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Wiktionary:International Phonetic Alphabet
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The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. It is intended as a notational standard for the phonemic and phonetic representation of all spoken languages.
This page gives a general overview of the symbols used in the IPA. As it is used for all languages, it would be impractical to explain to English speakers how to pronounce all of the sounds. Therefore, the symbols are grouped based on the features they have, or the parts of the mouth used to pronounce them. A dental consonant, for example, is pronounced using the teeth, while a bilabial consonant uses both lips.
Pages explaining the pronunciation of individual languages can be found in Category:Pronunciation by language.
Consonants (pulmonic)
 BilabialLabiodentalLinguolabialDentalAlveolarPostalveolarRetroflexPalatalVelarUvularPharyngeal/
Epiglottal
Glottal
Plosivep    b          t    d ʈ    ɖc    ɟk    ɡq    ɢʡ ʔ 
Nasalmɱn ɳɲŋɴ 
Trillʙ r ɽ͡r  ʀʜ    ʢ 
Tap or Flapⱱ̟ɾ̼ɾ̪ɾ ɽ  ɢ̆  
Lateral Tap or Flap   ɺ ɺ̢ʎ̯ʟ̆  
Fricativeɸ    βf    vθ̼    ð̼θ    ðs    zʃ    ʒʂ    ʐç    ʝx    ɣχ    ʁħ    ʕh    ɦ
Lateral Fricative   ɬ    ɮ ɬ̢    ɮ̢    
Approximantβ̞ʋ ð̞ɹ ɻjɰ   
Lateral Approximant l ɭʎʟ  
Consonants (non-pulmonic)
ClicksVoiced implosivesEjectives
ʘBilabial click releaseɓBilabial voiced implosiveʼFor example:
ǀDental click releaseɗAlveolar voiced implosiveBilabial ejective stop
ǃ(Post)alveolar click releaseRetroflex voiced implosiveAlveolar ejective stop
ǂPalatal click releaseʄPalatal voiced implosiveVelar ejective stop
ǃ̢Retroflex click releaseɠVelar voiced implosiveAlveolar ejective fricative
ǁLateral click releaseʛUvular voiced implosivet͡ʃʼPost-alveolar ejective affricate
Vowels
FrontN.-frontCentralN.-backBack
Close
iyɨʉɯu
eøɘɵɤo
ɛœɜɞʌɔ
aɶɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel.
Co-articulated consonants
ʍVoiceless labial-velar fricative
wVoiced labial-velar approximant
ɥVoiced labial-palatal approximant
ɕ ʑAlveolo-palatal fricatives
ɧSimultaneous ʃ and x
Affricates and double articulations can be represented by two symbols joined by a tie bar if necessary:
k͡p   t͡s
Suprasegmentals
ˈPrimary stress (indicated before the stressed element)
ˌSecondary stress (indicated before the stressed element)
ːLong
ˑHalf-long
˘Extra-short
.Syllable break
ǀMinor (foot) group
ǁMajor (intonation) group
Linking (absence of a break)
Tones and word accents
˥Extra-high (top) tone
˦Mid-high tone
˧Mid tone
˨Mid-low tone
˩Extra-low (bottom) tone
Upstep and downstep
Tone letters may come before or after a word or syllable. In the IPA Handbook, they come before to indicate prosodic pitch in Portuguese, and after to indicate lexical tone in Cantonese.
They may also face left or right. The distinction is used for tone sandhi.
Upstep and downstep always come before the syllable.
Diacritics
Diacritics may be placed above a symbol with a descender, e.g. ŋ̊.
  ̥ Voiceless  ̤ Breathy voiced  ̪ Dental
  ̬ Voiced  ̰ Creaky voiced  ̺ Apical
 ʰ Aspirated  ̼ Linguolabial  ̻ Laminal
 ˒ More rounded ʷ Labialized  ̃ Nasalized
 ˓ Less rounded ʲ Palatalized ⁿ Nasal release
 ˖ Advanced ˠ Velarized ˡ Lateral release
 ˗ Retracted ˁ Pharyngealized  ̚ No audible release
  ̈ Centralized  ̴ Velarized or pharyngealized
  ̽ Mid-centralized  ̝ Raised (ɹ̝ = voiced alveolar fricative)
  ̩ Syllabic  ̞ Lowered (β̞ = voiced bilabial approximant)
  ̯ Non-syllabic  ̘ Advanced tongue root
 ˞ Rhoticity  ̙ Retracted tongue root
   ͍ Labial spreading   ͈ Strong articulation   ͊ Denasal
   ͆ Dentolabial   ͉ Weak articulation   ͋ Nasal escape
  ̪͆ Interdental/Bidental \ Reiterated articulation   ͌ Velopharyngeal friction
  ̳ Alveolar   ͎ Whistled articulation  ↓ Ingressive airflow
  ̼ Linguolabial   ͢  Sliding articulation  ↑ Egressive airflow
See also
Last edited on 13 September 2020, at 20:43
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