Wiktionary:International Phonetic Alphabet
The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. It is intended as a notational standard for the phonemic and phonetic representation of all spoken languages.
This page gives a general overview of the symbols used in the IPA. As it is used for all languages, it would be impractical to explain to English speakers how to pronounce all of the sounds. Therefore, the symbols are grouped based on the features they have, or the parts of the mouth used to pronounce them. A dental consonant, for example, is pronounced using the teeth, while a bilabial consonant uses both lips.
- Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a voiced consonant.
- Shaded areas denote articulations judged impossible.
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.
Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary:
Tones and word accents
Tone letters may come before or after a word or syllable. In the IPA Handbook, they come before to indicate prosodic pitch in Portuguese, and after to indicate lexical tone in Cantonese.
They may also face left or right. The distinction is used for tone sandhi
Upstep and downstep always come before the syllable.
Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊.
Last edited on 13 September 2020, at 20:43
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