人 - Wiktionary
See also: , 𠆢, , and
U+4EBA, 人
CJK UNIFIED IDEOGRAPH-4EBA
← 亹
[U+4EB9]
CJK Unified Ideographs
亻 →
[U+4EBB]
U+2F08, ⼈
KANGXI RADICAL MAN
← ⼇
[U+2F07]
Kangxi Radicals
⼉ →
[U+2F09]
Translingual
Stroke order
Stroke order
Alternative forms
  • (when used as a left radical)
  • 𠂉 (when used as an upper radical)
Han character
See images of
Radical 9
(radical 9, +0, 2 strokes, cangjie input 人 (O), four-corner 80000, composition丿)
Kangxi radical #9, .
Derived characters
References
  • KangXi: page 91, character 1
  • Dai Kanwa Jiten: character 344
  • Dae Jaweon: page 190, character 1
  • Hanyu Da Zidian (first edition): volume 1, page 101, character 10
  • Unihan data for U+4EBA
Chinese
Chinese Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia zh
Glyph origin
See 人/derived terms § Glyph origin.
Etymology 1
simp. and trad.
alternative forms 
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component
component
𠆢 component
component
component
𠂉 component

𠔽
𤯔
𦉫
Sagart (1999) relates it to Tibetan ཉེན (nyen, “relative”), from ཉེ (nye, “near”) + nominalizing suffix -n; if so, from Proto-Sino-Tibetan *s-naːj ~ s-nej (“near”).
Schuessler (2007) proposes two etymologies:
Pronunciation
Note:
  • nyin4 - vernacular;
  • liin4 - literary.
Hakka
Jin
(Taiyuan)+
Min Bei
(Jian'ou)
Min Dong
(Fuzhou)
Min Nan
Note:
  • rêng5 - Jieyang;
  • ring5 - other places.
Wu
(Shanghainese)
Note:
  • 3nyin - colloquial;
  • 3zen - literary.
Xiang
(Changsha)
Dialectal data
VarietyLocation
MandarinBeijing/ʐən³⁵/
Harbin/ʐən²⁴/
/in²⁴/
Tianjin/in⁴⁵/
/ʐən⁴⁵/
Jinan/ʐẽ⁴²/
Qingdao/iə̃⁴²/
Zhengzhou/ʐən⁴²/
Xi'an/ʐẽ²⁴/
Xining/ʐə̃²¹³/
Yinchuan/ʐəŋ⁵³/
Lanzhou/ʐə̃n⁵³/
Ürümqi/ʐɤŋ⁵¹/
Wuhan/nən²¹³/
Chengdu/zən³¹/
Guiyang/zen²¹/
Kunming/ʐə̃³¹/
Nanjing/ʐən²⁴/
Hefei/ʐən⁵⁵/
JinTaiyuan/zəŋ¹¹/
Pingyao/ʐəŋ¹³/
Hohhot/ʐə̃ŋ³¹/
WuShanghai/ȵiŋ²³/
/zəŋ²³/
Suzhou/zən¹³/
/ȵin¹³/
Hangzhou/zen²¹³/
Wenzhou/zaŋ³¹/ 文讀
/ȵaŋ³¹/ 白讀
/naŋ³¹/ 訓讀
HuiShexian/iʌ̃⁴⁴/
/niʌ̃⁴⁴/
Tunxi/ian⁴⁴/
XiangChangsha/ʐən¹³/
Xiangtan/in¹²/
GanNanchang/ȵin⁴⁵/
/lɨn⁴⁵/ ~參
HakkaMeixian/ŋin¹¹/
Taoyuan/ŋin¹¹/
CantoneseGuangzhou/jɐn²¹/
Nanning/jɐn²¹/
Hong Kong/jɐn²¹/
MinXiamen (Min Nan)/lin³⁵/
Fuzhou (Min Dong)/iŋ⁵³/
Jian'ou (Min Bei)/neiŋ³³/
Shantou (Min Nan)/ziŋ⁵⁵/
/naŋ⁵⁵/ 訓讀
Haikou (Min Nan)/zin³¹/
/naŋ³¹/ 訓儂
Middle Chinese: /ȵiɪn/
Rime
Character
Reading #1/1
Initial (聲) (38)
Final (韻) (43)
Tone (調)Level (Ø)
Openness (開合)Open
Division (等)III
Fanqie
Reconstructions
Zhengzhang
Shangfang
/ȵiɪn/
Pan
Wuyun
/ȵin/
Shao
Rongfen
/ȵʑjen/
Edwin
Pulleyblank
/ȵin/
Li
Rong
/ȵiĕn/
Wang
Li
/ȵʑĭĕn/
Bernard
Karlgren
/ȵʑi̯ĕn/
Expected
Mandarin
Reflex
rén
Expected
Cantonese
Reflex
jan4
Old Chinese
(BaxterSagart): /*ni[ŋ]/
(Zhengzhang): /*njin/
BaxterSagart system 1.1 (2014)
Character
Reading #1/1
Modern
Beijing
(Pinyin)
rén
Middle
Chinese
‹ nyin ›
Old
Chinese
/*ni[ŋ]/
English(other) person
Notes for Old Chinese notations in the Baxter–Sagart system:
* Parentheses "()" indicate uncertain presence;
* Square brackets "[]" indicate uncertain identity, e.g. *[t] as coda may in fact be *-t or *-p;
* Angle brackets "<>" indicate infix;
* Hyphen "-" indicates morpheme boundary;
* Period "." indicates syllable boundary.
Zhengzhang system (2003)
Character
Reading #1/1
No.10800
Phonetic
component
Rime
group
Rime
subdivision
1
Corresponding
MC rime
Old
Chinese
/*njin/
Definitions
  1. man; person; people
    (Classifier: mc;  h)
    ? / ?  ―  rén shì shéi?  ―  Who is that person?
    嗰個邊個[Cantonese, trad.]
    嗰个边个[Cantonese, simp.]
    go2 go3 jan4-2 hai6 bin1 go3 lai4 gaa3?[Jyutping]
    Who is that person?
    敲門。 / 敲门。  ―  Yǒurén qiāomén le.  ―  Someone knocked on the door.
  2. human being
    /   ―  rénlèi  ―  human
  3. body
    不大舒服[MSC, trad.]
    不大舒服[MSC, simp.]
    Zhè liǎng tiān rén bùdà shūfú. [Pinyin]
    I [lit. the body] haven't been feeling that well these few days.
  4. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
    {{rfdef}}
    .
    今天上午[MSC, trad. and simp.]
    Jīntiān shàngwǔ nǐ rén zài nǎ? [Pinyin]
    Where have you been this morning?
  5. everybody; everyone
    人人  ―  rénrén  ―  everybody
    手一冊 / 手一册  ―  rénshǒu yīcè  ―  It's a bestseller. (lit. Everyone has a copy.)
  6. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition; character; personality
    就我所知不錯[MSC, trad.]
    就我所知不错[MSC, simp.]
    Jiùwǒsuǒzhī, tā rén bùcuò. [Pinyin]
    As far as I know, he is kind (lit. his personality is not bad).
    知道什麼[MSC, trad.]
    知道什么[MSC, simp.]
    Wǒ bù zhīdào tā shì shénme rén. [Pinyin]
    I don't know what kind of person he is.
  7. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    主持  ―  zhǔchírén  ―  host
    北京  ―  Běijīngrén  ―  Beijinger
    香港 [Cantonese]  ―  hoeng1 gong2 jan4[Jyutping]  ―  Hongkonger
  8. manpower; worker; employee
  9. talent; person of talent
  10. other people; others
    云亦云  ―  rényún yìyún  ―  to follow the crowd (lit. to say what others say)
  11. common people; commoner
  12. adult; grown-up
    長大成 / 长大成  ―  chángdà chéngrén  ―  to grow up to be an adult
  13. reason; cause
  14. sexual intercourse
      ―  réndào  ―  sexual intercourse
      ―  rénshì  ―  sexual intercourse
  15. company; companion; friend
  16. artificial; man-made
    /   ―  rénhuò  ―  human disaster
  17. mortal; bodily; earthly
    /   ―  rénjiān  ―  the mortal world
  18. Alternative form of (rén, “kernel”).
  19. Alternative form of (rén, “charity”).
  20. Alternative form of (rén, “loving; kind”).
  21. (Beijing) Lenition of 人家 (rénjia).
    別​磨蹭​啦​,​人​在​外頭​等​著​我們​呢​[dialectal Mandarin, trad.]
    别​磨蹭​啦​,​人​在​外头​等​着​我们​呢​[dialectal Mandarin, simp.]
    Bié móceng la, rén zǎi wàitou děng zhe wǒmen ne! [Pinyin]
    Stop dilly-dallying. He/She/They is/are waiting for us outside!
  22. (Taishanese) paternal grandmother
  23. A surname​.
Synonyms
See 人/derived terms § Person (Chinese).
Compounds
See 人/derived terms § Person (Chinese).
Descendants
See 人/derived terms § Person (Chinese).
Etymology 2
simp. and trad.
alternative forms
𠆧
Wikipedia has an article on:
lâng (Min Nan)
The Min native word for “person”; used as a replacement character for . Use of 人 is recommended by Taiwan's Ministry of Education.
Pronunciation 1
Definitions
(coastal Min)
  1. man; person; people; human being; Homo sapiens
    (Classifier: mn;  md)
  2. a person associated with a particular identity or trait; -er
    臺灣 / 台湾 [Hokkien]  ―  Tâi-oân-lâng[Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  Taiwanese
  3. physical, psychological or moral quality or condition
    𣍐䆀。 / 𫧃䆀[Hokkien]  ―  I lâng bē-bái. [Pe̍h-ōe-jī]  ―  He is kind. (literally, “His personality is not bad.”)
Compounds
See 人/derived terms § Person (2) (Chinese).
Pronunciation 2
Definitions
(coastal Min)
  1. other people
    人​講​三​百​六​十​五​行​會當​行行出狀元​。​[​Hokkien​, trad.]
    人​讲​三​百​六​十​五​行​会当​行行出状元​。​[​Hokkien​, simp.]
    From: 黃一飛 (Huang Yi-fei), 你苦無我苦
    Lâng kóng saⁿ-pah la̍k-cha̍p-gō͘ hâng ē-tàng hâng-hâng chhut chiōng-goân.[Pe̍h-ōe-jī]
    People say you can be a master in any of the 365 trades.
  2. I; me
References
Japanese
Kanji
See also:
Category:Japanese terms spelled with 人

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)
Readings
Compounds
See 人/derived terms § Kanji (Japanese).
Etymology 1
⟨pi1to2⟩ → */pʲitə/ → /fito/ → /hito/ → /çito/
From Old Japanese, from Proto-Japonic *pitə.
Pronunciation
Kun’yomi
Noun

ひと
(hito)  (counter )
  1. a person, human
    2004 June 4, “レオニンの従
    じゅう

    しゃ
    [Leonin Squire]”, in フィフス・ドーン [Fifth Dawn], Wizards of the Coast:

    わたし
    は王
    おう
    かもしれないが、兵
    へい



    ひと

    びと
    なくしては、私
    わたし
    は何
    なに

    もの
    でもないのだ。
    Watashi wa ō kamo shirenai ga, heishi ya hitobito naku shite wa, watashi wa nanimono demo nai no da.
    I may be king, but without my soldiers and my people, I am nobody.
  2. an individual
    Synonym: 個人 (kojin)
  3. mankind, people
    Synonyms: 人類 (jinrui), 人間 (ningen)
  4. character, personality
    Synonyms: 人格 (jinkaku), 人柄 (hitogara)
  5. an average person
    Synonym: 世人 (sejin, yohito)
  6. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
    {{rfdef}}
    .
    Synonyms: (kata), (mono)
  7. (law)
    This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
    {{rfdef}}
    .
  8. This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
    {{rfdef}}
    .
  9. an adult
    Synonyms: 大人 (otona), 成人 (seijin)
  10. someone (else)
Usage notes
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Person (Japanese).
Pronoun

ひと
(hito
(archaic) second-person personal pronoun: you
Etymology 2
From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 呉音(goon, literally “Wu sound”), so likely the earlier or initial borrowing from Middle Chinese. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Explain nasal basis for goon reading/borrowing”)
Pronunciation
On’yomi: Goon
Noun

にん
(nin
  1. a personality
  2. the role of that person
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Personality (Japanese).
Counter

にん
(-nin
counter for number of people
See also
See 人/derived terms § Counter (Japanese).
Affix

にん
(nin
man
Etymology 3
From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn). The 漢音(kan'on, literally “Han sound”), so likely a later borrowing from Middle Chinese. (This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium. Particularly: “Explain plosive basis for kan'on reading/borrowing”)
Pronunciation
On’yomi: Kan’on
IPA(key): [d͡ʑĩɴ]
Suffix

じん
(-jin
  1. person from that group
    アジア
    じん
    イギリス
    じん
    スペイン
    じん
    ドイツ
    じん
    アメリカ
    じん
    スコットランド
    じん
    Ajiajin, Igirisujin, Supeinjin, Doitsujin, Amerikajin, Sukottorandojin
    an Asian, an Englishman, a Spaniard, a German, an American, a Scot
  2. person who does the activity of the suffixed word
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Person from group (Japanese).
Affix

じん
(jin
  1. man
  2. Short for 人造 (jinzō): artificial, synthetic
Etymology 4
Possibly a shift from -tari below.
Counter


(-ri
counter for number of people
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Counter (2) (Japanese).
Etymology 5
(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)
Counter

たり
(-tari
counter for number of people
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Counter (3) (Japanese).
References
  1. ^ 1998, NHK日本語発音アクセント辞典 (NHK Japanese Pronunciation Accent Dictionary) (in Japanese), Tōkyō: NHK, →ISBN
  2. ^ 1997, 新明解国語辞典 (Shin Meikai Kokugo Jiten), Fifth Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
  3. ^ 2006, 大辞林 (Daijirin), Third Edition (in Japanese), Tōkyō: Sanseidō, →ISBN
Korean
Etymology
From Middle Chinese (MC ȵiɪn).
Historical Readings
Dongguk Jeongun Reading
Dongguk Jeongun, 1448ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)
Middle Korean
TextEumhun
Gloss (hun)Reading
Hunmong Jahoe, 1527[2]사〯ᄅᆞᆷ (Yale: sǎlòm)ᅀᅵᆫ (Yale: zìn)
Pronunciation
Hanja
Korean Wikisource has texts containing the hanja:
Wikisource
(eumhun 사람 (saram in))
Hanja form? of (“human; person”).
Compounds
See 人/derived terms § Person (Korean).
References
국제퇴계학회 대구경북지부 (國際退溪學會 大邱慶北支部) (2007). Digital Hanja Dictionary, 전자사전/電子字典. [3]
Kunigami
Kanji
Kun: ちゅー (chū)
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /t͡ɕuː/
Noun
(hiragana ちゅー, romaji chū)
  1. person
  2. human
Miyako
Kanji
Kun: ぴぃとぅ (psïtu)
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ps̩tu/
Noun
(hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji psïtu)
  1. person
  2. human
Okinawan
Kanji
See also:
Category:Okinawan terms spelled with 人

(grade 1 “Kyōiku” kanji)
Readings
Compounds
See 人/derived terms § Kanji (Okinawan).
Etymology 1
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /t̚t͡ɕu/
Noun
(hiragana っちゅ, rōmaji tchu)
  1. person
  2. human
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Person (Okinawan).
Etymology 2
Noun
(hiragana ぴとぅ, rōmaji pitu)
  1. people
  2. person
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Person (2) (Okinawan).
Etymology 3
Noun
(hiragana にん, rōmaji nin)
person; type of person
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Type of person (Okinawan).
Counter
(hiragana にん, rōmaji -nin)
counter for number of people
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Counter (Okinawan).
Etymology 4
Counter
(hiragana , rōmaji -i)
counter for number of people
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Counter (2) (Okinawan).
Etymology 5
Counter
(hiragana たい, rōmaji -tai)
counter for number of people
Derived terms
See 人/derived terms § Counter (3) (Okinawan).
Vietnamese
Hán Tự
: Hán Việt readings: nhân (
như

lân
thiết
)[1][2]
: Nôm readings: nhơn[1][2][3][4], nhân[1][4], người[1]
  1. (Northern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhân(“human”).
  2. (Southern Vietnam) Hán tự form of nhơn(“human”).
References
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Nguyễn et al. (2009).
  2. 2.0 2.1 Trần (2004).
  3. ^ Bonet (1899).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Génibrel (1898).
Yaeyama
Kanji
Kun: ぴぃとぅ (pïtu)
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /pɨtu/
Noun
(hiragana ぴぃとぅ, romaji pïtu)
  1. person
  2. human
Yonaguni
Kanji
Kun: っとぅ (ttu)
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /tˀu/
Noun
(hiragana っとぅ, romaji ttu)
  1. person
  2. human
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 05:35
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