-er
See also: Appendix:Variations of "er"
English
Pronunciation
Etymology 1
From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ere, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, usually thought to have been borrowed from Latin -ārius.
Reinforced by the synonymous but unrelated Old French -or, -eor (Anglo-Norman variant -our), from Latin -(ā)tor, from Proto-Indo-European *-tōr.
Alternative forms
-'er (following an abbreviation, or sometimes following a number)
Suffix
-er
  1. (added to verbs) A person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb; used to form an agent noun.
    Antonym: -ee
    read + ‎-er → ‎reader
    cook + ‎-er → ‎cooker
    compute + ‎-er → ‎computer
    run + ‎-er → ‎runner
    toast + ‎-er → ‎toaster
    do good + ‎-er → ‎do-gooder
  2. (added to verbs, informal) A person or thing to which the root verb can satisfactorily be done.
    look + ‎-er → ‎looker (“an attractive person”)
    keep + ‎-er → ‎keeper (“a person or thing worth keeping”)
  3. (added to a noun denoting an occupation) A person whose occupation is (the noun).
    astrology + ‎-er → ‎astrologer
    cricket + ‎-er → ‎cricketer
    trumpet + ‎-er → ‎trumpeter
  4. (added to a number, measurement or noun denoting a quantified set) A name for a person or thing that is based on a number (with or without a noun).
    six + ‎-er → ‎sixer
    six foot + ‎-er → ‎six-footer
  5. (slang, chiefly entertainment, with few limitations) Used to form nouns shorter than more formal synonyms.
    percent + ‎-er → ‎percenter (“commission agent”)
    one hand + ‎-er → ‎one-hander (“one-man show”)
    oat + ‎-er → ‎oater (“a Western-themed movie”)
  6. (informal, added to a noun) One who enjoys.
    Tooners lined up for tickets to Toy Story.
  7. (derogatory, added to nouns) Person who subscribes to a particular conspiracy theory or unorthodox belief.
    anti-vax + ‎-er → ‎anti-vaxxer
    birth + ‎-er → ‎birther
    flat earth + ‎-er → ‎flat-earther
    truth + ‎-er → ‎truther
Usage notes
Derived terms
English words suffixed with -er (agent noun)
English words suffixed with -er (entertainment)
Translations
The translations below are a guide only. For more precise translations, see specific words ending with this suffix.
(used to form agent nouns) person or thing that does...
person whose occupation is...
(with numbers, measurements or quantified sets) ranked by or having...
See also
-eer
Etymology 2
From Middle English -er, -ere, from Old English -ware (suffix denoting residency or meaning "inhabitant of"), from Proto-Germanic *warjaz(“defender, inhabitant”), from Proto-Indo-European *wer- (“to close, cover, protect, save, defend”). Cognate with Dutch -er, German -er, Swedish -are.
Suffix
-er
  1. (added to a proper noun) Suffix denoting a resident or inhabitant of (the place denoted by the proper noun); used to form a demonym.
    New York + ‎-er → ‎New Yorker
    London + ‎-er → ‎Londoner
    Dublin + ‎-er → ‎Dubliner
    New England + ‎-er → ‎New Englander
  2. Suffix denoting residency in or around a place, district, area, or region.
    island + ‎-er → ‎islander
    highland + ‎-er → ‎highlander
    eastend + ‎-er → ‎eastender
    prison + ‎-er → ‎prisoner
Derived terms
English words suffixed with -er (inhabitant)
Translations
(used form a demonym) resident or inhabitant of...
Etymology 3
From Middle English -er, -re, from Old English -ru(plural suffix), from Proto-Germanic *-izō (plural suffix). Cognate with Dutch -er (plural ending), German -er (plural ending). See also -ren.
Suffix
-er
(obsolete, no longer productive) Suffix used to form the plural of a small number of English nouns.
childer, calver, lamber, linder ("loins")
Derived terms
-ren
Etymology 4
Representing various noun-suffixes in Old French and Anglo-Norman, variously -er, -ier and -ieur, from Latin -aris, -arius, -atorium.
Suffix
-er
Person or thing connected with.
bottle + ‎-er → ‎butler
See also
-eer
Etymology 5
From Middle English -ere, from Old English -ra, from Proto-Germanic *-izô or Proto-Germanic *-ōzô (a derivative of Etymology 6, below); related to superlative -est.
Suffix
-er
(added to certain adjectives and adverbs, now especially short ones) More; used to form the comparative.
long + ‎-er → ‎longer
big + ‎-er → ‎bigger
fast + ‎-er → ‎faster
simple + ‎-er → ‎simpler
Usage notes
Translations
used to form the comparative of adjectives
  • Lü: please add this translation if you can
  • Macedonian: по-(po-)
  • Persian: تر (fa) (-tar)
  • Polish: bardziej (pl)(used before the adjective)
  • Portuguese: mais (pt)
  • Romani: -eder, po(used before the adjective), maj(used before the adjective)
  • Russian: бо́лее (ru)(bóleje) (used before the adjective), -ее (ru)(-eje) (various suffixes exist)
  • Serbo-Croatian: -иm, -а f, -е n
  • Shan: please add this translation if you can
  • Spanish: más (es)(used before the adjective)
  • Swedish: mer (sv)(used before the adjective), -are (sv)
  • Tagalog: mas (tl)(used before the adjective)
  • Thai: -กว่า (th)(gwàa)
  • Tibetan: please add this translation if you can
  • Turkish: daha (tr)
  • Vietnamese: ... hơn (vi)
  • Welsh: -ach, mwy (cy) (used before the adjective only if polysyllabic)
  • Zhuang: please add this translation if you can
Etymology 6
From Middle English -er, from Old English -or, from Proto-Germanic *-ōz.
Suffix
-er
(added to certain adverbs) More; used to form the comparative.
Translations
used to form the comparative of adverbs
Etymology 7
From Middle English -eren, -ren, -rien, from Old English -erian, -rian, from Proto-Germanic *-rōną or *-izōną. Cognate with West Frisian -erje, Dutch-eren, German -eren, -ern, Danish -re, Swedish -ra.
Suffix
-er
(added to a verb or imitative sound)Frequently; used to form frequentative verbs.
twitter, clamber, bicker, mutter, wander, flutter, flicker, slither, smother, sputter
Synonyms
(used to form frequentative): -le
Translations
used to form frequentatives
Finnish: -lla, -llä (fi)
See also
Frequentative on Wikipedia.Wikipedia
Etymology 8
From Middle English -er, from Anglo-Norman -er, Old French -er, the infinitive verbal ending.
Suffix
-er
(added to a verb) Instance of (the verbal action); used to form nouns from verbs, especially in legal terms.
disclaim + ‎-er → ‎disclaimer
remit + ‎-er → ‎remitter
misname + ‎-er → ‎misnomer
rebut + ‎-er → ‎rebutter
Derived terms
Category English words suffixed with -er (action noun) not found
Etymology 9
From Middle English -er, -ere (diminutive suffix). Compare -el.
Suffix
-er
(added to a verb or noun) Used to form diminutives.
shive+ ‎-er→ ‎shiver
slive+ ‎-er→ ‎sliver
splint+ ‎-er→ ‎splinter
Etymology 10
English Wikipedia has an article on:
Oxford "-er"
Wikipedia
Attested in the UK since the 19th century. Originally Rugby School slang. Later adopted by Oxford University and then wider British society.
Suffix
-er
(originally school slang) Used to form slang or colloquial equivalents of words.
association + ‎-er → ‎soccer (“association football”)
football + ‎-er → ‎footer (“association football”)
rugby + ‎-er → ‎rugger
breakfast + ‎-er → ‎brekkers
Radcliffe + ‎-er → ‎Radder (“a building at Oxford University”)
divinity + ‎-er → ‎divvers (“the study of religion”)
Derived terms
-zza
English words suffixed with -er (Oxford)
Related terms
-ers
Translations
used to form slang equivalents
Finnish: -is (fi)
Hungarian: -ci
Etymology 11
From Middle English -er, from Old English -er, -or, from Proto-Germanic *-raz. Compare -le.
Suffix
-er
(now chiefly dialectal) A suffix creating adjectives from verbs, indicating aptitude, proneness, or tendency toward a specified action:
clive + ‎-er → ‎cliver (“apt to cleave or adhere to, tenacious, expert as seizing”)
slip + ‎-er → ‎slipper (“tending to make slip, slippery”)
wake + ‎-er → ‎waker (“tending to wake, watchful”)
Synonyms
-le
Etymology 12
From Chinese -兒 (-ér).
Suffix
-er
(fiction) Junior, child, younger person. (Attached to a name, usually a portion of the given name.) (Can we add an example for this sense?)
Usage notes
In Chinese-language fiction translated into English, to add a Chinese flavour (Mandarin language), some translators leave the term "-er" untranslated, left in unaccented pinyin. This practice is similar to not translating "-kun" / "-chan" / "-san" or "sensei" in English-language Japanese fiction.
Coordinate terms
-chan (similar suffix extracted from Japanese into English, when used in English-translated Japanese fiction)
See also
References
Anagrams
're, RE, Re, , r.e., re, re-
Afrikaans
Etymology
From Dutch -er.
Suffix
-er
-er
Bavarian
Etymology
From Middle High German -er, from Old High German -ari, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī. Cognates include German -er and Luxembourgish -er.
Pronunciation
(Vienna) IPA(key): /-a/
Suffix
-er
Used to form agent nouns from verbs; -er
Derived terms
Bavarian words suffixed with -er
Breton
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ɛʁ/
Suffix
-er
person or thing that (does the action indicated by the root); used to form an agent noun.
brezhoneg (“Breton (language)”) + ‎-er → ‎brezhoneger (“Breton-speaker”)
c'hoari (“game; to play”) + ‎-er → ‎c'hoarier(“player, actor”)
tredan (“electricity”) + ‎-er → ‎tredaner(“electrician”)
Derived terms
Breton words suffixed with -er
Catalan
Etymology
From Old Occitan, from Latin -ārius. Compare the borrowed doublet -ari.
Pronunciation
Suffix
-er m (plural -ers)
  1. Used to form nouns meaning the location or object where something is usually found.
    vespa (“wasp”) + ‎-er → ‎vesper (“wasp nest”)
  2. Used to form nouns meaning a plant which is cultivated to produce something.
    garrofa (“carob”) + ‎-er → ‎garrofer (“carob tree”)
  3. Used to form nouns meaning the purpose of something or an object used for that purpose.
    tovallola (“towel”) + ‎-er → ‎tovalloler(“towel rail”)
Usage notes
The equivalent suffix -era can be used to form feminine nouns with these meanings, but usually only the masculine or feminine form will be found in Catalan.
Suffix
-er (feminine -era, masculine plural -ers, feminine plural -eres)
  1. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to an inhabitant of somewhere.
    Brasil (“Brazil”) + ‎-er → ‎brasiler(“Brazilian”)
  2. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to engaging in a profession.
    camió (“truck”) + ‎-er → ‎camioner (“truck driver”)
  3. Used to form nouns and adjectives referring to being prone to some activity or characteristic.
    mentida (“lie”) + ‎-er → ‎mentider (“liar, deceptive”)
Usage notes
Because these senses are used to form adjectives of two forms or nouns referring to animate objects, both the masculine and feminine forms will be found in Catalan, with the lemma entry found at the masculine form.
See also
-dor
Derived terms
Catalan words suffixed with -er
Chuukese
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ˈɛɾ/
Suffix
-er
  1. (added to possessive nouns) their
  2. (added to verbs as an indirect object) them
Related terms
Chuukese possessive determiners
Small objects, conceptsLarge objects, living thingsSuffix
SingularFirst personainei-ei
Second personomw, omnoum-om
Third personannoun-an
PluralFirst personäm (exclusive)
ach (inclusive)
nöu̇m (exclusive)
nöüch (inclusive)
-em (exclusive)
-ach (inclusive)
Second personämi, aminoumi-emi
Third personarnour-er
Danish
Suffix
-er
  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs, with the sense "someone or something that [verb]s".
  2. Forms plural forms of many nouns.
  3. Forms the present tense of many verbs.
  4. Forms demonyms.
    Berlin+ ‎-er→ ‎berliner
    Paris+ ‎-er→ ‎pariser
  5. Forms informal action nouns from verbs.
  6. (especially definite) Forms informal abbreviations of nouns, with elision.
    hotdog + ‎-er → ‎hotter
    fjernsyn (“television”) + ‎-er → ‎fjerner
  7. Forms a piece of currency from numbers.
    fem (“five”) + ‎-er → ‎femmer (“fiver, five pounds/dollars/kroner/etc.​”​)
  8. Forms a die throw result from numbers.
    Du skal slå mindst en treer for at komme videre.
    You must throw at least a three to move on.
Usage notes
Senses 1 and 3 often lead to heteronymic pairs. For example, from løbe (“run”) [ˈløːb̥ə] comes løber (“runs”) [ˈløːˀb̥ɐ] (verb form) and løber(“runner”) [ˈløːb̥ɐ] (noun), distinguished by stød.
Derived terms
Danish words suffixed with -er
Dutch
Alternative forms
-der
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ər/
Etymology 1
From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic​*-ārijaz​, borrowed from Latin -ārius. Cognate with Dutch -aar.[1]
Suffix
-er m (plural -ers, feminine -ster)
  1. Forms agent nouns from verbs.
    hoeden + ‎-er → ‎hoeder
    spelen + ‎-er → ‎speler
    Synonym: -aar
  2. Forms nouns for a person associated with something.
    schip + ‎-er → ‎schipper
Derived terms
Dutch words suffixed with -er (agent noun)
Descendants
Afrikaans: -er
Etymology 2
From Old Dutch *-āri, -ere, from Proto-Germanic​*warjaz​.
Suffix
-er
  1. Forms nouns denoting male inhabitants or residents of a place.
    Een Amsterdammer
    A (male) inhabitant of Amsterdam
    Synonym: -aar
  2. Formings adjectives denoting something originating from a place.
    Het Groninger museum
    The museum of Groningen
    Synonym: -s
Antonyms
(male inhabitant): -se (“female inhabitant”)
Etymology 3
From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic*-izô, *-ōzô.
Suffix
-er
Forms the comparative form of adjectives.
Derived terms
Category Dutch adjective comparative forms not found
References
^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175
French
Etymology 1
Mainly from Latin -āre; however, the descendants of some Latin -ēre verbs also became -er verbs in French.
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /e/
Suffix
-er
Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Usage notes
Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix.
Conjugation
Conjugation of -er (see also Appendix:French verbs)
infinitivesimple-er
compoundavoir + past participle
present participle or gerund1simple-ant
/ɑ̃/
compoundayant + past participle
past participle
/e/
singularplural
firstsecondthirdfirstsecondthird
indicativeje (j’)tuil, ellenousvousils, elles
(simple
tenses)
present-e
/ə/
-es
/ə/
-e
/ə/
-ons
/ɔ̃/
-ez
/e/
-ent
/ə/
imperfect-ais
/ɛ/
-ais
/ɛ/
-ait
/ɛ/
-ions
/jɔ̃/
-iez
/je/
-aient
/ɛ/
past historic2-ai
/e/
-as
/a/
-a
/a/
-âmes
/am/
-âtes
/at/
-èrent
/ɛʁ/
future-erai
/ə.ʁe/
-eras
/ə.ʁa/
-era
/ə.ʁa/
-erons
/ə.ʁɔ̃/
-erez
/ə.ʁe/
-eront
/ə.ʁɔ̃/
conditional-erais
/ə.ʁɛ/
-erais
/ə.ʁɛ/
-erait
/ə.ʁɛ/
-erions
/ə.ʁjɔ̃/
-eriez
/ə.ʁje/
-eraient
/ə.ʁɛ/
(compound
tenses)
present perfectpresent indicative of avoir + past participle
pluperfectimperfect indicative of avoir + past participle
past anterior2past historic of avoir + past participle
future perfectfuture of avoir + past participle
conditional perfectconditional of avoir + past participle
subjunctiveque je (j’)que tuqu’il, qu’elleque nousque vousqu’ils, qu’elles
(simple
tenses)
present-e
/ə/
-es
/ə/
-e
/ə/
-ions
/jɔ̃/
-iez
/je/
-ent
/ə/
imperfect2-asse
/as/
-asses
/as/
-ât
/a/
-assions
/a.sjɔ̃/
-assiez
/a.sje/
-assent
/as/
(compound
tenses)
pastpresent subjunctive of avoir + past participle
pluperfect2imperfect subjunctive of avoir + past participle
imperativetunousvous
simple-e
/ə/
-ons
/ɔ̃/
-ez
/e/
compoundsimple imperative of avoir + past participlesimple imperative of avoir + past participlesimple imperative of avoir + past participle
1 The French gerund is only usable with the preposition en.
2 In less formal writing or speech, the past historic, past anterior, imperfect subjunctive and pluperfect subjunctive tenses may be found to have been replaced with the indicative present perfect, indicative pluperfect, present subjunctive and past subjunctive tenses respectively (Christopher Kendris [1995], Master the Basics: French, pp. 77, 78, 79, 81).
Etymology 2
From Latin -āre.
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /e/
Suffix
-er
Nominal suffix indicating the person who exercises a particular activity.
Derived terms
French words suffixed with -er
German
Pronunciation
IPA(key): [ɐ]
Etymology 1
From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-West Germanic *-ārī, from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin-ārius.[1]
Suffix
-er m (suffix genitive, -ers plural, -er)
  1. Forms agent nouns etc. from verbs, suffixed to the verb stem.
    arbeiten (“to work”) + ‎-er → ‎Arbeiter(“worker”)
    bohren (“to drill”) + ‎-er → ‎Bohrer (“drill”)
  2. indicating something defined by a number; in the plural often all numbers with the same first digits
    16 + ‎-er → ‎16er (“the 16, the 16er, e.g. a bus, a football player, etc.”)
    200 + ‎-er → ‎200er (“200s, e.g. several 200-euro notes, or the list items 200 to 299, etc.”)
    1990 + ‎-er → ‎1990er (“1990s, the years 1990 to 1999”)
Declension
Declension of -er
singularplural
indef.def.noundef.noun
nominativeeinder-erdie-er
genitiveeinesdes-ersder-er
dativeeinemdem-erden-ern
accusativeeinenden-erdie-er
Derived terms
German words suffixed with -er (agent noun)
Related terms
-ler
Etymology 2
From Middle High German -er, a plural ending for some neuter nouns.
Suffix
-er
Used to form the plurals of some nouns.
Usage notes
The plural ending -er is used in a fairly large number of neuters (including all those in -tum) and a small number of masculines.
Etymology 3
From Middle High German -ære, -er, from Old High German -āri, from Proto-Germanic *warjaz.
Suffix
-er m (genitive -ers, plural -er)
Forms nouns indicating an inhabitant of a place, or a person originating from a place.
Declension
Declension of -er
singularplural
indef.def.noundef.noun
nominativeeinder-erdie-er
genitiveeinesdes-ersder-er
dativeeinemdem-erden-ern
accusativeeinenden-erdie-er
Derived terms
German words suffixed with -er (inhabitant)
Etymology 4
Probably originated from the prepositioned genitive plural, e.g.: der Berliner Pfannkuchen = "the Berliners’ pancake", and then "the Berlin(er) pancake", reanalysed as an adjective instead of a noun and seen as being in the nominative singular due to the ambiguity of the definite article der since the masculine nominative singular and the genitive plural forms of the definite article are homophonous.[2][3]
Suffix
-er
Forms invariable adjectives from place names, with a genitival meaning, indicating origin from or association with that place.
Usage notes
Derived terms
German words suffixed with -er (genitival)
References
  1. ^ A. van Loey, "Schönfeld's Historische Grammatica van het Nederlands", Zutphen, 8. druk, 1970, →ISBN; § 175
  2. ^ Johann Christoph Adelung, Grammatisch-kritisches Wörterbuch der Hochdeutschen Mundart, vol. 1 (Leipzig, 1793), pages 1848-1852, sub verbo 4. -Er
  3. ^ Hermann Möller, Ahd. frôno (nhd. fron-) als elliptischer Plural, in the Zeitschrift für deutsche Wortforschung, volume 4 (editor Friedrich Kluge; Straßburg, 1903), page 95
  4. ^ The current official spelling rules prescribe the capital letter without further explanation and without indicating the part of speech of the words formed with the suffix (compare -isch/-sch, derivatives of which are labelled adjectives in § 62).
Latin
Pronunciation
Suffix
-er
first-person singular present passivesubjunctive of
Luxembourgish
Etymology
From a Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /eʀ/, [ɐ]
Suffix
-er
-er (suffix used to form agent nouns from verbs)
Derived terms
Luxembourgish words suffixed with -er
Middle Dutch
Etymology
From Old Dutch -iro, -oro, from Proto-Germanic*-izô, *-ōzô.
Suffix
-er
-er. Forms the comparative of adjectives.
Alternative forms
-re
Derived terms
See Category:Middle Dutch adjective comparative forms.
Related terms
-st
Descendants
Dutch: -er
Middle French
Alternative forms
-ier (typically early Middle French)
Etymology 1
From Old French -ier, -er, from Latin -are.
Suffix
-er
Forms infinitives of first-conjugation verbs
Usage notes
Many of these verbs are directly descended from Latin, rather than from stem + suffix
Descendants
French: -ier
Etymology 2
From Old French -ier.
Suffix
-er
Forms nouns, often denoting professions
boucher
butcher
Descendants
Norman
Suffix
-er
This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
{{rfdef}}
.
Derived terms
Norman words suffixed with -er
Northern Kurdish
Suffix
-er
Used to form nouns referring to doer or who works on something.
(“to be”) + ‎-er → ‎bûyer (“event”)
destpêkirin (“to start”) + ‎-er → ‎destpêker(“starter”)
Derived terms
Northern Kurdish words suffixed with -er
Norwegian Bokmål
Etymology
From Old Norse -ari, from Medieval Latin and Middle Low German words, both from Proto-Germanic *-ārijaz, from Latin -ārius.
Pronunciation
This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!
Suffix
-er
  1. (added to verbs) person or thing that does an action indicated by the root verb
  2. (added to place names) person or thing that originates in the place indicated by the place name
  3. (added to numbers) order, position, value or similar indicated by the numeral
Derived terms
Norwegian Bokmål words suffixed with -er
References
“-er” in The Bokmål Dictionary.
Norwegian Nynorsk
Suffix
-er
  1. Used to form indefinite plurals for most feminine nouns.
  2. Used to form indefinite plurals for some masculine nouns.
  3. Used to form present tense for one class of weak verbs.
  4. (obsolete) Used to form present tense for strong verbs.
Old English
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /er/
Suffix
-er
Alternative form of -or
Old French
Etymology 1
From Latin -āre.
Suffix
-er
Alternative form of -ier, verbal suffix
Usage notes
All varieties of Old French use -er but it's more common in Anglo-Norman than in France, specifically before certain consonants such as c and g.
Etymology 2
From Latin -ārius.
Suffix
-er
(chiefly Anglo-Norman) Alternative form of -ier, suffix indicating a profession
falconer, fauconer
falconer
Old Frisian
Alternative forms
-ere
Etymology 1
From Proto-West Germanic *iʀ, from Proto-Germanic *iz, from Proto-Indo-European *ís. Cognates include Old High German er, Old Norse er and Gothic 𐌹𐍃 (is).
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ˈer/
Pronoun
-er
enclitic nominative of
Descendants
Old Swedish
Etymology
From Old Norse -r.
Suffix
-er
This term needs a translation to English. Please help out and add a translation, then remove the text
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.
fisker
fish
dø̄ver
deaf
Portuguese
Etymology
From Old Portuguese -er, from Latin -ēre. The short -ere of some Latin verbs was reinterpreted as either -er or -ir.
Pronunciation
Suffix
-er
(non-productive) forms the infinitive of the second-conjugation verbs
Conjugation
  Conjugation of the Portuguese -er verb -er
Notes:[edit]
SingularPlural
First-person
(eu)
Second-person
(tu)
Third-person
(ele / ela / você)
First-person
(nós)
Second-person
(vós)
Third-person
(eles / elas / vocês)
Infinitive
Impersonal-er
Personal-er-eres-er-ermos-erdes-erem
Gerund
-endo
Past participle
Masculine-ido-idos
Feminine-ida-idas
Indicative
Present-o-es-e-emos-eis-em
Imperfect-ia-ias-ia-íamos-íeis-iam
Preterite-i-este-eu-emos-estes-eram
Pluperfect-era-eras-era-êramos-êreis-eram
Future-erei-erás-erá-eremos-ereis-erão
Conditional
-eria-erias-eria-eríamos-eríeis-eriam
Subjunctive
Present-a-as-a-amos-ais-am
Imperfect-esse-esses-esse-êssemos-êsseis-essem
Future-er-eres-er-ermos-erdes-erem
Imperative
Affirmative--e-a-amos-ei-am
Negative (não)--as-a-amos-ais-am
Saterland Frisian
Etymology
From Old Frisian -ere, from Proto-West Germanic*-ārī. Cognates include West Frisian -er and German -er.
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /-ər/
Suffix
-er
Forms agent nouns from verbs; -er
Declension
Saterland Frisian words suffixed with -er
Spanish
Etymology
From Latin -ēre.
Suffix
-er (first-person singular present -o, first-person singular preterite , past participle -ido)
the infinitive suffix for many verbs
Conjugation
    Conjugation of -er (See Appendix:Spanish verbs)
infinitive-er
gerund-iendo
past participlemasculinefeminine
singular-ido-ida
plural-idos-idas
singularplural
1st person2nd person3rd person1st person2nd person3rd person
indicativeyo
vos
él/ella/ello
usted
nosotros
nosotras
vosotros
vosotras
ellos/ellas
ustedes
present-o-es
-ésvos
-e-emos-éis-en
imperfect-ía-ías-ía-íamos-íais-ían
preterite-iste-ió-imos-isteis-ieron
future-eré-erás-erá-eremos-eréis-erán
conditional-ería-erías-ería-eríamos-eríais-erían
subjunctiveyo
vos
él/ella/ello
usted
nosotros
nosotras
vosotros
vosotras
ellos/ellas
ustedes
present-a-as
-ásvos2
-a-amos-áis-an
imperfect
(ra)
-iera-ieras-iera-iéramos-ierais-ieran
imperfect
(se)
-iese-ieses-iese-iésemos-ieseis-iesen
future1-iere-ieres-iere-iéremos-iereis-ieren
imperative
vos
ustednosotros
nosotras
vosotros
vosotras
ustedes
affirmative-e
vos
-a-amos-ed-an
negativeno -asno -ano -amosno -áisno -an
1Mostly obsolete form, now mainly used in legal jargon.
2Argentine and Uruguayan voseo prefers the form for the present subjunctive.
See also
Swedish
Suffix
-er
  1. One of two suffixes for indefinite plural for nouns of the third declension (common and neuter); the second one is -r
  2. Suffix for present tense, active voice, indicative mood for one of the groups of Swedish verbs
See also
plural suffix
present tense suffix
Anagrams
-re, re-
Turkish
Etymology 1
From Ottoman Turkish ر‎ (-r, -er), from Proto-Turkic *-ür. Cognate with Old Turkic 𐰼‎ (r² /-(e)r/). Negative -mez are from Proto-Turkic *-meŕ, from Proto-Turkic *-me + *-er or *-ür (Azerbaijani -ər(“indefinite future suffix”) — -məz, but -ir (“simple present suffix”) — -mir).
Suffix
-er
Simple present and aorist tense marker
Usage notes
In the sense 1, the suffix can change to -ir. (almakalır, but içmekiçer). There are some rules governing the usage of -er/ir, the former is used in case of monosyllabic stems, while the latter is used elsewhere; with the exceptions of 15 verbs below which uses -ir on the aorist (the source said that yenmek in the sense of "conquer" use the -ir aorist):[1]
The suffix -r is used after verb stems ending in a vowel. Unlike most negations of tense suffixes which regularly uses the suffix -me, negative aorist suffix is -mez instead of *-mer.
Derived terms
Turkish words suffixed with -er
Related terms
Etymology 2
Suffix
-er
  1. Makes adjectives out of verbs
  2. Makes nouns out of verbs
    kes- (“to cut”) + ‎-er → ‎keser (“adze”)
    Yağmur diner gibi oldu. ― The rain seems to be stopping.
Etymology 3
From Proto-Turkic [Term?].
Alternative forms
-şer
Suffix
-er
suffix for distributive numbers
birbirer
üçüçer
dörtdörder
Usage notes
Becomes -şer when used after vowel-final words, such as iki (“two”) → ikişer.
References
^ http://easyturkish.ru/glagol/nastoyaschee-buduschee-vremya/
Welsh
Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ɛr/
Suffix
-er
  1. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonalpresent subjunctive
  2. (literary) verb suffix for the impersonalimperative
Last edited on 29 October 2021, at 22:58
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