Arab states of the Persian Gulf
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The Arab states of the Persian Gulf are the seven Arab states which border the Persian Gulf, namely Bahrain, Kuwait, Iraq, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates (UAE).​[1]​[2]​[3] All of these states except Iraq are part of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC),[4] and prefer to use the term "Arabian Gulf" rather than the historical name of the Persian Gulf.​[5]​[6]​[​additional citation(s) needed]

The Persian Gulf's coastline skirts seven Arab countries on its western shores and Iran to the east. (Oman's Musandam peninsula meets the Persian gulf at the Strait of Hormuz)
2Freedom of press
5See also
7Further reading
8External links

Some states are constitutional monarchies with elected parliaments. Bahrain (Majlis al Watani) and Kuwait (Majlis al Ummah) have legislatures with members elected by the population.​[​citation needed]
The Sultanate of Oman also has an advisory council (Majlis ash-Shura​) that is popularly elected.​[​citation needed] In the UAE, a federation of seven monarchical emirates, the Federal National Council functions only as an advisory body, but some of its members are now chosen via a limited electoral college nominated by the seven rulers.​[​citation needed] Saudi Arabia remains a hereditary monarchy with limited political representation. In Qatar, an elected national parliament has been mooted and is written into the new constitution, but elections are yet to be held.[7] Saudi Arabia and Qatar are the two Arab states and absolute monarchies to have never held elections since their respective establishments as nations in 1932 and 1971.[8]
Freedom of press
Press in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf have varying degrees of freedom with Kuwait topping the league with a lively press that enjoys considerably more freedom than its Persian Gulf counterparts according to Freedom House and Reporters Without Borders. Both organizations rank Kuwait's press as the most free of all Arab states of the Persian Gulf and, in fact, rank amongst the top three most free press in the Arab world.​[9]​[10] Qatar and Oman come in second and third respectively within the regional ranks.
The six Arab states of the Persian Gulf lie in a volatile region and their six governments, with varying degrees of success and effort, try and advance peace in their own countries and other countries. However, Arab countries in the Persian Gulf region - specifically Saudi Arabia and Qatar - stand accused of funding Islamist militants such as Hamas and the Muslim Brotherhood​.​[11] According to the Institute of Economics and Peace (IEP)'s Global Peace Index of 2016, the six governments had varying degrees of success in maintaining peace amongst their respective borders with Qatar ranked number 1 amongst its regional peers as the most peaceful regional and Middle Eastern nation (and ranked 34 worldwide) while Kuwait ranks second in both the regional and the Middle East region (and 51 worldwide) followed by the UAE in the third spot (61 worldwide).​[12]

Map of the Gulf Cooperation Council's members (Iraq is not a member).
All of these Arab states have significant revenues from petroleum. The United Arab Emirates has been successfully diversifying the economy​. 79% of UAE's total GDP comes from non-oil sectors.​[13] Oil accounts for only 2% of Dubai's GDP.[14] Bahrain has the Persian Gulf's first "post-oil" economy because the Bahraini economy does not rely on oil.[15] Since the late 20th century, Bahrain has heavily invested in the banking and tourism sectors.​[16] The country's capital, Manama is home to many large financial structures. The UAE and Bahrain have a high Human Development Index (ranking 31 and 42 worldwide respectively in 2019) and was recognised by the World Bank as high income economies​.
In addition, the small coastal states (especially Bahrain and Kuwait) were successful centers of trade and commerce prior to oil. Eastern Arabia also had significant pearl banks, but the pearling industry collapsed in the 1930s after the development of cultured pearl methods by Japanese scientists.​[​citation needed]
According to the World Bank, most of these Arab states have been the world's most generous donors of aid as a share of GDP.[17]
See also
^ Mary Ann Tétreault; Gwenn Okruhlik; Andrzej Kapiszewski (2011).
Political Change in the Arab Gulf States: Stuck in Transition​. The authors first focus on the politics of seven Gulf states: Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the UAE.
World Migration 2005 Costs and Benefits of International Migration. International Organization for Migration. 2005. p. 53. ISBN 9788171885503​.
"U.S. Official to Tour Persian Gulf Arab Lands". The New York Times. 1987. A leading American diplomat will start a trip to Iraq and six other Arab countries of the Persian Gulf region this week to discuss the Iran-Iraq war, Administration officials said today.
^ "الأمانة العامة لمجلس التعاون لدول الخليج العربية".​.
^ Henderson, Simon (Spring 2004).
"Understanding the Gulf States". The Washington Institute. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
^ Whitaker, Brian (27 October 2010).
"Persian Gulf? Arabian Gulf? One big gulf in understanding"​. The Guardian. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
^ Gerd Nonneman, "Political Reform in the Gulf Monarchies: From Liberalisation to Democratisation? A Comparative Perspective", in Anoushiravan Ehteshami and Steven Wright (eds.)(2007), Reform in the Middle East Oil Monarchies​, ISBN 978-0-86372-323-0​, pp. 3-45.
^ Robbers, Gerhard (2007). Encyclopedia of world constitutions, Volume 1. p. 791. ISBN 978-0-8160-6078-8​.
"Freedom of the Press 2016".​. April 26, 2016.
"2016 World Press Freedom Index". Archived from
the original on 2017-02-14.
^ "Four huge Middle Eastern powers just cut ties with Qatar over 'terrorism' links". The Independent​. June 5, 2017.
^ "Global Peace Index 2016" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-06-15.
"Diversification raises non-oil share of UAE's GDP to 71%".​.
"Oil Makes Up 2% of Dubai GDP Post-Diversification - Gulf Jobs News".
^ "Bahrain: Reform-Promise and Reality"​(PDF)​. J.E. Peterson. p. 157.
"Bahrain's economy praised for diversity and sustainability"​. Bahrain Economic Development Board. Archived from
the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved 24 June 2012.
^ "The haves and the have-nots"​. The Economist​. 11 July 2013.
Further reading
External links
Persian Gulf region (Iran and Arab states of the Persian Gulf)
List of islands in the Persian GulfIran Qeshm IslandKish IslandAbu Musa​Bahrain​Greater and Lesser TunbsLavan IslandFarsi IslandKharg Island​Hengam Island​Hormuz IslandNaaz islandsLarak Island​Abadan IslandBuneh IslandDara Island​Hendurabi IslandMinoo Island​Nakhiloo Island​Ommolkorm IslandShif Island​Shidvar IslandSirri Island​Bahrain Al Dar IslandAmwaj Islands​Bahrain IslandDiyar Al Muharraq​Hawar IslandsJidda Island​Muharraq IslandNabih Saleh​Sitra​Umm an NasanUmm as Sabaan​Kuwait Bubiyan Island​Failaka Island​Kubbar Island​Miskan IslandQaruh IslandUmm al Maradim IslandUmm an Namil Island​Warbah IslandOman Quoin Island (Persian Gulf)Saudi Arabia Arabi Island​Tarout​United Arab Emirates Abu al Abyad​Al-Aryam IslandAl FutaisiAl Lulu IslandAl Maryah IslandAl Reem Island​Bluewaters IslandBurj Al ArabDas Island​Dalma​Deira Islands​Jazirat Badiyah​Marawah IslandMarsa Al ArabPalm Jebel AliPalm Jumeirah​Saadiyat IslandSir Abu NuʽayrSir Bani YasThe World (archipelago)​Yas IslandZirku Island
History of region
Achaemenid inscription in the Kharg IslandPortuguese conquest of OrmuzOttoman campaign against HormuzSiege of BahrainAnglo-Persian capture of OrmuzAction of 1 February 1625Battle off Hormuz (1625)1717 Omani invasion of BahrainAfsharid Conquests in the Persian Gulf & OmanPersian Gulf ResidencyBani Utbah invasion of BahrainPersian Gulf campaign of 1809Senior Naval Officer, Persian GulfPersian Gulf campaign of 1819General Maritime Treaty of 1820Persian CorridorPersian Gulf CommandJoint Operation ArvandSeizure of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs1974–75 Shatt al-Arab conflictIran–Iraq WarTanker WarOperation Earnest WillBridgeton incidentGulf WarGulf War oil spillDraining of the Mesopotamian Marshes2007 Iranian arrest of Royal Navy personnel2011–12 Strait of Hormuz dispute2016 U.S.–Iran naval incidentPersian Gulf crisisMay 2019 Gulf of Oman incidentJune 2019 Gulf of Oman incident2019 Iranian shoot-down of American drone
Persian Gulf National DayPersian Gulf Forever​Persian Gulf (horse)​Persian Gulf (missile)​Persian Gulf Veterans National MedalGulf MedalGulf and Kuwait MedalIran Historical Sovereignty over the Tunbs and BuMusa IslandsMap of Iran in Afsharid EraPiracy in the Persian GulfGulf War syndrome​Rationale for the Persian Gulf war​Environmental impact of Gulf wars​Organization of United States Naval Aviation Units in the Gulf WarMedia coverage of the Gulf WarList of Gulf War military equipment​Persian Gulf Inferno​Persian Gulf music​Bandari music​Ney-anbān​Khaliji (music)​Habbān​Gulf Arabic Bahraini Gulf Arabic​Bahrani Arabic​Kuwaiti Arabic​Kuwaiti PersianThe National (Abu Dhabi)2010 Islamic Solidarity Games​Shipwrecks in the Persian GulfIRIS Khalij-e FarsKhalije Fars-class destroyer​Bandar (port)​Christianity in Eastern Arabia​Culture of Eastern Arabia​Gargee'an​Eastern Arabian cuisineGulf rupee​Khaleeji (currency)​Arabization​Persian Gulf (disambiguation)​Arabian Gulf (disambiguation) Arabian Gulf Oil Company​Gulf War (disambiguation)​Gulf (disambiguation)​Gulf states (disambiguation)​Airlines Qeshm AirKish AirGulf AirGulf AviationGulf Traveller​SaudiGulf Airlines
Authority control
Categories: Arabian PeninsulaPersian GulfArab League
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