continent on Earth, mainly on the Earth's northeastern quadrant Asia
is the world's largest continent by land area and population, home to 4.4 billion people, more than half of the world's population.
The continent is too massive and diverse to conceptualize as a single digestible travel "destination". Travel options range widely, from the desert ruins and modern mega-malls of the Middle East
to the magnificent ancient monuments and giant mountains in South Asia
, from the beach bungalows and jungle treks of Southeast Asia
to the mega-cities and technology capitals of East Asia
Asia gets a tremendous number of travellers, both for tourism and business. Many of the world's most-visited cities are in Asia, including Bangkok
, Hong Kong
, Kuala Lumpur
, and Tokyo
Asia offers intriguing destinations for every type of traveller, be they a novice or an experienced road-warrior. Easier options include modern, prosperous countries like Japan
and the East Asian Tigers of Singapore
, Hong Kong
and South Korea
, where people enjoy very high standards of living. There are also poor Asian countries with significant levels of malnutrition, such as Cambodia
and East Timor
. Some countries are well-established on the budget tourist trail, including Thailand
, but there are other countries that strictly restrict tourism to certain regions or types of tourism, such as Bhutan
and the Maldives
. North Korea
, easily the world's most isolated and repressive states, take it even further, with constantly-watched group tours dedicated to their "great leaders". Of course, there are also many countries lying somewhere in the middle, which is where one might place the emerging powerhouses of China
; those huge, populous lands make wonderful travel destinations in themselves due to their long history, traditions and diversity.
Click a region to explore!
The traditional Asia–Europe border through Russia is the Ural Mountains and the Ural River. For cultural and historical reasons, some parts of the Caucasus are considered European. The Bosphorus bisecting Istanbul
is also regarded as the border between Asia and Europe. Sinai
is geographically in Asia but politically a part of Egypt. And at the other end of Asia, the continental plate of Australia also includes parts of Indonesia
, which is generally counted as part of Southeast Asia
. Similarly, the island of Cyprus
is geographically part of Asia, but usually considered part of Europe.
1Bangkok—Thailand's bustling, cosmopolitan capital with temples, nightlife and fervour
2Beijing—capital of the People's Republic of China with Tiananmen Square, the Forbidden City, and many cultural sights.
3Dubai—most modern and progressive Emirate in the UAE, developing at an unbelievable pace
4Hong Kong—a truly world-class metropolis with a unique mixed Chinese and British heritage
5Jerusalem—containing the UNESCO World Heritage Site of the Old City, this city is sacred to Jews, Christians and Muslims
6Mumbai—most diverse, busy and cosmopolitan city of India, known for its nightlife and well known as the home of the entertainment industry.
7Seoul—beautiful palaces, great food and a hopping nightlife, Seoul is a frenetic way to experience the Asia of old and new
8Singapore—modern, affluent city-state with a medley of Chinese, Indian, Malay and British influences
9Tokyo—the world's largest city brings a huge, wealthy and fascinating metropolis with high-tech visions of the future side by side with glimpses of old Japan
These are some of the largest and most famous destinations apart from major cities.
1Angkor Archaeological Park—magnificent remains of several capitals of the Khmer Empire
2Bali—unique Hindu culture, beaches and mountains on the Island of the Gods
3Dead Sea—stay afloat in this extremely salty lake
4Great Wall of China—several thousand kilometers long, its condition ranges from excellent to ruined
5Lake Baikal—the biggest and deepest freshwater lake in the world, containing over one fifth of the world's supply
6Mount Everest—the world's tallest mountain straddling the border of Tibet and Nepal
7Petra—ancient city carved out of sandstone and one of the new 7 Wonders
8Registan—the impressive historic heart of Samarkand, a major trade city on the Silk Road
9Taj Mahal—the incomparable marble tomb in Agra
Asia is the birthplace of eleven major religions
: namely, Hinduism
, Shintoism, Taoism, Jainism and the Bahá'í Faith, not to mention countless other tribal faiths. It is also home to the world's fastest growing cities, a wide range of exotic cuisines, the world's highest mountain ranges and some of the world's most ancient cultures.
Asia is by far the largest continent and as such is extremely varied geographically. Asia contains virtually every possible climate and terrain from the frozen plains of Siberia to the jungles of Indonesia to the deserts of Arabia.
All summits above 7,000 m, including the pictured Mt Everest, are in Asia
Asia's (and the world's) highest point is Mount Everest, in the Himalayas
along the border of Tibet
, which rises to 8,848 m (29,029 ft) above sea level. Its lowest point is the Dead Sea
, located at the meeting points of Israel
, whose surface is 400 m (1,300 ft) below sea level. Asia's longest river is the Yangtze
, which runs 6,300 km (3,900 mi) through China
all the way from the high Tibetan Plateau to Shanghai
. Its largest lake is the 386,400 km² (149,200 square mile) Caspian Sea, which is surrounded by several Central Asian nations. Asia is bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the east, by Australia
to the southeast, and by the Indian Ocean to the south. It is bordered by the Red Sea to the southwest, by Europe
and the Urals to the west, and by the Arctic Ocean to the north.
East Asia (China, Japan, Korea) is relatively temperate with distinct seasonal differences. South and South East Asia (Thailand, Indonesia, India, Burma etc.) has a monsoon climate. Generally hot all year round but with a wet and dry season. Most of Asia's rainforests and beaches are to be found here. West Asia (Iran, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon etc.) is hot and often dry. Winters can be mild but summer can be extremely hot. Central and north Asia have continental climate with the coldest winters outside Antarctica and hot summers; in some places the difference between all-time highs and lows can be over 100°C.
The history of Asia is long, complex and diverse enough that some universities have whole departments devoted to it and a full account would be a multi-volume work. Even a reasonable summary would be much more than a travel guide could sensibly attempt.
Most of our country articles, and some region or city articles, include summaries of the relevant history. Consult those for basic information, or see Wikipedia, other sites, or a library for more detail. Most Wikivoyage articles include a link to the corresponding Wikipedia article; it is found in the menu to the left of the text.
Also, some articles here cover historically important things in Asia:
- Asian empires: Ancient Mesopotamia, the Persian Empire, Alexander the Great, the Ottoman Empire, the Mughal Empire, the Chinese Empire, the Mongol Empire, pre-modern Korea, and pre-modern Japan
- Colonial empires: British Raj, Russian Empire
- Routes: Silk Road, On the trail of Marco Polo, On the trail of Kipling's Kim, and Istanbul to New Delhi over land
- 20th century: Soviet Union, Chinese Revolutions and Pacific War
- Archaeological sites, Historical travel, Architecture, and Old towns
Singapore has four official languages, written in three different scripts
See the general Talk article for a more detailed discussion
English proficiency varies widely between countries and regions. English is the main working language in Singapore
, and widely spoken as a second language by educated people in many former British and American colonies such as Malaysia
, the Philippines
, Hong Kong
, most of South Asia
, the small Arab states of the Gulf
. Elsewhere, English proficiency is rudimentary at best. Refer to the guide for individual countries for how well you are likely to fare.
It is not possible to list all the languages and dialects you may encounter throughout Asia. We can however detail the major groups you are likely to encounter:
- Turkic - Turkish, Azerbaijani, Uyghur, Turkmen, Kazakh, Kyrgyz, Uzbek and several local languages throughout Siberia
- Semitic - Arabic is spoken in Arab countries throughout the Middle East, and Hebrew is spoken in Israel.
- Indo-European - a huge group that includes most of the languages of Europe plus some in Asia
- Iranian - Persian, Pashto, Tajik, and Kurdish are widely spoken in the Middle East and Central Asia.
- Indo-Aryan - Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Punjabi, Marathi, Gujarati, Sinhala, Sindhi and Nepali are found through much of the Indian sub-continent.
- Armenian is the official language of Armenia, and also spoken by the ethnic Armenian minorities in neighbouring countries such as Turkey, Iran, Iraq and Russia.
- Russian, spoken in Asiatic Russia and serving as a lingua franca in much of the Caucasus and Central Asia. Also the most widely spoken foreign language in Mongolia
- Portuguese is an official language in Macau and East Timor, where it is spoken by a significant minority. It is also spoken by a small, mainly upper class, community in Goa, while a Portuguese-based creole is spoken by the Portuguese Eurasian community in Malacca.
- Dravidian - A distinct language group of South Indian languages including Tamil, Kannada, Malayalam and Telugu. These are completely unrelated to the north Indian languages such as Hindi and Urdu, though they contain a number of loan words from Sanskrit.
- Sino-Tibetan - The Chinese languages (Mandarin, Cantonese, Minnan etc.), Burmese, Tibetan and Dzongkha, as well as some regional languages in North-Eastern India.
- Tai–Kadai - Thai and Lao are spoken in Thailand and Laos respectively. Other languages in this family are spoken by ethnic minorities in Myanmar and China.
- Austroasiatic - Vietnamese and Khmer are spoken in Vietnam and Cambodia respectively. Other languages in this family are spoken by ethnic minorities in Myanmar, Thailand and China.
- Austronesian - Malay and Indonesian are mostly mutually intelligible; most other local languages in Malaysia and Indonesia such as Javanese, Sundanese, Balinese, Iban and Kadazan are not mutually intelligible, but also belong to the same language family. The languages of the Philippines — the most important are Tagalog and Cebuano, but several others are also in this group. Tetum, the main language spoken in East Timor, also falls in this family. Other Austronesian languages are spoken in Madagascar, throughout the Pacific islands, and by the Taiwanese Aboriginal people.
Asia's busiest airports include Hong Kong
), Kuala Lumpur
, HND IATA
) and Jakarta
). If you're heading to anywhere in Asia, chances are that you'll pass through at least one of these airports whether in transit or as a final stop. Fortunately for those with long transit times, they are some of the best equipped airports in the world, known for their efficient service and ample distractions. Additionally, Shanghai
), New Delhi
) and Chennai
) are major hubs for travel to China and the Indian sub-continent. For the Middle East, Doha
) and Abu Dhabi
) also have reasonably good connections.
If you are coming to Asia by train, you'll likely be coming in through Russia
, although other options may exist. For an interesting experience, try the Trans-Siberian Railway
, or alternatively some of the lines from Moscow to Central Asia.
Asian ports are cruise destinations, and various companies such as Royal Caribbean
run cruises from Australia
, while Holland America
travels across the Pacific from North America
. Freighter travel
is another option, including if you wish to travel to ports in the Asian part of Mediterranean. Coming from Africa sea piracy
is a threat to take seriously. Piracy in the Strait of Malacca has declined, but may still be relevant.
As the Bosporus is considered to be the boundary between Europe and Asia, one of the various ferries in Istanbul can also get you into Asia.
There is ferry access from Asia to Africa and reverse via Jordan and Egypt. As of 2019 Ferries still connect African Egypt with Asia via ABMarine. However you will not be permitted to leave Sinai into the rest of Africa unless you take the Nuweiba, Egypt ferry from Aqaba, Jordan. Leaving Asia to Africa via Israel, will cause you to not be able to leave Sinai into the rest of Africa as you can not get permission to go further into Africa when using the Israeli borders or even the Taba, Egypt port as well. The Nuweiba ferry is the only way to go if you want to travel via ferry and land to Africa. If you enter Asia this route, several nationalities can enter visa-free as long as you exit Jordan via the same city within 30 days because of the AZEA Trade Agreement.
Some cities, including Yekaterinburg
are built across what is commonly considered the dividing line between Europe and Asia and you can comfortably walk across that line if you are in the city already.
Ferry across the Godavari river in India
There are highly developed train networks in India
, South Korea
, as well as less developed services throughout South East Asia
. Most of these countries, but especially China have also been investing a lot in high speed rail
, and even for longer distances trains might be a worthwhile option not only in terms of views and comfort but also in terms of price and speed, especially if you figure in the time and money saved while you sleep on sleeper services. In Russia and India, big parts of the country are mostly served by slow rail and it is a superb way to get into contact with locals (bring a phrasebook) or just see the country pass by the window. China and Japan are expanding their high speed networks, with China even planning to build international links to South East Asia and possibly North or South Korea. South Korea's
relatively young network of high speed lines is also planned to expand within the next decades, however due to the political situation, international links are unlikely in the immediate future.
Travel by bus is an option for the budget conscious traveler in most Asian countries, and often a good way to come into contact with locals. Quality of services ranges wildly from luxurious buses on par with or even more comfortable and faster than some trains to beat up old school buses where you might conceivable actually sit next to a live chicken. (Hence their nickname "chicken bus")
As Asia has a high population density in many places and new road construction has not always kept up with growing traffic, congestion is a major problem, especially in urban centers. That being said a car is often a good and sometimes the only way to explore more remote areas. Keep in mind that bringing a car might necessitate a number of forms and permits; you will probably need an international driving permit
and for some countries a Carnet de Passages
for the vehicle.
(excluding Macau and Hong Kong) does not accept international drivers licenses
. If you want to go to or through China by car, you need to either obtain a local drivers license or hire a driver; see Driving in China
Many places have taxis, many of the major cities have good Urban rail
or bus systems, it is possible to walk or bike in some places, and some travellers will get around mainly on tour buses. While Japan has had world class (if expensive) urban rail for decades, China but also some more unlikely countries have followed suit and are still expanding and improving vast light and heavy rail networks. Where those exist they are usually the best option for tourists and locals alike.
However in many places other options are available as well, and often these are what the locals mainly use. If "When in Rome, do as the Romans do" is part of your travel philosophy, then you should definitely consider these. In much of Asia there are various sorts of truck or van modified to carry passengers: jeepneys
and UV Express
in the Philippines, songthaew
in Thailand, or similar vehicles elsewhere. In many places there are also pedal-powered or motorcycle-based tricycles, see Thailand#Tuk-tuk
Some areas also have motorcycle taxis (habal-habal in Filipino). These are too risky and uncomfortable for many travellers, but some like them.
While all continents have a huge number of things to see, what sets Asia is apart is the incredible variety of things to see
. From the desolate Siberian
tundra and taiga in the far north to colorful Indian
street scenes, from ruins along the Silk Road
to glitzy, futuristic metropolises and from the camels in the Arabian
Desert to the Komodo
dragons roaming the jungles of Flores
, it is safe to say that Asia has something for everyone.
Stretching from the Arctic all the way beyond the Equator, Asia is home to virtually every kind of climate and ecosystem that exists in the world
and a corresponding number of different plants and animals. Almost all parts of Asia feature iconic animals, such as pandas, brown bears, tigers, monkeys, elephants, crocodiles, camels, and birds – though many of them are threatened in the wild. While north and central Asia is part of the palearctic region
, south and southeast Asia makes up the Indomalayan region
. There is also no lack of amazing landscapes
either. Vast boreal forests cover the northern part of the continent interspersed by some of the longest rivers in the world. Further south, Asia is dominated by an enormous system of mountain chains reaching from the highlands of Turkey
and Central Asia
where it forks into a northern section including the Altai
mountains and continuing all the way through the Russian Far East
, and into a more southerly section including Himalayas
, which feature the world's highest summits, and then the highlands of Southeast Asia. Many mountains in the easternmost parts of the continent are volcanic
, and Indonesia
are indeed great destinations for volcanic tourism. Central Asia features steppe, which turns into desert when traveling south, and if you've always wanted to experience a desert environment
, the Middle East is definitely a good choice. Another large desert is the Gobi
at the borders of Mongolia
and China. Finally, tropical Asia covering a part of East and most of South
and Southeast Asia
, where not cultivated or urbanized, is dominated by various kinds of tropical forests and thousands of beaches ranging from secluded paradise islands like the Maldives
to some of the world's most popular beach resorts in Thailand
Home to more than half of the world's population, the birthplace of all major world religions
and using all the most widespread writing systems in the world, the different peoples and cultures
you may encounter on this continent are likely even more varied than the landscapes. Almost all regions of Asia have ruins of some of the oldest civilizations
in the world, often stretching back several millennia. The Holy Land
of the Abrahamic religions can be found in the Middle East. Similarly, the Indian subcontinent is the wellspring of Hinduism
and Jainism, and East Asia of Confucianism, Taoism and Shinto. Asia also bears witness to the spread of the great religions in the form of amazing religious architecture
, including the ancient tombs and houses of worship in Angkor Wat
, the Taj Mahal
and countless thousands of others. There are also other kinds of historical sites such as the Great Wall
and the royal and imperial palaces of both present and past dynasties. Even in the latter case the royal traditions may be experienced as in the royal change of guards at the Gyeongbokgung Palace in Seoul
The ruins of St. Paul's Church in Macau
, which shows the contrast between colonial architecture and the rapid development occurring in much of Asia.
Colonial influences aren't as prominent as in Africa, the Americas or Oceania, but this doesn't mean that they aren't there. Virtually all of South and Southeast Asia were for centuries ruled by various European empires who introduced things like western architecture and foodstuffs (some of it from the Americas), as well as Christianity, European languages and the Latin alphabet. We should not forget Russian Asia as well as Central Asia which was part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union for a century and a half. 20th- and 21st-century history, though for much of Asia featuring many wars and other sad things, are also present in memorials and museums. Finally if you want to plunge into modern cities with most the world's tallest buildings, glass, steel and huge LED-screens, extensive and modern transportation systems, and entertainment and amusement centers, Asia is the place to go too, especially the Gulf States and East Asia.
The Asian Games
are an international multi-sport event similar to the Olympics, albeit with participation restricted to Asian countries, as well as some dependent territories in Asia. The games were first held in 1951, and following that were held every four years starting from the 1954 games, two years apart from the Summer Olympics, and feature all Olympic sports, as well as several non-Olympic sports such as tenpin bowling, Asian martial arts and squash.
- Cruise between the dramatic limestone Karsts, islets and islands, in the emerald blue sea of Ha Long Bay.
- Sleep on board a houseboat in the backwaters of Kerala in India.
- Experience the architecture of the Taj Mahal Agra in India.
- Dive in a crystal blue sea in Bunaken, Indonesia to see a colorful coral reef and it's wide variety of tropical fish.
- Climb Mount Everest, the highest point of land on earth (Nepal) or K2, second highest, in Gilgit-Baltistan.
- Explore Borneo, an island divided between Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei that contains one of the oldest rainforests in the world.
- Climb Mount Bromo, Indonesia, an active volcanic mountain that has an amazing scenery during sunrise.
- Take a Tour to Yogyakarta, Indonesia's Cultural hub, and gateway to see the magnificent Buddhist temple Borobudur and Hindu temple of Prambanan.
- Explore Lake Toba, The largest volcanic lake in Indonesia and the world.
- Visit Lombok, a popular island east of Bali, with its beautiful white beaches and famous Gili Trawangan island and Mighty Mount Rinjani located in Indonesia.
- Climb Mount Fuji, an icon of Japan
- Asia has a huge number of dive sites from snorkeling to scuba, with much interesting undersea life and quite a few wrecks. For details, see Scuba diving#Asia.
- Visit Cox's Bazar, the longest sea beach in the world, and Sundarbans, the largest mangrove forest of the world, in Bangladesh.
- Watch anime and manga in Japan.
- Go shopping for Persian rugs in the Central Asian bazaars.
- For the experienced traveller, visit the world's two Stalinist countries, Turkmenistan or North Korea on a guided tour.
- Gamble in some of the world's largest casinos in Macau.
- Experience the old Silk Road caravansarais like Samarkand in Uzbekistan.
- Relax on a beach in the Maldives.
- Visit the Holy Land in Israel and Palestine.
- Ride the Trans-Siberian Railway from Moscow to Vladivostok and experience Siberia from the comfort of a traincar.
- Travel through the Asian cradles of humanity, in the Indus River Valley, Yellow River Valley, and Mesopotamia.
- Visit the national parks and protected areas of India
Asian cuisine is incredibly diverse, from Turkish kebabs to Arabic pita bread to Indian curries and Chinese noodles, there is really no shortage of different food that you can try. Rice, in its many varieties, is a very common staple throughout Asia. Street food
is also available almost anywhere in myriads of variations. Southeast Asia offers a great variety of tropical fruit and wonderful food at inexpensive prices.
Daechucha, a Korean tea
is the most common beverage, especially in both South Asia
and East Asia
. In tropical areas, enjoy fresh fruit and coconut juices. Fresh sugar cane juice is readily available in many cities in India. It can be served plain or with ginger and lemon. In some areas, fresh water and clean drinking water may not easily be available. Yoghurt-based drinks are common in some areas, lassi
in some western parts of Asia like Iran
is widely available throughout North, Southeast and East Asia. Often the larger cities or tourist areas have a modern nightlife scene. Alcohol is illegal in some parts of India and in some countries in the Middle East. While beer is commonly available in the countries that serve alcohol it often uses rice as the basic grain which affects taste somewhat. Another common beverage - especially in Japan, Korea and China - is "rice wine" (closer to beer as it contains more starch than sugar) sold and produced under various names and in with a range of variations on the basic recipe.
Depending on where you are everything from a tent with only the most basic facilities (if any) to a full blown five star hotel is available. Prices tend to reflect that.
There are all kinds of traditional local lodging too: try a ryokan
, a yurt in Mongolia
, or a Bedouin tent in Israel
. Any of these is not just a place to lay your head, but a unique cultural experience.
Land mines in Afghanistan
Due to the vast size, safety in Asia varies wildly. It is a safe place in general and most tourist attractions on the continent are far from conflict, There are, however, some regions in which conflict and/or general lawlessness exists. The most obvious examples are Afghanistan
, and big parts of Iraq
. Afghanistan's government controls only parts of the country and also Iraq is in a state of continued armed conflict. There are full-scale civil wars in Syria
. These countries are considered no-go areas and should be completely avoided by travellers (if you absolutely must go, consult War zone safety
and the authorities of your country beforehand).
Although much of the Middle East
can be visited without any major risks, it is known for its political tensions and there are no-go areas, for the moment especially Syria. The Gaza Strip
is at times a war zone between Palestinian factions and the Israeli army, and kidnappings of foreigners have occurred. Israel
has coped with missile attacks as well as suicide bombings by radical militant groups, such as Hamas and Hezbollah, but mostly in areas close to the Gaza Strip and Lebanon (and attacks from Lebanon happen only occasionally), and by far the biggest threat in most of the country is from dangerous drivers. Lebanon
and the West Bank
(Palestinian National Authority) generally cope with an unstable political situation and internal conflict.
has experienced some political violence in the past, so check on current conditions before you go.
is a major travel region and most of it is perfectly safe to visit. A notable exception is East Timor
, which continues to face sporadic internal ethnic and political tension and related violence may occur. But even in some popular countries, there are some areas that should be avoided. Bangsamoro
, a Muslim autonomous region in Mindanao
in the south of the Philippines
, is an area of conflict between the government and the Muslim separatist movements. The rest of the country is safe. Thailand
, the most visited country in Southeast Asia, is generally safe with the notable exception of four deep southern provinces
, where fighting between the Thai military and Islamic insurgent groups still continues, though tourists are rarely if ever the targets of violence. Indonesia
is a very diverse country, with armed groups fighting for independence in Papua
, while Maluku
are relatively safe now.
is generally the safest area in the continent for visitors, but political tensions also exist in this region. You should be aware that North Korea
and South Korea
are still officially at war and hostilities could in theory resume at any time, although the border between them
is still a worthwhile tourist destination in its own right (check current conditions if you plan a visit). Some visitors have also been arbitrarily arrested in North Korea, and less often, China. China
, a vast and diverse country, is a relatively safe destination, yet the restive provinces of Tibet
still often bar foreigners at any hint of trouble. While Hong Kong
has long been one of the safest cities in Asia, soaring tensions between the locals and the Chinese central government in Beijing have led to violent protests and a growing independence movement.
Refer to the specific country pages and the authorities of your country for more information. As a precaution, always know the address of embassies, and notify in case of any issues faced.
Being the largest continent by far, practically every thinkable natural disaster is a risk at least somewhere in Asia. The area approximately along the Silk road is prone to earthquakes
, and areas along the Pacific "Ring of Fire" — Kamchatka
, the Philippines
— have both volcanoes
and quakes. Especially in South and Southeast Asia monsoon rains often result in massive floods. Tropical storms (typhoons
and cyclones) are a risk in much of tropical Asia during Northern Hemisphere summer and autumn. Smog and dust storms often occur especially in the northern part of China, making it very unpleasant for people with breathing difficulties.
Many areas of Asia, especially Southeast Asia and South Asia, are humid tropical, and there are health risks attached to travel in those regions. See tropical diseases
and the country articles for specific information.
Parts of Asia, such as Mongolia
, have extremely harsh winters. See cold weather
and country or region articles for details.
Some of the world's best and cheapest internet connectivity is to be found in parts of Asia, with extremely fast speeds in South Korea
and many other countries on both fixed line and mobile. Conversely many countries also lag behind, and connections may be hard to come by.
Censorship is a big issue for connectivity in a handful of countries including China
, North Korea
, and Turkmenistan
, where many websites and social networks are actively blocked from use.
Last edited on 8 September 2021, at 13:16
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