinary Russian soldier. Preface dated March 1916 “with the active Russian army”.
Liddell, Robert Scotland, Actions and reactions in Russia. London: Chapman and Hall, 1917. viii+227pp.
“Russia to-day is not the Russia of two years ago. Russia has changed miraculously”, Liddell wrote in his sequel to On the Russian front. He had in the interim been to Romania and to the Caucasian front and became, he claimed, the only British subject in command of a Russian army unit. His narrative ranges widely over Russia, from Odessa and the Crimea to Georgia and Minsk.
Liddell, Robert Scotland, “Sestra” (Sister): sketches from the Russian front. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1917. viii+244pp.
The final contribution to an impressive trilogy. Fourteen sketches, several of which, including the title sketch, have as their heroines nurses who figured prominently in his earlier accounts.
Steveni, William Barnes, Petrograd past and present. London: Grant Richards, 1915. viii+319pp.
Steveni (see J111
), who arrived as a boy of sixteen at the end of the reign of Alexander II and lived seven years in Cronstadt before moving to the capital, produced one of the best, if little-known, books on the Russian capital with a particular emphasis on British presence and influence and a happy mixture of history, anecdote, and personal observation.
Templeton, Isabel Molison, The old lady in room 2. Bearsted, Kent: for the author, 1976. ii+184pp.
Mrs Templeton, née Young (1886-1976) sailed out to Archangel in January 1915 to join her husband, a Scottish engineer working for the Maikop Pipeline & Transport Co. in Ekaterinodar in the Kuban, where they were to live until April 1917, when worsening conditions forced them to leave, although her husband was subsequently detained in Russia until May 1918 (pp. 1-9, 47-97).
Washburn, Stanley, The Russian campaign. April to August, 1915, being the second volume of “Field notes from the Russian front.” London: Andrew Melrose, 1916. 348pp.
Washburn (see K154
) details fighting between the Russian and Austro-German armies in the early summer of 1915 and the decline in Russian fortunes. The dispatches alternate between the Warsaw and Galician fronts and include chapters on Eugene Hurd (an American doctor working for the Russian Red Cross), the German gas attacks, meetings with the Russian generals Ivanov and Brusilov.
Kohn, Hans, Living in a world revolution: my encounters with history. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1964. xxii+211pp.
The Czech Jewish philosopher and historian (1891-1971) recalls the years he spent as a POW in Russia during and after WWI. Taken prisoner on 21 March 1915 during the Carpathian campaign, he was to remain in Russia until 12 January 1920. Initially marched off to Lemberg, he was then sent to a camp in Samarkand, from which he escaped in February 1916. Recaptured a month later, he was moved to camps in Siberia, where he learnt Russian and came to admire his captors, before being freed in 1918 and starting his slow exit from Russia (pp. 88-99).
McCormick, Robert Rutherford, With the Russian army, being the experiences of a national guardsman. London: Macmillan, 1915. xvi+306pp.
Son of a former ambassador to Russia and a major in the First Cavalry of the Illinois National Guards, McCormick (1880-1955) arrived in Petrograd in April 1915 as foreign correspondent of Chicago Tribune, interviewing the tsar and foreign minister Sazonov, before leaving for Warsaw and the eastern front.
Balch, Emily G., Women at The Hague: the International Congress of Women and its results. By three delegates to the Congress from the United States [Jane Addams, Emily G. Balch, Alice Hamilton]. New York: Macmillan Co., 1915. 171pp.
Wellesley professor Balch (1867-1961) was a member of a delegation from the Congress assigned to Scandinavia and Russia. She arrived in Petrograd on 10 June 1915, interviewing during her two-week stay the Minister of Foreign Affairs Sazonov (pp. 103-04).
Simpson, James Young, The self-discovery of Russia. London: Constable and Company, 1916. viii+227pp.
Young, who had first visited Russia in 1896 (K27
) and was by now professor of natural science at his alma mater
Edinburgh, offers his views on a number of topics, including the prohibition of vodka, conditions on the Galician front, and religion, based on his observations and conversations with Russians in the summer of 1915.
Coxwell, Charles Fillingham, Through Russia in war-time. London: T.F. Unwin, 1917. 311pp.
Thwarted by the sinking of the Lusitania from sailing from New York to London, Coxwell (b. 1856) was redirected to Archangel in June 1915 and decided to seize the opportunity to tour Russia, visiting many towns and provinces in the south west Russia over the following eleven weeks. Returning to Petrograd in mid-August 1915, Coxwell, in later years a prolific translator from Russian literature, made an excursion into Lapland on his journey back to England.
[Stopford, Albert Henry], The Russian diary of an Englishman: Petrograd, 1915-1917. London: William Heinemann, 1919. xiv+228pp.
A member of the Irish aristocracy, Stopford had previously visited Petrograd in March 1914, but his book, comprising extracts from his diary and letters, covers the period from 18 July 1915 to 26 September 1917. His exact role and the nature of his “affairs” are unclear, although he was uncommonly well connected with the Russian elite, including the emperor, but particularly with the Grand Duchess Vladimir, and with the British embassy. He returned briefly to England in October 1916, but he travelled fairly extensively in Russia, visiting Mogilev, Moscow, the Crimea, and the Caucasus.
Martin, Alexander Gustav, Mother country, fatherland: the story of a British-born German soldier. London: Macmillan, 1936. xi+390pp.
Born in England to Anglo-German parents, Martin (1874 -1946) had been a cavalry officer in the Prussian army since 1890 when WWI began. After service in France, he was transferred to the Galician front and on 30 August 1915 was captured by the Russians. After eighteen months in captivity, mostly in a camp at Krasnoiarsk in Siberia, Martin was exchanged on medical grounds with a Russian officer and following a lengthy stay in Petrograd, was eventually repatriated in March 1917 (pp. 190-294).
Grow, Malcolm Cummings, Surgeon Grow: an American in the Russian fighting. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co., 1918. xvi+304pp.
Grow (1887-1960) was a lieutenant-colonel in the Imperial Russian Army Medical Corps during WWI and finished his career as the first surgeon-general of the U.S. air force. Arriving in Petrograd in September 1915, he was soon sent to the front. In his book he describes his activities at the front during two periods: September 1915 to Easter 1916 and June 1916 to March 1917. He met the tsar at a staff dinner and he was awarded the cross of St George. He was in Petrograd in mid-1917, noting the increasing poverty and unrest, and left Russia after the October revolution to join the American army.
Thurstan, Violetta, The people who run, being the tragedy of the refugees in Russia. London and New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1916. x+175p.
In her second book Thurstan (see K317
) describes the demographics, conditions, and first-hand experiences of Polish, Baltic, Rumanian, and Russian refugees fleeing the eastern front during the summer and autumn of 1915. Arriving in Petrograd from Newcastle in December 1915, she spent Christmas with refugee children in Gatchina and Petrograd before travelling to Moscow. She went on to Kiev and Kazan to observe, and report in glowing terms, the government response to the refugee problem.
Gorer, Geoffrey, and Rickman, John, The people of Great Russia: a psychological study. London: Cresset Press, 1949. iv+236pp.
An attempt to understand the people of Russia in terms of their “principal motives” and “typical behaviour”. It is Rickman, a country doctor with the Friends’ War Victims Relief Unit between 1916 and 1918, who provided the on-the-spot experience of life in Russian villages in his ‘Russian Camera Obscura. Ten Sketches of Russian Peasant Life (1916-1918)’ (pp. 23-89).
Bury, Herbert, Here and there in the war area. London: A.R. Mowbray & Co., 1916. xii+325pp.
Bishop Bury (see K252
) paid “a particularly inspiring visit to Russia” in the first months of 1916, arriving from Scandinavia. He was mainly in St Petersburg and in Moscow, travelling there with Sir George Buchanan, who was to receive the freedom of the city, and everywhere records Russian enthusiasm for Britain (pp. 238-325). Bury was later to make and describe visits to Soviet Russia in the 1920s in his Russia from within
Hoare, Samuel John Gurney, The fourth seal: the end of a Russian chapter. London: William Heinemann, 1930. iii+377pp.
Sir Samuel, Viscount Templeton (1880-1959), having learnt Russian, was sent to Petrograd by British intelligence in March 1916 to work with the Russian general staff. He eventually became head of the British military mission and remained, together with his wife Lady Maud Lygon, in Russia until March 1917 when his services were required in Rome. Interesting pen-portraits of many prominent Russian and British figures in the Russian capital (pp. 34-359).
Graham, Stephen, Russia in 1916. London: Cassell & Co., 1917. vii+179pp.
Graham’s last book on pre-Revolutionary Russia is essentially a series of essays, reflecting his journey to Ekaterina and Archangel and on to Moscow, followed by travels into central Russia down as far as the Caucasus and return to England in October 1916 via Petrograd. A reprise of his old themes, offered as “my little book of the hour” to keep in touch with our allies.
Francis, David Rowland, Russia from the American embassy, April, 1916 – November, 1918. New York: Charles Scribner, 1922. xiii+349pp.
Appointed American ambassador to Russia by President Woodrow Wilson, the democrat politician Francis (1850-1927) was in Petrograd throughout the revolutionary period and provides a chronological account of events, based on his letters, diary, and official papers.
Francis, David Rowland, Dollars and diplomacy: ambassador David Rowland Francis and the fall of tsarism, 1916-1917. Edited by Jamie H. Cockfield. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1981. x+149pp.
Eighty-one of Francis’s letters to friends and family from April 1916 to March 1917. See also the microfilmed Russia in transition: the diplomatic papers of David. R. Francis, U.S. ambassador to Russia, 1916-1918. Edited by Robert Chadwell Williams and Robert Lester. Frederick, Maryland: University Publications of America, 1986.
Ruhl, Arthur, White nights and other Russian impressions: With illustrations from photographs. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1917. x+248pp.
American journalist and travel writer (b. 1876) spent the summer of 1916 in Russia, visiting Petrograd and Kiev, then the front near Minsk, before travelling down the Volga to Astrakhan. An interesting chapter is devoted to his attending a performance of Chekhov’s Three Sisters at the Moscow Art Theatre that gave him insight into the Russian character.
Barber, Margaret H., A British nurse in Bolshevik Russia. London: A.C. Fifield, 1920. 64pp.
Daughter of an Anglican clergyman, Barber came to Russia as a Red Cross nurse during WWI and lived and worked in hospitals in a number of Russian cities from Petrograd to Astrakhan between April 1916 and December 1919.
Power, Rhoda, Under Cossack and Bolshevik. London: Methuen & Co., 1919. iv+279pp.
Power (1890-1957), later known as a broadcaster and children’s author, sailed from Newcastle for Petrograd via Scandinavia in 1916 to work as governess to the daughter of a Russian businessman in Rostov-on-Don. She describes life there and a trip in autumn 1917 to Odessa, where hostile attitudes towards her employers induced them to flee, leaving Rhoda behind. She witnessed fighting between the Red Guards and Cossack forces, the subsequent Cossack victory and life under their rule during the winter of 1917-18, the following Bolshevik victory in the spring of 1918, and their subsequent retreat in the face of advancing White Army. Power finally flees to Murmansk and leaves for England on a refugee boat.
Child, Richard Washburn, Potential Russia. London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1916. vi+221pp.
Massachusetts lawyer and journalist, later U.S. ambassador to Italy and apologist of fascism, Child (1881-1935) was sent to Russia early in 1916 by Collier’s Weekly, in which and in other journals he first published many of the sketches gathered together for his book. He sought to assess the effect of the war on the Russian people and the economy and he ended by calling for greater American investment in “an empire of contradictions” but of great potential.
Beable, William Henry, Commercial Russia. London: Constable, 1918. 263pp.
Beable organized and led the Anglo-Russian Trade Commission, visiting Russia between April and October 1916 and during the spring of 1917. He travelled widely throughout western Russia, seeking to demonstrate the potential opportunities available to English manufacturers in Russia.
Stanford Doreen, Sun and snow: a Siberian adventure. London: Longmans, 1963. 158pp.
In May 1916 the twenty-year-old Doreen left England to join her parents in Siberia, where her father, a mining engineer, had worked for the previous eight years. Met in Petrograd by her parents, she travelled with them by train to Krasnoiarsk, by steamer along the Enisei, then by tarantas to their final destination of Ulen and its copper mine. A year later, they were forced to move and her father found employment until June 1919 at a gold mine in Olkhovskii beyond Minusinsk. They were eventually able to escape from Vladivostok in May 1920.
Heald, Edward Thornton, Witness to revolution: letters from Russia 1916-1919. Edited by James B. Gidney. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press, 1972. xx+367pp.
Informal family letters and diary entries written by Heald (1885-1967), who arrived in Petrograd in late September 1916 as field secretary of the American YMCA for its prisoner of war relief programme. He remained in Petrograd until July 1917, when he was assigned to the Russian army in Minsk, which the German advance forced him to leave for Kiev in September. He witnessed the February revolution in Petrograd and the October in Kiev, where he described the battles between Ukrainian nationalists and Bolsheviks for control of the city. He was in Siberia during the first few months of the Russian Civil War and was in Vladivostok when the American Expeditionary Force landed.
Washburn, Stanley, The Russian offensive. Being the third volume of “Field notes from the Russian front,” embracing the period from June 15 to September 1, 1916. London: Constable, 1917. 193pp.
In his final volume (see K313
) Washburn covers the successful Russian offensive that culminated in the taking of the town of Brody during the summer of 1916.
Boleslavski, Richard, and Woodward, Helen, Way of the Lancer. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1932. 316pp.
Autobiographical account of Boleslavski’s (1887-1937) experience fighting with a Polish volunteer lancer regiment within the Russian army. The account describes his experiences of life on the eastern front from autumn 1916 onwards, and charts the breakdown of discipline within the Russian army following the February Revolution. Following Nicholas II’s abdication, Boleslavski’s regiment withdraws from the Russian army and attempts to make its way back to Poland.
Inglis, Elsie Maud, Dr Elsie Inglis. By Lady Frances Balfour: London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1918. x+253pp.
The famed Scottish suffragette and doctor (1864-1917), after serving in Serbia during the first years of WWI, left with her seventy-six-strong nursing unit of the Scottish Women’s Hospitals for Russia in September 1916. From Archangel they travelled via Moscow south to Odessa, where they were to remain until the following October. They left Archangel on the return journey on 18 November 1917; but Dr Inglis died on 27 November, the day after the ship reached Newcastle. Letters to her family and friends (pp. 197-233).
Inglis, Elsie Maud, Between the lines: letters and diaries from Elsie Inglis’s Russian unit. Arranged and edited by Audrey Fawcett Cahill. Edinburgh: Pentland Press, 1999. x+372pp.
The “choral narrative” the editor promised in her earlier book.
Fawcett, Margaret, The First World War papers of Margaret Fawcett: letters and diaries from Russia and Roumania 1916-1917. Edited and with an introduction by Audrey Fawcett Cahill. Pietermaritzburg: Wyllie Desktop Publishing, 1993. viii+144pp.
The specific Russian element in the two diaries and a letter-book of Margaret Fawcett (b. 1892), an orderly in Dr Inglis’s unit, is the initial journey from Archangel to Odessa in September 1916 and the return journey a year later (pp. 28-32, 38-40, 52-55, 62-67, 78-80, 104-08, 121-22).
Colquhoun, James, Adventures in red Russia from the Black Sea to the White Sea. London: John Murray, 1926. viii+193pp. [Printed for private circulation.]
Chairman of the Caucasus Copper Company and with previous visits to Russia, the Scottish engineer (b. c.1858) arrived in Petrograd on 13 October 1916 en route for Tiflis. His final destination was Borchka near the Turkish border, where he was to supervise the reconstruction of the metallurgical plant, damaged by Turkish forces. He was subsequently caught up in the revolutionary events of 1917 and continuing incursions by the Turks. He eventually made his escape through Georgia and reached Tsaritsyn, whence he went by steamer to Nizhnii Novgorod. He made his way to Murmansk and sailed for England on 16 June 1918.
Austin, Walter, A war zone gadabout: being an authentic account of four trips to the fighting nations during 1914, ’15, ’16. Boston: R.H. Hinkley Co., 1917. 161pp.
A “mere gadabout tourist” and correspondent for the Massachusetts weekly Dedham Transcript, Austin arrived in Petrograd on 11 November 1916, leaving three weeks later on 1 December after a round trip to Moscow. He attended a meeting of the Duma and heard Sturmer and Miliukov speak (pp. 112-54).
Dosch-Fleurot, Arno Walter, Through war to revolution, being the experiences of a newspaper correspondent in war and revolution, 1914-1920. London: John Lane, 1931. xii+242pp.
Dosch-Fleurot (1879-1951), correspondent of the New York World, was sent from the western front to Petrograd in November 1916 and was soon caught up by the revolutionary events of 1917. He was to remain until the end of 1918, when he escaped via Finland (pp. 97-215).
Harper, Florence MacLeod, Runaway Russia. New York: Century Co., 1918. ix+321pp.
Harper left Vancouver in December 1916 to spend nine months in Russia as staff war correspondent of Leslie’s Weekly
, reaching Petrograd via the Trans-Siberian from Kharbin. Working with the magazine’s photographer Donald Thompson (see K372
), she was witness to the street violence during the February Revolution. In April she travelled to the eastern front to work as a surgical nurse at a Red Cross field hospital. Back in the capital in June 1917, she met members of the Women’s Battalion of Death and visited Cronstadt, before departing for Finland in early September.
Thompson, Donald C., Donald Thompson in Russia. New York: Century Co., 1918. xix+353pp.
American photographer Donald Thompson (b. 1895), who had previously been in Russia in March-May 1915, returned to work with Florence Harper for Leslie’s Weekly, arriving via the Trans-Siberian in Petrograd on 17 February 1917. In a series of letters to his wife and in photographs, he captured the events through the spring and summer of 1917 not only in the capital but also at the Galician front and in Moscow, before leaving in August 1917 via the Manchurian border.
Thompson, Donald C. and Harper, Florence Macleod, From Czar to Kaiser: the betrayal of Russia. Garden City, New York: Doubleday, Page & Co., 1918. viii+200pp.
The work is a collection of extraordinary photographs taken by Thompson and arranged thematically: before the revolution, during the February revolution in Petrograd, the May parades and labour riots in Petrograd, hospital conditions on the eastern front, the women’s battalion, the July riots in Petrograd, from the front line and riots by the Bolsheviks during the autumn. Harper provides brief descriptions of each photograph.
Petersson, C.E.W., How to do business with Russia: hints and advice to business men dealing with Russia. With notes and additional chapters by W. Barnes Steveni and a foreword by Charles E. Musgrave. London: Sir Isaac Pitman & Sons., 1917. xviii+202pp.
Designed as a sort of businessman’s Baedeker to encourage trade with Russia and written by an experienced merchant operating in Riga and St Petersburg, it fell foul of revolutionary events immediately on publication. The preface by the secretary of the London chamber of commerce is dated February 1917 and the preface written by long-standing Petersburg resident Steveni is dated April 1917, acknowledging that the February revolution would modify “mostly for the best” conditions – but October rendered it an historical document with fascinating information about what was.
Souiny-Seydlitz, Leonie Ida Philipovna, Russia of yesterday and to-morrow. New York: The Century Co., 1917. 382pp.
Following her marriage to Baron Seidlits, the Czech-born author (b. 1865) moved to Russia, where she lived for many years until emigrating to the USA in 1914. The most interesting chapters in her attempt to give a wide-reaching survey are her comparison of Russia and America (pp. 220-55) and ‘Russian art, dramatic literature and music’, where she discusses, among other topics, the Moscow Arts Theatre and Stanislaslavskii (pp. 256-85). Published in June 1917, the book finishes with guarded optimism after the events of February.
Wilson, Henry Hughes, Field-Marshall Sir Henry Wilson: his life and diaries. By Major-General Sir C.E. Callwell. With a preface by Marshal Foch. London: Cassell and Co., 1927. 2 vols.
Wilson (1864-1922), director of British military operations since 1910, after visiting Paris and Berlin, paid a brief first visit to St Petersburg, Moscow, and Kiev in September 1912 (vol. I, p. 117). In January 1917 he headed the joint allied mission to Russia (a party of some fifty British, French and Italian representatives) that sailed on the Kildonan Castle for the White Sea. He arrived in Petrograd on 29 January, proceeded to the front at Pskov on 8 February, and journeyed on to Moscow via Riga and Minsk. After further talks in Petrograd, he sailed from Russia on 25 February (vol. I, pp. 312-22).
De Windt’s final summing-up of his experiences of Russia, where he covered some 50,000 miles and spent some four years between 1887 and the time of writing (preface dated April 1917). Includes more on European Russia than previously (including Petrograd, which he disliked) but also covers Finland, Ukraine, the Crimea, the Caucasus, Siberia and central Asia. (See J53
for full listing of other entries.)
Hall, Bert, One man’s war: the story of the Lafayette escadrille. Edited by John Jacob Niles. London: John Hamilton, 1929. 352pp.
Hall, a “seasoned Soldier of Fortune”, was a member of an American volunteer squadron within the French air service that arrived in Russia on 12 January 1917 to aid the Russian air service. He witnessed the major events of the revolutions before escaping via the Trans-Siberian to China at the end of the year (pp. 226-76).
Houghteling, James Lawrence, Jr., A diary of the Russian revolution. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1918. xxii+195pp.
Houghteling (1883-1937), an attaché in the American embassy in Petrograd from 19 January 1917, provides a diary of events leading up to and during the February revolution in the capital and in Moscow. He left Petrograd for Siberia on 3 April.
Price, Morgan Philips, My reminiscences of the Russian revolution. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1921. 402pp.
Price’s third book (see K219
) was dedicated to those in Britain who, like himself, “defended the Soviet republic of Russia against the onslaughts of the international bondholders”. He offers “a consecutive account”, relying on his own experiences and diaries for the first one and a half years of the revolution and devoting only the last two chapters to developments in the period after he left Russia in 1919.
Price, Morgan Philips, My three revolutions. London: George Allen & Unwin, 1969. 310pp.
The three revolutions were the Russian, the German, and the British, and of these the Russian had a major impact “in the most critical period of my life” and “greatly influenced my critical thinking for a time”. Writing in his eighties, Price reviews all his visits to Russia between 1908 and 1917 (pp. 21-94).
Price, Morgan Philips, Dispatches from the revolution: Russia 1916-18. Edited by Tania Rose. Foreword by Eric Hobsbawn. London: Pluto Press, 1997. xiv+181pp.
A skilfully edited “selection of Price’s unpublished memoranda, letters to his family, and some of his published articles [from the Manchester Guardian] with a bearing on the revolutions which reflect not only the events as they unfolded but also his own reactions to them” represents a significant addition to Price’s four other published books on Russia. The letters and articles were written from Tiflis, Kutais, Rostov-on-Don, Samara, Petrograd, and Moscow (pp. 18-154).
Brennan, Hugh, Sidelights on Russia. London: David Nutt, 1918. 112pp.
Lecturer in Russian at the University of Glasgow, Brennan refers to an earlier visit to the south of Russia c.1908. It is, however, the events of 1917 (pre-October), when he was in Petrograd, that are the centre of attention as he assesses the British – and British colony’s – position in the light of revolutionary events, stressing the need to study the language and seize business opportunities in the context of persisting hopes for the emergence of “a new, great, and democratic Russia”.
Jones, Stinton, Russia in revolution, being the experiences of an Englishman in Petrograd during the upheaval. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1917. xvi+279pp.
The British engineer arrived in Moscow for the first time in November 1905, but remained for twelve years, married a Russian, travelled extensively throughout Russia, and viewed the February revolution from his office on Nevskii Prospect and on the streets. He provides a graphic account of the five days from 10 to 14 March.
Pollock, John, The Bolshevik adventure. London: Constable & Co., 1919. 276pp.
The second instalment of Pollock’s adventures in Russia (see K331
), here specifically the period of the February and October revolutions and ending with his escape.
Rivet, Charles, The last of the Romanovs. Translated, with an introduction by Hardress O’Grady. London: Constable and Company, 1918. 246pp.
Rivet (b. 1881), who had been in Russia since 1901, firstly as a university teacher and then as Petrograd correspondent of the Paris Le Temps, provides a sympathetic analysis of the February revolution, presented in three parts ‘Unknown Russia’, ‘The Revolution’ and ‘France and Germany’.
Maugham, William Somerset, A writer’s notebook. London: William Heinemann, 1949. xvi+349pp.
Maugham (1874-1965) was in Petrograd between the February and October revolutions, operating as a British “secret agent”, such as he was later mockingly to portray in his novel Ashenden (1928). Under the heading ‘1917’ his notebook contains his jottings on Russian literature and Dostoevskii in particular, on the Russian character and such personalities as Kerenskii and Savinkov, and on Nevskii Prospekt and the Alexander Nevskii lavra (pp. 139-79).
De Robien, Louis, The diary of a diplomat in Russia, 1917-1918. Translated from the French by Camilla Sykes. London: Michael Joseph, 1969. 319pp.
Comte Louis (1888-1958) was attached to the French embassy in St Petersburg from 1914 but it was only at the beginning of March 1917 that he began to record daily events in the capital. His diary is a fascinating and opinionated record of events and personalities not only in the capital but also, from March 1918, in Helsingfors and Vologda, to where the embassy was relocated, and from Archangel, whence he and his wife left in December 1919 for Paris.
Anet, Claude [pseudonym of Schopher, Jean], Through the Russian revolution: notes of an eye-witness, from 12th March-30th May. London: Hutchinson, 1917. 253pp. illus.
Schopher (see K141
) returned to Russia as the correspondent of the Petit Parisien
and sent off to Paris vivid daily accounts of the events he witnessed in Petrograd over a twelve-week period, beginning in fact on 7 March 1917. This is a translation of the first of the four volumes of the French original, covering a longer period.
Last edited on 27 February 2018, at 01:55
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