National Transitional Council: Difference between revisions
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 | successor = [[General National Congress]] of Libya | successor = [[General National Congress]] of Libya
 | formation = 27 February 2011 | formation = 27 February 2011
| extinction = <!-- Please do not change this parameter name, or the datum will not display -->8 August 2012 <ref name="Gnan-6-Aug-Meet">{{Citation |first=Michel |last=Cousins |title=National Congress to meet on 8 August: NTC |newspaper=Libya Herald |date=24 July 2012 |url=http://www.libyaherald.com/national-congress-to-meet-on-8-august/ |accessdate=26 July 2012 }}</ref>+| extinction = <!-- Please do not change this parameter name, or the datum will not display -->8 August 2012 <ref name="Gnan-6-Aug-Meet">{{Citation |first=Michel |last=Cousins |title=National Congress to meet on 8 August: NTC |newspaper=Libya Herald |date=24 July 2012 |url=http://www.libyaherald.com/national-congress-to-meet-on-8-august/ |access-date=26 July 2012 }}</ref>
 | type = [[Provisional government|Provisional authority]] | type = [[Provisional government|Provisional authority]]
 | purpose = [[Deliberative assembly]]/ [[deliberative democracy]] | purpose = [[Deliberative assembly]]/ [[deliberative democracy]]
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 }} }}
 {{Politics of Libya}} {{Politics of Libya}}
The '''National Transitional Council of Libya''' ({{lang-ar|المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي}} ''{{transl|ar|ALA-LC|al-[[majlis]] al-waṭanī al-intiqālī}}'' ), sometimes known as the '''Transitional National Council''',<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|publisher=[[World Socialist Web Site]]|title=The US recognises Libya's Transitional National Council|date=20 July 2011|accessdate=29 July 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724153337/http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|archive-date=24 July 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> was the ''de facto'' government of [[Libya]] for a period during and after the [[Libyan Civil War (2011)|Libyan Civil War]], in which [[anti-Gaddafi forces|rebel forces]] overthrew the [[Libyan Arab Jamahiriya]] of [[Muammar Gaddafi]]. The '''NTC''' governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding [[2012 Libyan General National Congress election|elections]] to a [[General National Congress]] on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.<ref>[https://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html Libya's transitional rulers hand over power] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121208121751/http://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html |date=8 December 2012 }}, ''Boston.com'', 8 August 2012.</ref>+The '''National Transitional Council of Libya''' ({{lang-ar|المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي}} ''{{transl|ar|ALA-LC|al-[[majlis]] al-waṭanī al-intiqālī}}'' ), sometimes known as the '''Transitional National Council''',<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|publisher=[[World Socialist Web Site]]|title=The US recognises Libya's Transitional National Council|date=20 July 2011|access-date=29 July 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110724153337/http://www.wsws.org/articles/2011/jul2011/pers-j20.shtml|archive-date=24 July 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> was the ''de facto'' government of [[Libya]] for a period during and after the [[Libyan Civil War (2011)|Libyan Civil War]], in which [[anti-Gaddafi forces|rebel forces]] overthrew the [[Libyan Arab Jamahiriya]] of [[Muammar Gaddafi]]. The '''NTC''' governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding [[2012 Libyan General National Congress election|elections]] to a [[General National Congress]] on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.<ref>[https://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html Libya's transitional rulers hand over power] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121208121751/http://www.boston.com/news/world/middle-east/2012/08/08/libya-transitional-rulers-hand-over-power/uMPkXd9vTSSHg589mU9ykJ/story.html |date=8 December 2012 }}, ''Boston.com'', 8 August 2012.</ref>
  
The formation of the NTC was announced in the city of [[Benghazi]] on 27 February 2011 with the purpose to act as the "political face of the revolution". On 5 March 2011, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref name="news.com.au">{{cite news |title=Ferocious Battles in Libya as National Council Meets for First Time |url=http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/story-e6frfku0-1226016536676 |date=6 March 2011 |accessdate=6 March 2011 |publisher=[[NewsCore]] (via [[news.com.au]]) |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190822083631/https://www.news.com.au/world/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/news-story/77a9c3d6f7ffdb00ee111056a8447ac8 |archive-date=22 August 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">The Interim Transitional National Council Decree 3. 5 March 2011.</ref><ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> An executive board, chaired by [[Mahmoud Jibril]], was formed by the council on 23 March 2011 after being ''de facto'' assembled as an "executive team" since 5 March 2011. The NTC issued a [[Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration|Constitutional Declaration]] in August 2011 in which it set up a road-map for the transition of the country to a [[constitutional democracy]] with an elected government.+The formation of the NTC was announced in the city of [[Benghazi]] on 27 February 2011 with the purpose to act as the "political face of the revolution". On 5 March 2011, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref name="news.com.au">{{cite news |title=Ferocious Battles in Libya as National Council Meets for First Time |url=http://www.news.com.au/breaking-news/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/story-e6frfku0-1226016536676 |date=6 March 2011 |access-date=6 March 2011 |publisher=[[NewsCore]] (via [[news.com.au]]) |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20190822083631/https://www.news.com.au/world/ferocious-battles-in-libya-as-national-council-meets-for-first-time/news-story/77a9c3d6f7ffdb00ee111056a8447ac8 |archive-date=22 August 2019 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref name="ReferenceB">The Interim Transitional National Council Decree 3. 5 March 2011.</ref><ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> An executive board, chaired by [[Mahmoud Jibril]], was formed by the council on 23 March 2011 after being ''de facto'' assembled as an "executive team" since 5 March 2011. The NTC issued a [[Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration|Constitutional Declaration]] in August 2011 in which it set up a road-map for the transition of the country to a [[constitutional democracy]] with an elected government.
  
The council gained [[International recognition of the National Transitional Council|international recognition]] as the legitimate governing authority in Libya<ref>{{cite news|url=https://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|publisher=[[Reuters]]|date=15 July 2011|accessdate=25 July 2011|title=Excerpts from Libya Contact Group Chair's Statement|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120725211340/http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|archive-date=25 July 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> and occupied the country's seat at the [[United Nations]].<ref name="unga_144">{{cite news|url=http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_18910663|work=San Jose Mercury News|first=Edith|last=Lederer|title=UN approves Libya seat for former rebels|date=16 September 2011|accessdate=16 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111123034247/http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_18910663|archive-date=23 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> In referring to the Libyan state, the council used simply "Libya". The UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://unterm.un.org |title=United Nations interoffice memorandum dated 16 September 2011 from Desmond Parker, Chief of Protocol, to Shaaban M. Shaaban, Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly and Conference Management, attaching memorandum from Stadler Trengove, Senior Legal Officer |publisher=[[United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database|Unterm.un.org]] |date= |accessdate=2013-02-05 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130122071953/http://unterm.un.org/ |archive-date=22 January 2013 |url-status=dead }}</ref> based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the [[Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration]] of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the [[ISO 3166-1]] was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye (la)" in French.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.iso.org/iso/nl_vi-11_name_change_for_libya.pdf |accessdate=13 December 2011 |date=8 November 2011 |title=ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-11: Name change for Libya |publisher=International Organization for Standardization |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120117170551/http://www.iso.org/iso/nl_vi-11_name_change_for_libya.pdf |archive-date=17 January 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>+The council gained [[International recognition of the National Transitional Council|international recognition]] as the legitimate governing authority in Libya<ref>{{cite news|url=https://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|publisher=[[Reuters]]|date=15 July 2011|access-date=25 July 2011|title=Excerpts from Libya Contact Group Chair's Statement|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120725211340/http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|archive-date=25 July 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> and occupied the country's seat at the [[United Nations]].<ref name="unga_144">{{cite news|url=http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_18910663|work=San Jose Mercury News|first=Edith|last=Lederer|title=UN approves Libya seat for former rebels|date=16 September 2011|access-date=16 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111123034247/http://www.mercurynews.com/news/ci_18910663|archive-date=23 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> In referring to the Libyan state, the council used simply "Libya". The UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011,<ref>{{cite web |url=http://unterm.un.org |title=United Nations interoffice memorandum dated 16 September 2011 from Desmond Parker, Chief of Protocol, to Shaaban M. Shaaban, Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly and Conference Management, attaching memorandum from Stadler Trengove, Senior Legal Officer |publisher=[[United Nations Multilingual Terminology Database|Unterm.un.org]] |access-date=2013-02-05 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130122071953/http://unterm.un.org/ |archive-date=22 January 2013 |url-status=dead }}</ref> based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the [[Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration]] of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the [[ISO 3166-1]] was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye (la)" in French.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.iso.org/iso/nl_vi-11_name_change_for_libya.pdf |access-date=13 December 2011 |date=8 November 2011 |title=ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-11: Name change for Libya |publisher=International Organization for Standardization |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120117170551/http://www.iso.org/iso/nl_vi-11_name_change_for_libya.pdf |archive-date=17 January 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
 ==Background== ==Background==
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 ===Uprising and civil war=== ===Uprising and civil war===
 {{Main|2011 Libyan civil war}} {{Main|2011 Libyan civil war}}
After [[Arab Spring|popular movements]] overturned the rulers of [[Tunisian revolution|Tunisia]] and [[2011 Egyptian revolution|Egypt]], Libya's immediate neighbours to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale [[uprising]] beginning in February 2011.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/17/live-blog-libya |title= Live Blog &nbsp;&ndash; Libya |publisher= [[Al Jazeera]] |date= 17 February 2011 |accessdate= 23 February 2011 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110223072304/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/17/live-blog-libya |archive-date= 23 February 2011 |url-status= live }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://archive.libyafeb17.com/category/newsfeed/ |title=News &#124; Libya February 17th |publisher=Libyafeb17.com |date= |accessdate=23 February 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121030012821/http://archive.libyafeb17.com/category/newsfeed/ |archive-date=30 October 2012 |url-status=dead }}</ref> By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. Much of Libya had slipped out of Gaddafi's control, falling to anti-Gaddafi forces. [[Cyrenaica|Eastern Libya]], centered around the second largest city and vital port of Benghazi, was firmly under the control of the opposition. The opposition began to organise themselves into a functioning government.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/25/world/middleeast/map-of-how-the-protests-unfolded-in-libya.html|work=[[The New York Times]]|title=Map of How the Protests Unfolded in Libya|date=25 February 2011|accessdate=26 February 2011|author1=Burgess, Joe|author2=Fahim, Kareem|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110228085818/http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/25/world/middleeast/map-of-how-the-protests-unfolded-in-libya.html|archive-date=28 February 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Anti-Gaddafi forces marched on [[Sirte]] ([[Muammar Gaddafi|Gaddafi]]'s hometown) on 28 September 2011. [[Armed forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|Gaddafi loyalists]] delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The [[Battle of Sirte (2011)|fight for Sirte]] ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15389550|publisher=[[BBC News]]|title=Libya's Col Muammar Gaddafi killed, says NTC|date=20 October 2011|accessdate=20 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111020145228/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15389550|archive-date=20 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+After [[Arab Spring|popular movements]] overturned the rulers of [[Tunisian revolution|Tunisia]] and [[2011 Egyptian revolution|Egypt]], Libya's immediate neighbours to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale [[uprising]] beginning in February 2011.<ref>{{cite web |url= http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/17/live-blog-libya |title= Live Blog &nbsp;&ndash; Libya |publisher= [[Al Jazeera]] |date= 17 February 2011 |access-date= 23 February 2011 |archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110223072304/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/02/17/live-blog-libya |archive-date= 23 February 2011 |url-status= live }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://archive.libyafeb17.com/category/newsfeed/ |title=News &#124; Libya February 17th |publisher=Libyafeb17.com |access-date=23 February 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121030012821/http://archive.libyafeb17.com/category/newsfeed/ |archive-date=30 October 2012 |url-status=dead }}</ref> By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. Much of Libya had slipped out of Gaddafi's control, falling to anti-Gaddafi forces. [[Cyrenaica|Eastern Libya]], centered around the second largest city and vital port of Benghazi, was firmly under the control of the opposition. The opposition began to organise themselves into a functioning government.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/25/world/middleeast/map-of-how-the-protests-unfolded-in-libya.html|work=[[The New York Times]]|title=Map of How the Protests Unfolded in Libya|date=25 February 2011|access-date=26 February 2011|author1=Burgess, Joe|author2=Fahim, Kareem|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110228085818/http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2011/02/25/world/middleeast/map-of-how-the-protests-unfolded-in-libya.html|archive-date=28 February 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Anti-Gaddafi forces marched on [[Sirte]] ([[Muammar Gaddafi|Gaddafi]]'s hometown) on 28 September 2011. [[Armed forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|Gaddafi loyalists]] delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The [[Battle of Sirte (2011)|fight for Sirte]] ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15389550|publisher=[[BBC News]]|title=Libya's Col Muammar Gaddafi killed, says NTC|date=20 October 2011|access-date=20 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111020145228/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-15389550|archive-date=20 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ===Early efforts to form a government=== ===Early efforts to form a government===
 [[File:Al Bayda opposition meeting.PNG|thumb|left|Opposition meeting in Bayda, 24 February 2011]] [[File:Al Bayda opposition meeting.PNG|thumb|left|Opposition meeting in Bayda, 24 February 2011]]
On 24 February 2011, politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of [[Bayda, Libya|Bayda]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |title=Spotlight Libya |publisher=[[Al Jazeera English]] |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110319100552/http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |archive-date=19 March 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> The meeting was chaired by former justice minister [[Mustafa Abdul Jalil]], who [[List of Libyan officials who protested or resigned during 2011 protests|quit the Jamahiriya government]] a few days before. The delegates discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya.<ref>{{cite news | author = Staff | date = 25 February 2011 | title = Discussions Under Way for Provisional Government in Libya | url = http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | work = Malta Star | accessdate = 17 August 2011 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20111003071612/http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | archive-date = 3 October 2011 | url-status = dead }}</ref> The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Jamahiriya flag.<ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite news | publisher = [[NPR]] | date = 23 February 2011 | url = https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | title = New Government Forms in Eastern Libya | access-date = 3 April 2018 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20180513000630/https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | archive-date = 13 May 2018 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Bloomberg Businessweek]] |date=25 February 2011 |url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |title=Libya's Eastern Rebels Long Time Qaddafi Foes Driving Revolt |url-status=dead |​archiveurl​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110228232031/http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |archivedate=28 February 2011 }}</ref>+On 24 February 2011, politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of [[Bayda, Libya|Bayda]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |title=Spotlight Libya |publisher=[[Al Jazeera English]] |access-date=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110319100552/http://english.aljazeera.net/indepth/spotlight/libya/ |archive-date=19 March 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> The meeting was chaired by former justice minister [[Mustafa Abdul Jalil]], who [[List of Libyan officials who protested or resigned during 2011 protests|quit the Jamahiriya government]] a few days before. The delegates discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya.<ref>{{cite news | author = Staff | date = 25 February 2011 | title = Discussions Under Way for Provisional Government in Libya | url = http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | work = Malta Star | access-date = 17 August 2011 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20111003071612/http://maltastar.com/pages/r1/ms10dart.asp?a=14356 | archive-date = 3 October 2011 | url-status = dead }}</ref> The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Jamahiriya flag.<ref name="ReferenceA">{{cite news | publisher = [[NPR]] | date = 23 February 2011 | url = https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | title = New Government Forms in Eastern Libya | access-date = 3 April 2018 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20180513000630/https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | archive-date = 13 May 2018 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Bloomberg Businessweek]] |date=25 February 2011 |url=http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |title=Libya's Eastern Rebels Long Time Qaddafi Foes Driving Revolt |url-status=dead |​archive-url​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110228232031/http://www.businessweek.com/news/2011-02-25/libya-s-eastern-rebels-long-time-qaddafi-foes-driving-revolt.html |archive-date=28 February 2011 }}</ref>
  
On 25 February, [[Al Jazeera]] TV reported that talks were taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> The following day, former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil was announced to be leading the process of forming an interim body, to be based in Benghazi.<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[CBN News]] | date = 26 February 2011 | url = http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | title = Terror in Tripoli as pressure builds in Yemen | accessdate = 8 August 2012 | agency = Agence France-Presse | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20121004104249/http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | archive-date = 4 October 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |date=26 February 2011 |url-status=dead |​archiveurl​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301015859/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |archivedate=1 March 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 }}</ref> Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya; he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli was the national capital.<ref>{{cite news| publisher = lse.co.uk| title = Ex-Libyan Minister Forms Interim Government: report| agency = Reuters| url = http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| date = 26 February 2011| accessdate = 8 August 2012| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110513045506/http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| archive-date = 13 May 2011| url-status = live}}</ref> The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the United States, [[Ali Suleiman Aujali]].<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[Reuters]] | url = https://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | title = Update 1-Exclusive-Libya Envoy to U.S. Backs Interim Government | date = 26 February 2011 | accessdate = 8 August 2012 | author = Arshad Mohammed | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120725175410/http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | archive-date = 25 July 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog&nbsp;&ndash; Libya |date=27 February 2011 |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |url-status=dead |​archiveurl​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110308080819/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |archivedate=8 March 2011 }}</ref> The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, [[Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi]], stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle".<ref>{{cite news|date=27 February 2011|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html#|title=Interim Libyan Govt Wins Support|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|accessdate=17 August 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629083820/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html|archive-date=29 June 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+On 25 February, [[Al Jazeera]] TV reported that talks were taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era.<ref name="ReferenceA"/> The following day, former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil was announced to be leading the process of forming an interim body, to be based in Benghazi.<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[CBN News]] | date = 26 February 2011 | url = http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | title = Terror in Tripoli as pressure builds in Yemen | access-date = 8 August 2012 | agency = Agence France-Presse | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20121004104249/http://www.abs-cbnnews.com/global-filipino/world/02/26/11/terror-tripoli-pressure-builds-yemen | archive-date = 4 October 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news |work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |date=26 February 2011 |url-status=dead |​archive-url​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301015859/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-26 |archive-date=1 March 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 }}</ref> Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya; he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli was the national capital.<ref>{{cite news| publisher = lse.co.uk| title = Ex-Libyan Minister Forms Interim Government: report| agency = Reuters| url = http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| date = 26 February 2011| access-date = 8 August 2012| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110513045506/http://www.lse.co.uk/FinanceNews.asp?ArticleCode=77c8l0riig2uluz&ArticleHeadline=Ex_Libyan_minister_forms_interim_govtreport| archive-date = 13 May 2011| url-status = live}}</ref> The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the United States, [[Ali Suleiman Aujali]].<ref>{{cite news | publisher = [[Reuters]] | url = https://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | title = Update 1-Exclusive-Libya Envoy to U.S. Backs Interim Government | date = 26 February 2011 | access-date = 8 August 2012 | author = Arshad Mohammed | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20120725175410/http://af.reuters.com/article/energyOilNews/idAFN2613766620110226 | archive-date = 25 July 2012 | url-status = live }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|work=[[Al Jazeera]] |title=Live Blog&nbsp;&ndash; Libya |date=27 February 2011 |url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |url-status=dead |​archive-url​=https://web.archive.org/web/20110308080819/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/live/africa/live-blog-libya-feb-27 |archive-date=8 March 2011 }}</ref> The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, [[Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi]], stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle".<ref>{{cite news|date=27 February 2011|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html#|title=Interim Libyan Govt Wins Support|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|access-date=17 August 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110629083820/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/201122702915408866.html|archive-date=29 June 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ===Establishment of a national council=== ===Establishment of a national council===
 {{History of Libya}} {{History of Libya}}
A National Transitional Council was formed on 27 February to act as "the political face of the revolution".<ref>{{cite news|title=Anti-Gaddafi Figures Say Form National Council|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/libya-council-revolution-idUSWEB194120110227|publisher=Reuters|date=28 February 2011|author1=Abbas, Mohammed|author2=Blair, Edmund|name-list-style=amp|​accessdate​=8 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120918231150/http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/libya-council-revolution-idUSWEB194120110227|archive-date=18 September 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> Its spokesman, [[Abdul Hafiz Ghoga]], made clear at the launch press conference that the national council was not a provisional government and added that the newly formed council was not in contact with foreign governments and did not want them to intervene.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons"/> He later clarified that an airstrike mandated by the United Nations would not be considered a foreign intervention.<ref>{{cite news |title=Libyan Rebels Said To Debate Seeking U.N. Airstrikes |url=https://nytimes.com/2011/03/02/world/africa/02libya.html |date=1 March 2011 |accessdate=5 March 2011 |work=[[The New York Times]] |first1=Kareem |last1=Fahim |first2=David D. |last2=Kirkpatrick |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110506215302/http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/02/world/africa/02libya.html |archive-date=6 May 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>+A National Transitional Council was formed on 27 February to act as "the political face of the revolution".<ref>{{cite news|title=Anti-Gaddafi Figures Say Form National Council|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/libya-council-revolution-idUSWEB194120110227|publisher=Reuters|date=28 February 2011|author1=Abbas, Mohammed|author2=Blair, Edmund|name-list-style=amp|​access-date​=8 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120918231150/http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/02/27/libya-council-revolution-idUSWEB194120110227|archive-date=18 September 2012|url-status=live}}</ref> Its spokesman, [[Abdul Hafiz Ghoga]], made clear at the launch press conference that the national council was not a provisional government and added that the newly formed council was not in contact with foreign governments and did not want them to intervene.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons"/> He later clarified that an airstrike mandated by the United Nations would not be considered a foreign intervention.<ref>{{cite news |title=Libyan Rebels Said To Debate Seeking U.N. Airstrikes |url=https://nytimes.com/2011/03/02/world/africa/02libya.html |date=1 March 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 |work=[[The New York Times]] |first1=Kareem |last1=Fahim |first2=David D. |last2=Kirkpatrick |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110506215302/http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/02/world/africa/02libya.html |archive-date=6 May 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
 An Al Jazeera journalist in Benghazi reported that a fully fledged interim government would not be formed until Tripoli was under opposition control.<ref>Reported on Al-Jazeera English TV by Hoda Abdel-Hamid{{full citation needed|date=January 2012}}</ref> This contradicted Jalil's statement of the previous day about the formation of a provisional government. These comments were later clarified by the council as Jalil's "personal views". An Al Jazeera journalist in Benghazi reported that a fully fledged interim government would not be formed until Tripoli was under opposition control.<ref>Reported on Al-Jazeera English TV by Hoda Abdel-Hamid{{full citation needed|date=January 2012}}</ref> This contradicted Jalil's statement of the previous day about the formation of a provisional government. These comments were later clarified by the council as Jalil's "personal views".
Line 113:Line 113:
 On 5 March, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". Mustafa Abdul Jalil was named as chairman of the council.<ref name="news.com.au"/><ref name="ReferenceB"/><ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> On 5 March, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". Mustafa Abdul Jalil was named as chairman of the council.<ref name="news.com.au"/><ref name="ReferenceB"/><ref name="ntclibya_founding" />
  
On 10 March, [[France]] became the first country to recognise the council as Libya's only legitimate government.<ref name=BBC103>{{cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12699183 |title=Libya: France recognises rebels as government |date=10 March 2011 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111023041256/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12699183 |archive-date=23 October 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>+On 10 March, [[France]] became the first country to recognise the council as Libya's only legitimate government.<ref name=BBC103>{{cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12699183 |title=Libya: France recognises rebels as government |date=10 March 2011 |publisher=BBC News |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111023041256/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-12699183 |archive-date=23 October 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
 ===Formation of an executive board=== ===Formation of an executive board===
On 23 March, the council established an Executive Board to act as a transitional government for Libya. Jibril, who had served as chairman of the informal "executive team" since 5 March, was appointed as Chairman of that board, stating that council would serve as the "legislative body", and the new Executive Board would serve as the "executive body".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/225/119.html|script-title=he:למען מיסראתה: מטוסי המערב תקפו טנקים|newspaper=[[Maariv]]|date=23 March 2011|language=​Hebrew​|trans-title=For Misrata: Western planes attacked tanks|accessdate=8 January 2012|agency=Associated Press|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110917222901/http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/225/119.html|archive-date=17 September 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=airforce>{{cite news|url= http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201132316258646677.html|title= Libyan Air Force 'No Longer Exists'|newspaper= [[Al Jazeera]]|date= 23 March 2011|accessdate= 23 March 2011|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110324161321/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201132316258646677.html|archive-date= 24 March 2011|url-status= live}}</ref> Jibril led the meeting and negotiations with French President [[Nicolas Sarkozy]], a meeting that resulted in France officially recognizing the council as the sole representative of the Libyan people.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}+On 23 March, the council established an Executive Board to act as a transitional government for Libya. Jibril, who had served as chairman of the informal "executive team" since 5 March, was appointed as Chairman of that board, stating that council would serve as the "legislative body", and the new Executive Board would serve as the "executive body".<ref>{{cite news|url=http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/225/119.html|script-title=he:למען מיסראתה: מטוסי המערב תקפו טנקים|newspaper=[[Maariv]]|date=23 March 2011|language=​he​|trans-title=For Misrata: Western planes attacked tanks|access-date=8 January 2012|agency=Associated Press|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110917222901/http://www.nrg.co.il/online/1/ART2/225/119.html|archive-date=17 September 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=airforce>{{cite news|url= http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201132316258646677.html|title= Libyan Air Force 'No Longer Exists'|newspaper= [[Al Jazeera]]|date= 23 March 2011|access-date= 23 March 2011|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20110324161321/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/201132316258646677.html|archive-date= 24 March 2011|url-status= live}}</ref> Jibril led the meeting and negotiations with French President [[Nicolas Sarkozy]], a meeting that resulted in France officially recognizing the council as the sole representative of the Libyan people.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}
  
 ===Instability in 2012=== ===Instability in 2012===
In mid-January 2012, protesters against the NTC stormed its Benghazi headquarters, demanding greater transparency on expenditures, that Gaddafi-era officials be sacked, and that Islamic [[sharia law]] be the source of the country's future constitution.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/21/189534.html |title=Libyan protesters storm government headquarters in Benghazi |date=21 January 2012 |publisher=Al Arabiya |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120519234057/http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/21/189534.html |archive-date=19 May 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> Jalil was in the building, but slipped out the back before protesters broke in and stole computers and furniture. A few days earlier, [[Abdul Hafiz Ghoga]], vice president of the NTC, was surrounded and jostled by a group of university students in Benghazi, before being pulled to safety by supporters.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.firstpost.com/world/libyas-ntc-faces-protesters-wrath-as-it-grapples-with-transition-189917.html |title=Libya's NTC faces protesters' wrath as it grapples with transition |author=Malvika Tegta |date=22 January 2012 |publisher=Firstpost.com |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120405092025/http://www.firstpost.com/world/libyas-ntc-faces-protesters-wrath-as-it-grapples-with-transition-189917.html |archive-date=5 April 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>+In mid-January 2012, protesters against the NTC stormed its Benghazi headquarters, demanding greater transparency on expenditures, that Gaddafi-era officials be sacked, and that Islamic [[sharia law]] be the source of the country's future constitution.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/21/189534.html |title=Libyan protesters storm government headquarters in Benghazi |date=21 January 2012 |publisher=Al Arabiya |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120519234057/http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2012/01/21/189534.html |archive-date=19 May 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> Jalil was in the building, but slipped out the back before protesters broke in and stole computers and furniture. A few days earlier, [[Abdul Hafiz Ghoga]], vice president of the NTC, was surrounded and jostled by a group of university students in Benghazi, before being pulled to safety by supporters.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.firstpost.com/world/libyas-ntc-faces-protesters-wrath-as-it-grapples-with-transition-189917.html |title=Libya's NTC faces protesters' wrath as it grapples with transition |author=Malvika Tegta |date=22 January 2012 |publisher=Firstpost.com |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120405092025/http://www.firstpost.com/world/libyas-ntc-faces-protesters-wrath-as-it-grapples-with-transition-189917.html |archive-date=5 April 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
 ===Dissolution=== ===Dissolution===
 In a ceremony on 8 August 2012—held in the evening due to the daytime fast of [[Ramadan]]—the NTC formally transferred power to the General National Congress. Jalil stepped down as chairman, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member, [[Mohammed Ali Salim]].<ref name=BBC88 /> The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oath of office, led by Salim.<ref name=R88 /> In a ceremony on 8 August 2012—held in the evening due to the daytime fast of [[Ramadan]]—the NTC formally transferred power to the General National Congress. Jalil stepped down as chairman, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member, [[Mohammed Ali Salim]].<ref name=BBC88 /> The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oath of office, led by Salim.<ref name=R88 />
  
Hundreds of people gathered in [[Tripoli]]'s [[Martyrs' Square, Tripoli|Martyrs' Square]] with candles symbolizing reconciliation.<ref name=BBC88 /> The date of the transfer—20 Ramadan on the [[Islamic calendar]]—had also been selected for symbolic reasons, as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the rebels attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight.<ref name=R88>{{cite web |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |title=Libya's ruling council hands over power to new assembly |author1=Gumuchian, Marie-Louise |author2=Shuaib, Ali |name-list-style=amp |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=Reuters |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130508182836/http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |archive-date=8 May 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref> As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees chanted "Allahu Akbar!" or another phrase meaning "The blood of martyrs will not go wasted!"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |title=Libya's transitional council hands over power |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=CNN |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120810074335/http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |archive-date=10 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>+Hundreds of people gathered in [[Tripoli]]'s [[Martyrs' Square, Tripoli|Martyrs' Square]] with candles symbolizing reconciliation.<ref name=BBC88 /> The date of the transfer—20 Ramadan on the [[Islamic calendar]]—had also been selected for symbolic reasons, as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the rebels attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight.<ref name=R88>{{cite web |url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |title=Libya's ruling council hands over power to new assembly |author1=Gumuchian, Marie-Louise |author2=Shuaib, Ali |name-list-style=amp |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=Reuters |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130508182836/http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/08/08/libya-handover-idUSL6E8J8DD320120808 |archive-date=8 May 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref> As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees chanted "Allahu Akbar!" or another phrase meaning "The blood of martyrs will not go wasted!"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |title=Libya's transitional council hands over power |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=CNN |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120810074335/http://www.cnn.com/2012/08/08/world/meast/libya-power-transition/ |archive-date=10 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
According to [[BBC News]], the transfer was "the first [[peaceful transition of power]] in Libya's modern history",<ref name=BBC88>{{cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |title=Libya's NTC hands power to newly elected assembly |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=BBC News |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120808192952/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |archive-date=8 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> meaning the history since the end of the monarchy.+According to [[BBC News]], the transfer was "the first [[peaceful transition of power]] in Libya's modern history",<ref name=BBC88>{{cite web |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |title=Libya's NTC hands power to newly elected assembly |date=8 August 2012 |publisher=BBC News |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120808192952/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-19183300 |archive-date=8 August 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> meaning the history since the end of the monarchy.
  
 ==Aims and objectives== ==Aims and objectives==
 {{further|Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration}} {{further|Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration}}
The "Declaration of the founding of the National Transitional Council" stated that the main aims of the council were as follows:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/arabic/first-announcement/ |script-title=ar:إعلان تاسيس المجلس الوطني الانتقالي المؤقت &#124; الجمهورية الليبية - المجلس الوطني الانتقالي‎ |trans-title= |language=Arabic |publisher=National Transitional Council |date=19 March 2011 |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110314192350/http://ntclibya.org/arabic/first-announcement/ |archive-date=14 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>+The "Declaration of the founding of the National Transitional Council" stated that the main aims of the council were as follows:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/arabic/first-announcement/ |script-title=ar:إعلان تاسيس المجلس الوطني الانتقالي المؤقت &#124; الجمهورية الليبية - المجلس الوطني الانتقالي |language=ar |publisher=National Transitional Council |date=19 March 2011 |access-date=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110314192350/http://ntclibya.org/arabic/first-announcement/ |archive-date=14 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
  
 *Ensure the safety of the national territory and citizens *Ensure the safety of the national territory and citizens
Line 140:Line 140:
 *Guide the conduct of foreign policy, and the regulation of relations with other countries and international and regional organizations, and the representation of the Libyan people *Guide the conduct of foreign policy, and the regulation of relations with other countries and international and regional organizations, and the representation of the Libyan people
  
In another statement clarifying the goals for a post-Gaddafi Libya, the council committed itself an eight-point plan to hold free and fair elections, draft a national constitution, form political and civil institutions, uphold intellectual and political pluralism, and guarantee citizens' inalienable human rights and the ability of free expression of their aspirations. The council also emphasized its rejection of racism, intolerance, discrimination, and terrorism.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |title=A vision of a democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |work=The Guardian |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130921211659/http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |archive-date=21 September 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf|title=A Vision of a Democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |publisher=[[Al Jazeera]] |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121106021050/http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf |archive-date=6 November 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> Article 1 further declares [[Tripoli]] the state capital and [[Standard Arabic|Arabic]] the official language while reserving the linguistic and cultural rights of ethnic minorities as well as the [[freedom of religion]] for religious minorities.+In another statement clarifying the goals for a post-Gaddafi Libya, the council committed itself an eight-point plan to hold free and fair elections, draft a national constitution, form political and civil institutions, uphold intellectual and political pluralism, and guarantee citizens' inalienable human rights and the ability of free expression of their aspirations. The council also emphasized its rejection of racism, intolerance, discrimination, and terrorism.<ref>{{cite web |url=https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |title=A vision of a democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |work=The Guardian |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130921211659/http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/29/vision-democratic-libya-interim-national-council |archive-date=21 September 2013 |url-status=live }}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf|title=A Vision of a Democratic Libya |date=29 March 2011 |publisher=[[Al Jazeera]] |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121106021050/http://www.aljazeera.com/mritems/Documents/2011/3/29/2011329113923943811The%20Interim%20Transitional%20National%20Council%20Statement.pdf |archive-date=6 November 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> Article 1 further declares [[Tripoli]] the state capital and [[Standard Arabic|Arabic]] the official language while reserving the linguistic and cultural rights of ethnic minorities as well as the [[freedom of religion]] for religious minorities.
  
The stated aim of the NTC was to form a ''de jure'' interim government based in [[Tripoli]] and hold elections for a General National Congress to replace it. The GNC would then elect a prime minister, appoint a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution subject to its approval by the Public National Conference (PNC) and by referendum, and then oversee free elections for a representative government.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|agency=Reuters|title=Libya's new rulers set out steps to elections|first=Robert|last=Birsel|date=31 August 2011|accessdate=24 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111122015132/http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|archive-date=22 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+The stated aim of the NTC was to form a ''de jure'' interim government based in [[Tripoli]] and hold elections for a General National Congress to replace it. The GNC would then elect a prime minister, appoint a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution subject to its approval by the Public National Conference (PNC) and by referendum, and then oversee free elections for a representative government.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|agency=Reuters|title=Libya's new rulers set out steps to elections|first=Robert|last=Birsel|date=31 August 2011|access-date=24 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111122015132/http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/31/libya-constitution-idUSL5E7JV2CF20110831|archive-date=22 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ==Structure and membership== ==Structure and membership==
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 | footnotes = | footnotes =
 }} }}
The National Transitional Council claimed to be, and was [[International recognition of the National Transitional Council|widely recognized as]], the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |title=Introducing the Council &#124; The Libyan Republic - The Interim Transitional National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |accessdate=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110310042042/http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |archive-date=10 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Starting off at 33 members, it rose to 51,<ref name="LibyaTVARaK">{{cite news|work=[[Libya TV]] |url=http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |title=Abdul Raheem al-Keeb elected Libya's interim PM |date=1 November 2011 |url-status=dead |​archiveurl​=https://web.archive.org/web/20111103211927/http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |archivedate=3 November 2011 }}</ref> with proposals to increase its size further to 75 or even 125.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|title=The National Democratic Institute Update on Libya June 29, 2011|date=29 June 2011|accessdate=19 September 2011|author=David Rolfes|publisher=omarturbi.org|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120619025720/http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|archive-date=19 June 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref>+The National Transitional Council claimed to be, and was [[International recognition of the National Transitional Council|widely recognized as]], the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |title=Introducing the Council &#124; The Libyan Republic - The Interim Transitional National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |access-date=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110310042042/http://ntclibya.org/english/about/ |archive-date=10 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> Starting off at 33 members, it rose to 51,<ref name="LibyaTVARaK">{{cite news|work=[[Libya TV]] |url=http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |title=Abdul Raheem al-Keeb elected Libya's interim PM |date=1 November 2011 |url-status=dead |​archive-url​=https://web.archive.org/web/20111103211927/http://english.libya.tv/2011/11/01/abdul-raheem-al-keeb-elected-libyas-interim-pm/ |archive-date=3 November 2011 }}</ref> with proposals to increase its size further to 75 or even 125.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|title=The National Democratic Institute Update on Libya June 29, 2011|date=29 June 2011|access-date=19 September 2011|author=David Rolfes|publisher=omarturbi.org|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120619025720/http://www.omarturbi.org/NDI-ReportOnTNC62911.pdf|archive-date=19 June 2012|url-status=dead}}</ref>
  
Al Jazeera English reported that each city or town under opposition control will be given five seats on the new council and that contact will be established with new cities that come under opposition control to allow them to join the council. The identities of members of the council were not disclosed at the launch conference. Human Rights lawyer [[Hafiz Ghoga]] was the spokesperson for the new council. An Al Jazeera English journalist in Benghazi stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil still had a leadership role within the new council.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons">{{cite news|title=Libya Opposition Launches Council|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|work=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=27 February 2011|accessdate=5 March 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110227232201/http://english.aljazeera.net//news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|archive-date=27 February 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> The Council declared that Jalil was the head of the council.<ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> The council met formally for the first time on 5 March 2011<ref name="ntclibya_founding">{{cite web| title = Founding Statement of the Interim Transitional National Council| publisher = National Transitional Council| date = 5 March 2011| url = http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| accessdate = 7 March 2011| archiveurl = https://web.archive.org/web/20110310051658/http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| archivedate = 10 March 2011| url-status = dead}}</ref> when it was announced that the council had 33 members.<ref name="ntclibya_membership">{{cite web | title =Council Members | publisher =National Transitional Council | date =5 March 2011 | url =http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | accessdate =7 March 2011 | archiveurl =https://www.webcitation.org/5x0zNNNFG?url=http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | archivedate =7 March 2011 | url-status =dead }}</ref> The names of some of the members were kept secret to prevent threats to their families that were still in Gaddafi-held areas of Libya.<ref>{{cite news|work=[[The National (Abu Dhabi)|The National]]|url=http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|title=Council Says It's Libya's Sole Representative|author=Rolla Scolari|date=6 March 2011|accessdate=8 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110307224715/http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|archive-date=7 March 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+Al Jazeera English reported that each city or town under opposition control will be given five seats on the new council and that contact will be established with new cities that come under opposition control to allow them to join the council. The identities of members of the council were not disclosed at the launch conference. Human Rights lawyer [[Hafiz Ghoga]] was the spokesperson for the new council. An Al Jazeera English journalist in Benghazi stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil still had a leadership role within the new council.<ref name="AJ-LybNatCons">{{cite news|title=Libya Opposition Launches Council|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|work=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=27 February 2011|access-date=5 March 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110227232201/http://english.aljazeera.net//news/africa/2011/02/2011227175955221853.html|archive-date=27 February 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> The Council declared that Jalil was the head of the council.<ref name="ntclibya_founding" /> The council met formally for the first time on 5 March 2011<ref name="ntclibya_founding">{{cite web| title = Founding Statement of the Interim Transitional National Council| publisher = National Transitional Council| date = 5 March 2011| url = http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| access-date = 7 March 2011| archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110310051658/http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/| archive-date = 10 March 2011| url-status = dead}}</ref> when it was announced that the council had 33 members.<ref name="ntclibya_membership">{{cite web | title =Council Members | publisher =National Transitional Council | date =5 March 2011 | url =http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | access-date =7 March 2011 | archive-url =https://www.webcitation.org/5x0zNNNFG?url=http://ntclibya.org/english/council-members/ | archive-date =7 March 2011 | url-status =dead }}</ref> The names of some of the members were kept secret to prevent threats to their families that were still in Gaddafi-held areas of Libya.<ref>{{cite news|work=[[The National (Abu Dhabi)|The National]]|url=http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|title=Council Says It's Libya's Sole Representative|author=Rolla Scolari|date=6 March 2011|access-date=8 August 2012|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110307224715/http://www.thenational.ae/news/worldwide/council-says-its-libyas-sole-representative|archive-date=7 March 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
In September 2011, some of the NTC's members were in [[Benghazi]], while some had moved to the ''de jure'' capital [[Tripoli]]. On 8 September, the head of government Mahmoud Jibril became the highest-ranking NTC official yet to move to Tripoli. Prior to Jibril's relocation, Deputy Chairman Ali Tarhouni was the ''de facto'' leader of the NTC in Tripoli.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=Thursday, September 8, 2011 – 17:28 GMT+3 - Libya|date=8 September 2011|accessdate=8 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117201408/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|archive-date=17 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+In September 2011, some of the NTC's members were in [[Benghazi]], while some had moved to the ''de jure'' capital [[Tripoli]]. On 8 September, the head of government Mahmoud Jibril became the highest-ranking NTC official yet to move to Tripoli. Prior to Jibril's relocation, Deputy Chairman Ali Tarhouni was the ''de facto'' leader of the NTC in Tripoli.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=Thursday, September 8, 2011 – 17:28 GMT+3 - Libya|date=8 September 2011|access-date=8 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117201408/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-sep-8-2011-1928|archive-date=17 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ====Members==== ====Members====
  
The members of the council included:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=7&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |title=The Libyan Interim National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |accessdate=2 June 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110522091355/http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=7&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |archive-date=22 May 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Murphy|first=Dan|title=The members of Libya's National Transitional Council|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0902/The-members-of-Libya-s-National-Transitional-Council|​accessdate​=19 September 2011|newspaper=[[The Christian Science Monitor]]|date=2 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110913174736/http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0902/The-members-of-Libya-s-National-Transitional-Council|archive-date=13 September 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=List of NTC Members 1 of 2|language=​Arabic​|url=http://www.twitpic.com/7x9p8z|​accessdate​=23 December 2011|publisher=twitpic.com|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120403021824/http://www.twitpic.com/7x9p8z|archive-date=3 April 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>+The members of the council included:<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=7&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |title=The Libyan Interim National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |access-date=2 June 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110522091355/http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=7&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |archive-date=22 May 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref><ref>{{cite news|last=Murphy|first=Dan|title=The members of Libya's National Transitional Council|url=http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0902/The-members-of-Libya-s-National-Transitional-Council|​access-date​=19 September 2011|newspaper=[[The Christian Science Monitor]]|date=2 September 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110913174736/http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Backchannels/2011/0902/The-members-of-Libya-s-National-Transitional-Council|archive-date=13 September 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite web|title=List of NTC Members 1 of 2|language=​ar​|url=http://www.twitpic.com/7x9p8z|​access-date​=23 December 2011|publisher=twitpic.com|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120403021824/http://www.twitpic.com/7x9p8z|archive-date=3 April 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 Council Members: Council Members:
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 ===Executive Board=== ===Executive Board===
On 5 March 2011, a crisis committee was set up to act as the executive arm of the council. An Executive Board was announced on 23 March 2011.<ref name=airforce/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/2011322193944862310.html#|title=Libyan Rebels Form 'Interim Government'|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=22 March 2011|accessdate=25 March 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110324195130/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/2011322193944862310.html|archive-date=24 March 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=board>[http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=8&ParentID=3&LangID=1] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110727183717/http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=8&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |date=27 July 2011 }}. National Transitional Council.</ref> It originally had 15 members, but a minor reorganisation apparently removed the post of Military Affairs from the council proper and created a successor position for Defence on the board, expanding the bureau to 16 members.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/08/08/161430.html|publisher=[[Al Arabiya]]|date=8 August 2011|accessdate=9 August 2011|title=Libyan Rebel Leader Sacks Executive Branch of Transitional Council|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140102194554/http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/08/08/161430.html|archive-date=2 January 2014|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-aug-9-2011-1843|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=9 August 2011|accessdate=9 August 2011|title=''Libya Live Blog''|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117202922/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-aug-9-2011-1843|archive-date=17 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+On 5 March 2011, a crisis committee was set up to act as the executive arm of the council. An Executive Board was announced on 23 March 2011.<ref name=airforce/><ref>{{cite web|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/2011322193944862310.html#|title=Libyan Rebels Form 'Interim Government'|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=22 March 2011|access-date=25 March 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110324195130/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/03/2011322193944862310.html|archive-date=24 March 2011|url-status=live}}</ref><ref name=board>[http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=8&ParentID=3&LangID=1] {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110727183717/http://www.ntclibya.com/InnerPage.aspx?SSID=8&ParentID=3&LangID=1 |date=27 July 2011 }}. National Transitional Council.</ref> It originally had 15 members, but a minor reorganisation apparently removed the post of Military Affairs from the council proper and created a successor position for Defence on the board, expanding the bureau to 16 members.<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/08/08/161430.html|publisher=[[Al Arabiya]]|date=8 August 2011|access-date=9 August 2011|title=Libyan Rebel Leader Sacks Executive Branch of Transitional Council|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140102194554/http://english.alarabiya.net/articles/2011/08/08/161430.html|archive-date=2 January 2014|url-status=live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-aug-9-2011-1843|publisher=[[Al Jazeera]]|date=9 August 2011|access-date=9 August 2011|title=''Libya Live Blog''|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111117202922/http://blogs.aljazeera.net/liveblog/libya-aug-9-2011-1843|archive-date=17 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
The Executive Board was dismissed on 8 August 2011 due to administrative mistakes in investigating the assassination in July of Free Libyan Army commander General [[Abdul Fatah Younis|Abdel-Fatah Younes]].<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/aug/09/libyan-rebel-leader-sacks-cabinet|​accessdate​=8 August 2012|newspaper=The Guardian|first=Chris|last=Stephen|title=Libyan rebel leader sacks entire cabinet|date=9 August 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130930192347/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/aug/09/libyan-rebel-leader-sacks-cabinet|archive-date=30 September 2013|url-status=live}}</ref> Chairman Mahmoud Jibril, the only designated member of the Executive Board who was not fired, was tasked with forming a new Board.<ref name="fired">{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/08/20118819142699446.html|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=8 August 2011|accessdate=8 August 2011|title=Libyan Opposition Dissolves Leadership Board|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110809124057/http://english.aljazeera.net//news/africa/2011/08/20118819142699446.html|archive-date=9 August 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+The Executive Board was dismissed on 8 August 2011 due to administrative mistakes in investigating the assassination in July of Free Libyan Army commander General [[Abdul Fatah Younis|Abdel-Fatah Younes]].<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/aug/09/libyan-rebel-leader-sacks-cabinet|​access-date​=8 August 2012|newspaper=The Guardian|first=Chris|last=Stephen|title=Libyan rebel leader sacks entire cabinet|date=9 August 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130930192347/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/aug/09/libyan-rebel-leader-sacks-cabinet|archive-date=30 September 2013|url-status=live}}</ref> Chairman Mahmoud Jibril, the only designated member of the Executive Board who was not fired, was tasked with forming a new Board.<ref name="fired">{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/08/20118819142699446.html|publisher=Al Jazeera|date=8 August 2011|access-date=8 August 2011|title=Libyan Opposition Dissolves Leadership Board|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110809124057/http://english.aljazeera.net//news/africa/2011/08/20118819142699446.html|archive-date=9 August 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ====Members (March–August 2011)==== ====Members (March–August 2011)====
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 ====Members (October 2011)==== ====Members (October 2011)====
A new cabinet was unveiled in early October 2011, though not all of its members were announced at once. Individuals confirmed to be part of the new board included<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=New cabinet takes shape in Libya|date=2 October 2011|accessdate=2 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111002231518/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|archive-date=2 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Mahmoud Jibril as prime minister, [[Ali Tarhouni]] as deputy prime minister, and [[Jalal al-Digheily]] as defence minister. On 23 October, Jibril resigned as Mustafa Abdul Jalil declared an end to the Libyan civil war,<ref name="declib">{{cite news|url=http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f459749a-fd86-11e0-a9db-00144feabdc0.html?ftcamp=rss#axzz1bdQwjJL8|title=Libya declares liberation after Gaddafi's death|date=23 October 2011|accessdate=23 October 2011|first=Borzou|last=Daragahi|work=Financial Times}}</ref> and [[Abdurrahim El-Keib]] succeeded him as prime minister on 31 October.<ref name="LibyaTVARaK"/>+A new cabinet was unveiled in early October 2011, though not all of its members were announced at once. Individuals confirmed to be part of the new board included<ref>{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|publisher=Al Jazeera|title=New cabinet takes shape in Libya|date=2 October 2011|access-date=2 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111002231518/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011102181154543584.html|archive-date=2 October 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Mahmoud Jibril as prime minister, [[Ali Tarhouni]] as deputy prime minister, and [[Jalal al-Digheily]] as defence minister. On 23 October, Jibril resigned as Mustafa Abdul Jalil declared an end to the Libyan civil war,<ref name="declib">{{cite news|url=http://www.ft.com/intl/cms/s/0/f459749a-fd86-11e0-a9db-00144feabdc0.html?ftcamp=rss#axzz1bdQwjJL8|title=Libya declares liberation after Gaddafi's death|date=23 October 2011|access-date=23 October 2011|first=Borzou|last=Daragahi|work=Financial Times}}</ref> and [[Abdurrahim El-Keib]] succeeded him as prime minister on 31 October.<ref name="LibyaTVARaK"/>
  
 The executive board was dissolved on 22 November 2011 as per the Interim constitution which stated that the Executive board must be dissolved upon the formation of the Interim Government.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}} The executive board was dissolved on 22 November 2011 as per the Interim constitution which stated that the Executive board must be dissolved upon the formation of the Interim Government.{{citation needed|date=August 2012}}
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 ===Local government=== ===Local government===
During the war, in opposition-held Benghazi, a 15-member "local committee"<ref>{{cite news |title=Libya's Second City, Benghazi, Learns To Govern Itself After Decades of Oppression |last=Schemm |first=Paul |agency=[[Associated Press]] |work=Guelph Mercury |url=http://www.guelphmercury.com/news/world/article/492603--libya-s-second-city-benghazi-learns-to-govern-itself-after-decades-of-oppression |date=24 February 2011 |accessdate=5 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110711132814/http://www.guelphmercury.com/news/world/article/492603--libya-s-second-city-benghazi-learns-to-govern-itself-after-decades-of-oppression |archive-date=11 July 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> made up of lawyers, judges and respected local people was formed in order to provide civic administration and public services within the city.<ref name="BBC-Live-Lybia">{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12307698 |title=BBC Libya Live Coverage |work=BBC |accessdate=4 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110129054756/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12307698 |archive-date=29 January 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> Residents have organised to direct traffic and collect refuse. Many shops and businesses have opened again.<ref name="BBC-Live-Lybia"/> A newspaper<ref>{{cite web |title=First Edition of the Benghazi Newspaper |publisher=feb17.info |url=http://feb17.info/media/first-edition-of-the-benghazi-newspaper/ |date=24 February 2011 |accessdate=5 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301030122/http://feb17.info/media/first-edition-of-the-benghazi-newspaper/ |archive-date=1 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> and two local radio stations were also established.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/ |title=Founding statement of the Interim Transitional National Council &#124; The Libyan Republic - The Interim Transitional National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |accessdate=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110310051658/http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/ |archive-date=10 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>+During the war, in opposition-held Benghazi, a 15-member "local committee"<ref>{{cite news |title=Libya's Second City, Benghazi, Learns To Govern Itself After Decades of Oppression |last=Schemm |first=Paul |agency=[[Associated Press]] |work=Guelph Mercury |url=http://www.guelphmercury.com/news/world/article/492603--libya-s-second-city-benghazi-learns-to-govern-itself-after-decades-of-oppression |date=24 February 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110711132814/http://www.guelphmercury.com/news/world/article/492603--libya-s-second-city-benghazi-learns-to-govern-itself-after-decades-of-oppression |archive-date=11 July 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> made up of lawyers, judges and respected local people was formed in order to provide civic administration and public services within the city.<ref name="BBC-Live-Lybia">{{cite news |url=https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12307698 |title=BBC Libya Live Coverage |work=BBC |access-date=4 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110129054756/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-12307698 |archive-date=29 January 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref> Residents have organised to direct traffic and collect refuse. Many shops and businesses have opened again.<ref name="BBC-Live-Lybia"/> A newspaper<ref>{{cite web |title=First Edition of the Benghazi Newspaper |publisher=feb17.info |url=http://feb17.info/media/first-edition-of-the-benghazi-newspaper/ |date=24 February 2011 |access-date=5 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110301030122/http://feb17.info/media/first-edition-of-the-benghazi-newspaper/ |archive-date=1 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> and two local radio stations were also established.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/ |title=Founding statement of the Interim Transitional National Council &#124; The Libyan Republic - The Interim Transitional National Council |publisher=National Transitional Council |access-date=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110310051658/http://ntclibya.org/english/founding-statement-of-the-interim-transitional-national-council/ |archive-date=10 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
  
Similar "local committees" were formed in other cities controlled by opposition groups.<ref>{{cite web | author = Garcia-Navarro, Lourdes | url = https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | title = New Government Forms in Eastern Libya | publisher = [[NPR]] | date = 23 February 2011 | accessdate = 5 March 2011 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110225221249/http://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | archive-date = 25 February 2011 | url-status = live }}</ref>+Similar "local committees" were formed in other cities controlled by opposition groups.<ref>{{cite web | author = Garcia-Navarro, Lourdes | url = https://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | title = New Government Forms in Eastern Libya | publisher = [[NPR]] | date = 23 February 2011 | access-date = 5 March 2011 | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20110225221249/http://www.npr.org/2011/02/23/134003954/New-Government-Forms-In-Eastern-Libya | archive-date = 25 February 2011 | url-status = live }}</ref>
  
 ===Commercial bodies=== ===Commercial bodies===
 The council established the following commercial bodies to manage its financial affairs: The council established the following commercial bodies to manage its financial affairs:
* The Central Bank of Benghazi&nbsp;&ndash; to act as the "monetary authority competent in monetary policies in Libya"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/meeting-on-19-march-2011/ |title=Meeting Outcomes of the Interim National Council Held on 19 March 2011 |publisher=National Transitional Council |date=19 March 2011 |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110326080308/http://ntclibya.org/english/meeting-on-19-march-2011/ |archive-date=26 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>+* The Central Bank of Benghazi&nbsp;&ndash; to act as the "monetary authority competent in monetary policies in Libya"<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ntclibya.org/english/meeting-on-19-march-2011/ |title=Meeting Outcomes of the Interim National Council Held on 19 March 2011 |publisher=National Transitional Council |date=19 March 2011 |access-date=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110326080308/http://ntclibya.org/english/meeting-on-19-march-2011/ |archive-date=26 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref>
* Libyan Oil Company&nbsp;&ndash; to act as the "supervisory authority on oil production and policies in the country"<ref>{{cite web |author=Varner, Bill |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-21/libyan-rebel-council-sets-up-oil-company-to-replace-qaddafi-s.html |title=Libyan Rebel Council Forms Oil Company To Replace Qaddafi’s |work=[[Bloomberg L.P.|Bloomberg]] |date=21 March 2011 |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110324143637/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-21/libyan-rebel-council-sets-up-oil-company-to-replace-qaddafi-s.html |archive-date=24 March 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>+* Libyan Oil Company&nbsp;&ndash; to act as the "supervisory authority on oil production and policies in the country"<ref>{{cite web |author=Varner, Bill |url=https://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-21/libyan-rebel-council-sets-up-oil-company-to-replace-qaddafi-s.html |title=Libyan Rebel Council Forms Oil Company To Replace Qaddafi’s |work=[[Bloomberg L.P.|Bloomberg]] |date=21 March 2011 |access-date=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110324143637/http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-03-21/libyan-rebel-council-sets-up-oil-company-to-replace-qaddafi-s.html |archive-date=24 March 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
 ==Armed forces== ==Armed forces==
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 The [[anti-Gaddafi forces]] were Libyan armed forces which were constituted during the 2011 war by defected military members and armed citizens in order to engage in battle against remaining members of the [[Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|Jamahiriya's armed forces]], hired mercenaries and paramilitary loyal to the rule of [[Muammar Gaddafi]]. The [[National Liberation Army (Libya)|National Liberation Army]], formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, was the NTC's military arm, with the small [[Free Libyan Air Force]] operating assets including captured and defected fighter jets and helicopters. The [[anti-Gaddafi forces]] were Libyan armed forces which were constituted during the 2011 war by defected military members and armed citizens in order to engage in battle against remaining members of the [[Armed Forces of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya|Jamahiriya's armed forces]], hired mercenaries and paramilitary loyal to the rule of [[Muammar Gaddafi]]. The [[National Liberation Army (Libya)|National Liberation Army]], formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, was the NTC's military arm, with the small [[Free Libyan Air Force]] operating assets including captured and defected fighter jets and helicopters.
  
[[Omar El-Hariri]] was the first military affairs minister the NTC named, holding that position from 23 March 2011 forward. By 19 May 2011, however, [[Jalal al-Digheily]] had replaced El-Hariri.<ref name="economist">{{cite news|url=http://www.economist.com/node/18713650?story_id=18713650&fsrc=rss|work=[[The Economist]]|date=19 May 2011|accessdate=6 August 2011|title=Libya: The Colonel Feels the Squeeze|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140203203339/http://www.economist.com/node/18713650?story_id=18713650&fsrc=rss|archive-date=3 February 2014|url-status=live}}</ref> Then on 8 August 2011, Digheily along with 14 other members of the Executive Board were fired and the position left vacant, but was reappointed in early October 2011 after continuing in the role of interim defense minister for almost two months.<ref name="newcab">{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011103124138235256.html|work=Al Jazeera|title=Jibril vows to quit after Libya 'liberation'|date=3 October 2011|accessdate=3 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111101163706/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011103124138235256.html|archive-date=1 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Then on 22 November 2011, the Executive Board was dissolved for the formation of the Interim Government and [[Osama al-Juwali]] became the new Defense Minister.+[[Omar El-Hariri]] was the first military affairs minister the NTC named, holding that position from 23 March 2011 forward. By 19 May 2011, however, [[Jalal al-Digheily]] had replaced El-Hariri.<ref name="economist">{{cite news|url=http://www.economist.com/node/18713650?story_id=18713650&fsrc=rss|work=[[The Economist]]|date=19 May 2011|access-date=6 August 2011|title=Libya: The Colonel Feels the Squeeze|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140203203339/http://www.economist.com/node/18713650?story_id=18713650&fsrc=rss|archive-date=3 February 2014|url-status=live}}</ref> Then on 8 August 2011, Digheily along with 14 other members of the Executive Board were fired and the position left vacant, but was reappointed in early October 2011 after continuing in the role of interim defense minister for almost two months.<ref name="newcab">{{cite news|url=http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011103124138235256.html|work=Al Jazeera|title=Jibril vows to quit after Libya 'liberation'|date=3 October 2011|access-date=3 October 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111101163706/http://english.aljazeera.net/news/africa/2011/10/2011103124138235256.html|archive-date=1 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref> Then on 22 November 2011, the Executive Board was dissolved for the formation of the Interim Government and [[Osama al-Juwali]] became the new Defense Minister.
  
On 1 April 2011, [[Abdul Fatah Younis]] was announced as commander of the NTC's forces, in an attempt to form an organized fighting structure due to a string of failures. Younis was killed in an attack on 29 July 2011 which was variously blamed on pro-Gaddafi agents,<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/07/28/libya-rebel-head-abdel-fattah-younis-killed-115875-23304284|title= Rebel head Abdel-Fattah Younis Killed|work=[[Daily Mirror]]|date=28 July 2011|accessdate=8 August 2012}}</ref> rogue rebel militiamen, and the NTC itself.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.sky.com/story/870718/libyan-rebel-military-leader-is-killed |title=Libyan Rebel Military Leader Is Killed |date=29 July 2011 |publisher=Sky News |accessdate=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121017074217/http://news.sky.com/story/870718/libyan-rebel-military-leader-is-killed |archive-date=17 October 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> [[Suleiman Mahmoud]], Younis's top lieutenant, replaced him as army commander.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-07-29-libya-rebel-chief-slain_n.htm|work=USA Today|agency=Associated Press|date=29 July 2011|accessdate=29 July 2011|title=Officer accuses fellow rebels in Libya killing|first=Rami|last=Al-Shaheibi|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110731044153/http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-07-29-libya-rebel-chief-slain_n.htm|archive-date=31 July 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+On 1 April 2011, [[Abdul Fatah Younis]] was announced as commander of the NTC's forces, in an attempt to form an organized fighting structure due to a string of failures. Younis was killed in an attack on 29 July 2011 which was variously blamed on pro-Gaddafi agents,<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/top-stories/2011/07/28/libya-rebel-head-abdel-fattah-younis-killed-115875-23304284|title= Rebel head Abdel-Fattah Younis Killed|work=[[Daily Mirror]]|date=28 July 2011|access-date=8 August 2012}}</ref> rogue rebel militiamen, and the NTC itself.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://news.sky.com/story/870718/libyan-rebel-military-leader-is-killed |title=Libyan Rebel Military Leader Is Killed |date=29 July 2011 |publisher=Sky News |access-date=8 August 2012 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20121017074217/http://news.sky.com/story/870718/libyan-rebel-military-leader-is-killed |archive-date=17 October 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> [[Suleiman Mahmoud]], Younis's top lieutenant, replaced him as army commander.<ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-07-29-libya-rebel-chief-slain_n.htm|work=USA Today|agency=Associated Press|date=29 July 2011|access-date=29 July 2011|title=Officer accuses fellow rebels in Libya killing|first=Rami|last=Al-Shaheibi|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110731044153/http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/2011-07-29-libya-rebel-chief-slain_n.htm|archive-date=31 July 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ==Foreign relations== ==Foreign relations==
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 {{Legend|#FF5555|Countries that voted against the transfer of Libya's UN seat to the NTC}}]] {{Legend|#FF5555|Countries that voted against the transfer of Libya's UN seat to the NTC}}]]
 {{main|Foreign relations of Libya|International recognition of the National Transitional Council}} {{main|Foreign relations of Libya|International recognition of the National Transitional Council}}
In July 2011, the [[Libya Contact Group]] of representatives of many nations announced its participants' agreement to deal with the National Transitional Council as the "legitimate governing authority in Libya".<ref>{{cite news|url= https://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|title= Excerpts from Libya Contact Group Chair's Statement|agency= [[Reuters]]|work= Reuters Africa|date= 15 July 2011|accessdate= 16 July 2011|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120725211340/http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|archive-date= 25 July 2012|url-status= live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/15/libyan-rebels-international-recognition-leaders|title=Libyan Rebels Win International Recognition as Country's Leaders|date=15 July 2011|work=[[The Guardian]]|author=[[Ian Black (journalist)|Black, Ian]]|accessdate=16 July 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130911044903/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/15/libyan-rebels-international-recognition-leaders|archive-date=11 September 2013|url-status=live}}</ref> The council also received the backing of the [[Arab League]]<ref>{{cite news |agency=Agence France-Presse |url=http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20110313-325099/Libyan-regime-lost-legitimacyArab-League |title=Libyan Regime 'Lost Legitimacy'—Arab League |work=[[Philippine Daily Inquirer]] |date=13 March 2011 |accessdate=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110314010323/http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20110313-325099/Libyan-regime-lost-legitimacyArab-League |archive-date=14 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> and the [[European Union]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.msz.gov.pl/Foreign,Minister,Radoslaw,Sikorski,visits,Benghazi,43100.html |title=Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski Visits Benghazi |publisher=[[Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland)|Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs]] |date=11 May 2011 |accessdate=20 May 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120322004924/http://www.msz.gov.pl/Foreign%2CMinister%2CRadoslaw%2CSikorski%2Cvisits%2CBenghazi%2C43100.html |archive-date=22 March 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> On 16 September 2011, the [[United Nations General Assembly]] voted to award Libya's [[United Nations|UN]] seat to the NTC.<ref name="unga_144"/> On 20 September 2011, the [[African Union]] officially recognised the NTC as the legitimate representative of Libya.<ref>{{cite news|title=African Union officially recognises Libya's new leadership|url=https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h2NflCTWlrw96Cs-Ts7A7Xcem2dA?docId=CNG.a8a1185f4a08d2928999ea8643dc5bd9.501|date=20 September 2011|accessdate=8 January 2012|agency=Agence France-Presse|publisher=Google News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111120184724/https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h2NflCTWlrw96Cs-Ts7A7Xcem2dA?docId=CNG.a8a1185f4a08d2928999ea8643dc5bd9.501|archive-date=20 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>+In July 2011, the [[Libya Contact Group]] of representatives of many nations announced its participants' agreement to deal with the National Transitional Council as the "legitimate governing authority in Libya".<ref>{{cite news|url= https://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|title= Excerpts from Libya Contact Group Chair's Statement|agency= [[Reuters]]|work= Reuters Africa|date= 15 July 2011|access-date= 16 July 2011|archive-url= https://web.archive.org/web/20120725211340/http://af.reuters.com/article/commoditiesNews/idAFLDE76E0W120110715|archive-date= 25 July 2012|url-status= live}}</ref><ref>{{cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/15/libyan-rebels-international-recognition-leaders|title=Libyan Rebels Win International Recognition as Country's Leaders|date=15 July 2011|work=[[The Guardian]]|author=[[Ian Black (journalist)|Black, Ian]]|access-date=16 July 2011|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130911044903/http://www.theguardian.com/world/2011/jul/15/libyan-rebels-international-recognition-leaders|archive-date=11 September 2013|url-status=live}}</ref> The council also received the backing of the [[Arab League]]<ref>{{cite news |agency=Agence France-Presse |url=http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20110313-325099/Libyan-regime-lost-legitimacyArab-League |title=Libyan Regime 'Lost Legitimacy'—Arab League |work=[[Philippine Daily Inquirer]] |date=13 March 2011 |access-date=25 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110314010323/http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/breakingnews/world/view/20110313-325099/Libyan-regime-lost-legitimacyArab-League |archive-date=14 March 2011 |url-status=dead }}</ref> and the [[European Union]].<ref>{{cite web |url=http://www.msz.gov.pl/Foreign,Minister,Radoslaw,Sikorski,visits,Benghazi,43100.html |title=Foreign Minister Radosław Sikorski Visits Benghazi |publisher=[[Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Poland)|Polish Ministry of Foreign Affairs]] |date=11 May 2011 |access-date=20 May 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120322004924/http://www.msz.gov.pl/Foreign%2CMinister%2CRadoslaw%2CSikorski%2Cvisits%2CBenghazi%2C43100.html |archive-date=22 March 2012 |url-status=live }}</ref> On 16 September 2011, the [[United Nations General Assembly]] voted to award Libya's [[United Nations|UN]] seat to the NTC.<ref name="unga_144"/> On 20 September 2011, the [[African Union]] officially recognised the NTC as the legitimate representative of Libya.<ref>{{cite news|title=African Union officially recognises Libya's new leadership|url=https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h2NflCTWlrw96Cs-Ts7A7Xcem2dA?docId=CNG.a8a1185f4a08d2928999ea8643dc5bd9.501|date=20 September 2011|access-date=8 January 2012|agency=Agence France-Presse|publisher=Google News|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20111120184724/https://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h2NflCTWlrw96Cs-Ts7A7Xcem2dA?docId=CNG.a8a1185f4a08d2928999ea8643dc5bd9.501|archive-date=20 November 2011|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
[[Mohammed El Senussi]], the [[pretender]] to the [[House of Senussi|throne of Libya]], also voiced his support for the NTC.<ref name="Libya's 'exiled prince' urges world action" >{{cite news |agency=Agence France-Presse |date=9 March 2011 |url=http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle09.asp?xfile=data/international/2011/March/international_March491.xml&section=international |title=Libya's 'Exiled Prince' Urges World Action |work=[[Khaleej Times]] |accessdate=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110713151457/http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle09.asp?xfile=data%2Finternational%2F2011%2FMarch%2Finternational_March491.xml&section=international |archive-date=13 July 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>+[[Mohammed El Senussi]], the [[pretender]] to the [[House of Senussi|throne of Libya]], also voiced his support for the NTC.<ref name="Libya's 'exiled prince' urges world action" >{{cite news |agency=Agence France-Presse |date=9 March 2011 |url=http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle09.asp?xfile=data/international/2011/March/international_March491.xml&section=international |title=Libya's 'Exiled Prince' Urges World Action |work=[[Khaleej Times]] |access-date=10 March 2011 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20110713151457/http://www.khaleejtimes.com/DisplayArticle09.asp?xfile=data%2Finternational%2F2011%2FMarch%2Finternational_March491.xml&section=international |archive-date=13 July 2011 |url-status=live }}</ref>
  
While NTC forces were working to secure military victory on the ground, the NTC's chairman, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, was working to foster good diplomatic relations overseas. Before Gaddafi was killed Abdul Jalil negotiated a deal with the British government to pay millions in compensation to victims of [[Provisional Irish Republican Army|IRA]] attacks that used Jamahiriya-supplied arms.<ref>{{cite news|title=UK and new Libyan leaders agree deal for IRA victims|url=http://www.exaronews.com/articles/4117/uk-and-new-libyan-leaders-agree-deal-for-ira-victims|date=20 October 2011|work=[[Exaro news]]|accessdate=30 January 2012|author=O’Cleirigh, Fiona|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426005818/http://www.exaronews.com/articles/4117/uk-and-new-libyan-leaders-agree-deal-for-ira-victims|archive-date=26 April 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>+While NTC forces were working to secure military victory on the ground, the NTC's chairman, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, was working to foster good diplomatic relations overseas. Before Gaddafi was killed Abdul Jalil negotiated a deal with the British government to pay millions in compensation to victims of [[Provisional Irish Republican Army|IRA]] attacks that used Jamahiriya-supplied arms.<ref>{{cite news|title=UK and new Libyan leaders agree deal for IRA victims|url=http://www.exaronews.com/articles/4117/uk-and-new-libyan-leaders-agree-deal-for-ira-victims|date=20 October 2011|work=[[Exaro news]]|access-date=30 January 2012|author=O’Cleirigh, Fiona|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20120426005818/http://www.exaronews.com/articles/4117/uk-and-new-libyan-leaders-agree-deal-for-ira-victims|archive-date=26 April 2012|url-status=live}}</ref>
  
 ===Military intervention===<!-- Is this subsection currently needed or necessary? --> ===Military intervention===<!-- Is this subsection currently needed or necessary? -->
Revision as of 13:22, 27 November 2020
This article is about the Libyan government. For the Congolese entity, see National Transitional Council (Congo).
Libya[1]
ليبيا
2011–2012
Flag
Anthem: Libya, Libya, Libya
Capital
and largest city
Tripoli
Official languagesArabic
ReligionIslam
GovernmentUnitaryTransitional government
Chairman 
• 2011–2012
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
• 2011
Mahmoud Jibril
• 2011-2012
Abdurrahim El-Keib
LegislatureNational Transitional Council
Historical era2011 Libyan civil war
• Establishment
5 March 2011
28 August 2011
20 October 2011
• Handover of power to the elected General National Congress
8 August 2012
CurrencyLibyan dinar
ISO 3166 codeLY
National Transitional Council
المجلس الوطني الانتقالي
al-majlis al-waṭanī al-intiqālī

Seal
AbbreviationNTC
PredecessorGeneral People's Congress of the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
SuccessorGeneral National Congress of Libya
Formation27 February 2011
TypeProvisional authority
PurposeDeliberative assembly/ deliberative democracy
HeadquartersTripoli
LocationLibya
Official language
Arabic
Chairman
Mustafa Abdul Jalil
Vice Chairman
Mustafa Honi
Prime Minister
Abdurrahim El-Keib
Mahmoud Jibril
Website
www.ntc.gov.ly
Politics of Libya
Member State of the Arab League
Constitution
Executive
Legislature
Judiciary
Administrative divisions
Districts
Elections
Foreign relations
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Minister: Najla Mangoush
Diplomatic missions of / in Libya
 Libya portal
Other countries
vte
The National Transitional Council of Libya (Arabic: المجلس الوطني الإنتقالي​al-majlis al-waṭanī al-intiqālī ), sometimes known as the Transitional National Council​,​[3] was the de facto government of Libya for a period during and after the Libyan Civil War, in which rebel forces overthrew the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya of Muammar Gaddafi. The NTC governed Libya for a period of ten months after the end of the war, holding elections to a General National Congress on 7 July 2012, and handing power to the newly elected assembly on 8 August.​[4]
The formation of the NTC was announced in the city of Benghazi on 27 February 2011 with the purpose to act as the "political face of the revolution". On 5 March 2011, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".​[5]​[6]​[7] An executive board, chaired by Mahmoud Jibril, was formed by the council on 23 March 2011 after being de facto assembled as an "executive team" since 5 March 2011. The NTC issued a Constitutional Declaration in August 2011 in which it set up a road-map for the transition of the country to a constitutional democracy with an elected government.
The council gained international recognition as the legitimate governing authority in Libya[8] and occupied the country's seat at the United Nations​.​[9] In referring to the Libyan state, the council used simply "Libya". The UN formally recognized the country as "Libya" in September 2011,[10] based on a request from the Permanent Mission of Libya citing the Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration of 3 August 2011. In November 2011, the ISO 3166-1 was altered to reflect the new country name "Libya" in English, "Libye (la)" in French.​[11]
Contents
1Background
1.1Uprising and civil war
1.2Early efforts to form a government
1.3Establishment of a national council
1.4Formation of an executive board
1.5Instability in 2012
1.6Dissolution
2Aims and objectives
3Structure and membership
3.1Legislative body
3.1.1Members
3.2Executive Board
3.2.1Members (March–August 2011)
3.2.2Members (October 2011)
3.3Interim government
3.4Local government
3.5Commercial bodies
4Armed forces
5Foreign relations
5.1Military intervention
6See also
7References
8External links
Background
Uprising and civil war
Main article: 2011 Libyan civil war
After popular movements overturned the rulers of Tunisia and Egypt, Libya's immediate neighbours to the west and east, Libya experienced a full-scale uprising beginning in February 2011.​[12]​[13] By 20 February, the unrest had spread to Tripoli. Much of Libya had slipped out of Gaddafi's control, falling to anti-Gaddafi forces. Eastern Libya, centered around the second largest city and vital port of Benghazi, was firmly under the control of the opposition. The opposition began to organise themselves into a functioning government.​[14] Anti-Gaddafi forces marched on Sirte (​Gaddafi​'s hometown) on 28 September 2011. Gaddafi loyalists delayed the attack with the use of their snipers. The fight for Sirte ended on 20 October with the capture of the town and the death of Colonel Gaddafi.​[15]
Early efforts to form a government

Opposition meeting in Bayda, 24 February 2011
On 24 February 2011, politicians, former military officers, tribal leaders, academics and businessmen held a meeting in the eastern city of Bayda​.​[16] The meeting was chaired by former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil, who quit the Jamahiriya government a few days before. The delegates discussed proposals for interim administration with many delegates asking for UN intervention in Libya.[17] The podium at the meeting displayed the pre-Jamahiriya flag.​[18]​[19]
On 25 February, Al Jazeera TV reported that talks were taking place between "personalities from eastern and western Libya" to form an interim government for the post-Gaddafi era.[18] The following day, former justice minister Mustafa Abdul Jalil was announced to be leading the process of forming an interim body, to be based in Benghazi.​[20]​[21] Jalil stated that "Gaddafi alone bore responsibility for the crimes that have occurred" in Libya; he also insisted on the unity of Libya and that Tripoli was the national capital.​[22] The efforts to form an alternative government have been supported by the Libyan ambassador in the United States, Ali Suleiman Aujali​.​[23]​[24] The Libyan deputy ambassador to the United Nations, Ibrahim Omar Al Dabashi, stated that he supported a new alternative government "in principle".​[25]
Establishment of a national council
Part of a series on the
History of Libya
Prehistory
Ancient historypre-146 BC
Roman erato 640 AD
Islamic rule640–1510
Spanish Tripoli1510–1530
Hospitaller Tripoli1530–1551
Ottoman Tripolitania1551–1911
Italian colonization1911–1934
Italian Libya1934–1943
Allied occupation1943–1951
Kingdom of Libya1951–1969
Libya under Muammar Gaddafi1969–2011
First Civil War2011
National Transitional Council2011–2012
General National Congress2012–2014
House of Representatives2014–present
Second Civil War2014–2020
Government of National Accord2016–2021
Government of National Unity2021–present
 Libya portal
vte
A National Transitional Council was formed on 27 February to act as "the political face of the revolution".​[26] Its spokesman, Abdul Hafiz Ghoga, made clear at the launch press conference that the national council was not a provisional government and added that the newly formed council was not in contact with foreign governments and did not want them to intervene.​[27] He later clarified that an airstrike mandated by the United Nations would not be considered a foreign intervention.​[28]
An Al Jazeera journalist in Benghazi reported that a fully fledged interim government would not be formed until Tripoli was under opposition control.​[29] This contradicted Jalil's statement of the previous day about the formation of a provisional government. These comments were later clarified by the council as Jalil's "personal views".
On 5 March, the council issued a statement in which it declared itself to be the "sole representative of all Libya". Mustafa Abdul Jalil was named as chairman of the council.​[5]​[6]​[7]
On 10 March, France became the first country to recognise the council as Libya's only legitimate government.​[30]
Formation of an executive board
On 23 March, the council established an Executive Board to act as a transitional government for Libya. Jibril, who had served as chairman of the informal "executive team" since 5 March, was appointed as Chairman of that board, stating that council would serve as the "legislative body", and the new Executive Board would serve as the "executive body".​[31]​[32] Jibril led the meeting and negotiations with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, a meeting that resulted in France officially recognizing the council as the sole representative of the Libyan people.​[​citation needed]
Instability in 2012
In mid-January 2012, protesters against the NTC stormed its Benghazi headquarters, demanding greater transparency on expenditures, that Gaddafi-era officials be sacked, and that Islamic sharia law be the source of the country's future constitution.​[33] Jalil was in the building, but slipped out the back before protesters broke in and stole computers and furniture. A few days earlier, Abdul Hafiz Ghoga, vice president of the NTC, was surrounded and jostled by a group of university students in Benghazi, before being pulled to safety by supporters.​[34]
Dissolution
In a ceremony on 8 August 2012—held in the evening due to the daytime fast of Ramadan​—the NTC formally transferred power to the General National Congress. Jalil stepped down as chairman, passing the position to the GNC's oldest member, Mohammed Ali Salim.[35] The NTC was then dissolved, while the GNC members took their oath of office, led by Salim.[36]
Hundreds of people gathered in Tripoli's Martyrs' Square with candles symbolizing reconciliation.​[35] The date of the transfer—20 Ramadan on the Islamic calendar​—had also been selected for symbolic reasons, as 20 Ramadan the previous year had fallen on 20 August, the date that the rebels attacked Tripoli, leading to Gaddafi's flight.[36] As Jalil addressed the crowd, attendees chanted "Allahu Akbar!" or another phrase meaning "The blood of martyrs will not go wasted!"​[37]
According to BBC News, the transfer was "the first peaceful transition of power in Libya's modern history",​[35] meaning the history since the end of the monarchy.
Aims and objectives
Further information: Libyan interim Constitutional Declaration
The "Declaration of the founding of the National Transitional Council" stated that the main aims of the council were as follows:​[38]
In another statement clarifying the goals for a post-Gaddafi Libya, the council committed itself an eight-point plan to hold free and fair elections, draft a national constitution, form political and civil institutions, uphold intellectual and political pluralism, and guarantee citizens' inalienable human rights and the ability of free expression of their aspirations. The council also emphasized its rejection of racism, intolerance, discrimination, and terrorism.​[39]​[40] Article 1 further declares Tripoli the state capital and Arabic the official language while reserving the linguistic and cultural rights of ethnic minorities as well as the freedom of religion for religious minorities.
The stated aim of the NTC was to form a de jure interim government based in Tripoli and hold elections for a General National Congress to replace it. The GNC would then elect a prime minister, appoint a Constituent Assembly to draft a constitution subject to its approval by the Public National Conference (PNC) and by referendum, and then oversee free elections for a representative government.​[41]
Structure and membership
Legislative body
National Transitional Council
المجلس الوطني الانتقالي
al-majlis al-waṭanī al-intiqālī
Type
Type
Leadership
Chairman
Vice Chairman
Seats51 members
Meeting place
Tripoli, Libya
Website
ntclibya.com
The National Transitional Council claimed to be, and was widely recognized as, the "only legitimate body representing the people of Libya and the Libyan state".[42] Starting off at 33 members, it rose to 51,[43] with proposals to increase its size further to 75 or even 125.[44]
Al Jazeera English reported that each city or town under opposition control will be given five seats on the new council and that contact will be established with new cities that come under opposition control to allow them to join the council. The identities of members of the council were not disclosed at the launch conference. Human Rights lawyer Hafiz Ghoga was the spokesperson for the new council. An Al Jazeera English journalist in Benghazi stated that Mustafa Abdul Jalil still had a leadership role within the new council.​[27] The Council declared that Jalil was the head of the council.​[7] The council met formally for the first time on 5 March 2011[7] when it was announced that the council had 33 members.​[45] The names of some of the members were kept secret to prevent threats to their families that were still in Gaddafi-held areas of Libya.[46]
In September 2011, some of the NTC's members were in Benghazi​, while some had moved to the de jure capital Tripoli. On 8 September, the head of government Mahmoud Jibril became the highest-ranking NTC official yet to move to Tripoli. Prior to Jibril's relocation, Deputy Chairman Ali Tarhouni was the de facto leader of the NTC in Tripoli.​[47]
Members
The members of the council included:​[48]​[49]​[50]
Council Members:
City Representatives:
Hassan Fadeel - City of Ajdabiya
Salih Dirssi - City of Bayda
Ahmed Dayikh - City of Bayda
Mustafa Houni - City of Jufra
Abd al-Qadr Minsar - City of Khoms
Emadaldeen Nussayr - City of Zawiya
Khaled Nassrat - City of Zawiya
AbdAllah Turki - City of Zintan
Mukhtar Jadal - City of Ajaylat
Ahmed Zway - City of Kufra
Mustafa Lindi - City of Kufra
Abdullah Moussa Al-Mayhoub - City of Quba
Taher Dyab - City of Marj
Mussa Balkami - City of Ubari
Mohamed ZaynAbideen - Lower Nafusa
Fathi Mohammed Baja - City of Benghazi
Ahmed Al-Abbar - City of Benghazi
Salwa Fawzi El-Deghali - City of Benghazi
Khaled Sayih - City of Benghazi
Mansour Kikhia - City of Benghazi
Intisar Ageeli - City of Benghazi
Abd al-Basset Naama - City of Tarhuna
Ihbaybil Doii - City of Jadu
Ashour Bourashed - City of Derna
Khaled Ahmed ShikShik - City of Zliten
Othman BenSassi - City of Zuwara
Abd al-Majeed Sayf-alNasser - City of Sabha
Mohamed Rimash - City of Sirte
Fraj Shoeib - City of Shahhat
Ali al-Juwani - City of Sabratha
Farhat Shirshari - City of Sorman
Othman Mgayrhi - City of Tobruk
Alameen Bilhaj - City of Tripoli
Abd al-Razzag Aradi - City of Tripoli
Mohamed Hrayzi - City of Tripoli
Abd al-Razzag Abuhajar - City of Tripoli
Ali Shitwi - City of Tripoli
AbdAllah Banoon - City of Tripoli
Abd al-Nasser Salem - City of Tripoli
Abd al-Basset Abadi - City of Tripoli
Abd al-Nasser Nafaa - City of Tripoli
Salih Darhub - City of Tripoli
Osama AbuKraza - City of Tripoli
Milad Oud - City of Tripoli
Ali Manaa - City of Ghadames
Idris AbuFayid - City of - Gharyan
Jamal Issa - City of Kabaw
Ali Gamma - City of Murzuk
Abd al-Hadi Shaweesh - City of Murzuk
Ramadan Khaled - City of Msallata
Ibrahim BenGhasheer - City of Misrata
Suleiman Al-Fortia - City of Misrata
Mohamed Al-Muntasir - City of Misrata
Salem Gnan - City of Nalut
Hassan Sghayir - City of al Shatii
Saad Nasr - City of al Shatii
Abd al-Razzaq Madi - City of Yafran
Mubarak al-Futmani - City of Bani Walid
AbdAllah Banoon of Tripoli resigned to form a political party.
Executive Board
On 5 March 2011, a crisis committee was set up to act as the executive arm of the council. An Executive Board was announced on 23 March 2011.​[32]​[51]​[52] It originally had 15 members, but a minor reorganisation apparently removed the post of Military Affairs from the council proper and created a successor position for Defence on the board, expanding the bureau to 16 members.​[53]​[54]
The Executive Board was dismissed on 8 August 2011 due to administrative mistakes in investigating the assassination in July of Free Libyan Army commander General Abdel-Fatah Younes​.​[55] Chairman Mahmoud Jibril, the only designated member of the Executive Board who was not fired, was tasked with forming a new Board.​[56]
Members (March–August 2011)
Prior to the re-shuffle in August 2011, the board members were:[52]
Members (October 2011)
A new cabinet was unveiled in early October 2011, though not all of its members were announced at once. Individuals confirmed to be part of the new board included​[57] Mahmoud Jibril as prime minister, Ali Tarhouni as deputy prime minister, and Jalal al-Digheily as defence minister. On 23 October, Jibril resigned as Mustafa Abdul Jalil declared an end to the Libyan civil war,[58] and Abdurrahim El-Keib succeeded him as prime minister on 31 October.​[43]
The executive board was dissolved on 22 November 2011 as per the Interim constitution which stated that the Executive board must be dissolved upon the formation of the Interim Government.​[​citation needed]
Interim government
El-Keib unveiled the interim government on 22 November 2011:​[59]​[60]​[61]
Abdurrahim El-Keib – Prime Minister
Mustafa A.G. Abushagur​- Deputy Prime Minister
Hamza Abu Faris – Minister of Awqaf & Islamic Affairs
Ali Ashour – Minister of Justice
Anwar Fituri – Minister of Communications and Information Technology
Mustafa Rugibani – Minister of Labor
Fatima Hamroush – Minister of Health
Fawzi Abdel A'al – Minister of Interior
Awad Beroin – Minister of Energy
Taher Sharkas – Minister of Trade and Commerce
Sulaiman al-Sahli – Minister of Education
Ashour Bin Khayal – Minister of Foreign Affairs
Osama al-Juwali – Minister of Defense
Isa Tuwaijir – Minister of Planning
Mabrouka Jibril – Minister of Social Affairs
Abdulrahman Ben Yezza – Minister of Oil
Hasan Zaglam – Minister of Finance
AbdulHamid BuFruja – Minister of Agriculture
Mahmoud Fetais – Minister of Industry
Naeem Gheriany – Minister of Scientific Research and Higher Education
Ahmed Attiga – Investment Authority
Abdul Rahman Habil – Minister of Culture and Civil Society
Awad al-Baraasi – Minister of Electricity
Ashraf bin Ismail – Martyrs Authority
Mohammad Harari – Minister of Local Government
Ibrahim Alsagoatri – Minister of Housing
Yousef Wahashi – Minister of Transportation
Fathi Terbil – Minister of Youth
Ibrahim Eskutri – Minister of Construction
Local government
During the war, in opposition-held Benghazi, a 15-member "local committee"​[62] made up of lawyers, judges and respected local people was formed in order to provide civic administration and public services within the city.[63] Residents have organised to direct traffic and collect refuse. Many shops and businesses have opened again.[63] A newspaper​[64] and two local radio stations were also established.​[65]
Similar "local committees" were formed in other cities controlled by opposition groups.​[66]
Commercial bodies
The council established the following commercial bodies to manage its financial affairs:
Armed forces
Main articles: National Liberation Army (Libya) and Libyan National Army
The anti-Gaddafi forces were Libyan armed forces which were constituted during the 2011 war by defected military members and armed citizens in order to engage in battle against remaining members of the Jamahiriya's armed forces, hired mercenaries and paramilitary loyal to the rule of Muammar Gaddafi. The National Liberation Army, formerly known as the Free Libyan Army, was the NTC's military arm, with the small Free Libyan Air Force operating assets including captured and defected fighter jets and helicopters.
Omar El-Hariri was the first military affairs minister the NTC named, holding that position from 23 March 2011 forward. By 19 May 2011, however, Jalal al-Digheily had replaced El-Hariri.​[69] Then on 8 August 2011, Digheily along with 14 other members of the Executive Board were fired and the position left vacant, but was reappointed in early October 2011 after continuing in the role of interim defense minister for almost two months.​[70] Then on 22 November 2011, the Executive Board was dissolved for the formation of the Interim Government and Osama al-Juwali became the new Defense Minister.
On 1 April 2011, Abdul Fatah Younis was announced as commander of the NTC's forces, in an attempt to form an organized fighting structure due to a string of failures. Younis was killed in an attack on 29 July 2011 which was variously blamed on pro-Gaddafi agents,​[71] rogue rebel militiamen, and the NTC itself.[72] Suleiman Mahmoud​, Younis's top lieutenant, replaced him as army commander.​[73]
Foreign relations

  Libya
  Countries that recognised the NTC as the sole legitimate representative of Libya during the civil war
  Countries that have yet to formally recognise the NTC, but voted in favor of it to take Libya's UN seat
  Countries that formally opposed recognition of the NTC at the UN
  Countries that voted against the transfer of Libya's UN seat to the NTC
Main articles: Foreign relations of Libya and International recognition of the National Transitional Council
In July 2011, the Libya Contact Group of representatives of many nations announced its participants' agreement to deal with the National Transitional Council as the "legitimate governing authority in Libya".​[74]​[75] The council also received the backing of the Arab League​[76] and the European Union​.​[77] On 16 September 2011, the United Nations General Assembly voted to award Libya's UN seat to the NTC.[9] On 20 September 2011, the African Union officially recognised the NTC as the legitimate representative of Libya.[78]
Mohammed El Senussi, the pretender to the throne of Libya, also voiced his support for the NTC.[79]
While NTC forces were working to secure military victory on the ground, the NTC's chairman, Mustafa Abdul Jalil, was working to foster good diplomatic relations overseas. Before Gaddafi was killed Abdul Jalil negotiated a deal with the British government to pay millions in compensation to victims of IRA attacks that used Jamahiriya-supplied arms.[80]
Military intervention
Main article: 2011 military intervention in Libya
United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 authorised a multi-national effort to establish a no-fly zone. On 19 March, British, French and US air forces began attacking targets in Gaddafi-controlled Libya, thereby initiating the UN military intervention​. Operations were led by NATO under Operation Unified Protector​, after initially being led by a joint UK, US and French command. Non-NATO states such as Jordan, Qatar, Sweden, and the United Arab Emirates also contributed to the military mission.​[​citation needed]
See also
References
^​http://www.iso.org/iso/nl_vi-11_name_change_for_libya.pdf
^ Cousins, Michel (24 July 2012), "National Congress to meet on 8 August: NTC", Libya Herald, retrieved 26 July 2012
^ "The US recognises Libya's Transitional National Council". World Socialist Web Site. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
^ Libya's transitional rulers hand over power Archived 8 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Boston.com​, 8 August 2012.
^ a b "Ferocious Battles in Libya as National Council Meets for First Time". NewsCore (via news.com.au​). 6 March 2011. Archived from the original on 22 August 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
^ a b The Interim Transitional National Council Decree 3. 5 March 2011.
^ a b c d "Founding Statement of the Interim Transitional National Council". National Transitional Council. 5 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 March 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
^ "Excerpts from Libya Contact Group Chair's Statement"​. Reuters. 15 July 2011. Archived from the original on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 25 July 2011.
^ a b Lederer, Edith (16 September 2011). "UN approves Libya seat for former rebels". San Jose Mercury News. Archived from the original on 23 November 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
^ "United Nations interoffice memorandum dated 16 September 2011 from Desmond Parker, Chief of Protocol, to Shaaban M. Shaaban, Under-Secretary-General for General Assembly and Conference Management, attaching memorandum from Stadler Trengove, Senior Legal Officer". Unterm.un.org​. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 5 February 2013.
^ "ISO 3166-1 Newsletter VI-11: Name change for Libya" (PDF). International Organization for Standardization. 8 November 2011. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 January 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2011.
^ "Live Blog  – Libya". Al Jazeera. 17 February 2011. Archived from the original on 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
^ "News | Libya February 17th". Libyafeb17.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2012. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
^ Burgess, Joe; Fahim, Kareem (25 February 2011). "Map of How the Protests Unfolded in Libya". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 February 2011. Retrieved 26 February 2011.
^ "Libya's Col Muammar Gaddafi killed, says NTC". BBC News. 20 October 2011. Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
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