Gafsa
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Gafsa (disambiguation)​.
"Capsa" redirects here. For other uses, see Capsa (disambiguation)​.
Gafsa
Capsa
Gafsa
Location in Tunisia
Coordinates: 34°25′N 8°47′E
CountryTunisia
GovernorateGafsa
Population (2014)
 • Total105,264
Time zoneUTC1 (CET)
Gafsa (​Tunisian Arabic: ڨفصة‎‎ Gafsˤa; Arabic: قفصة‎‎ qafṣah), originally called Capsa in Latin, is the capital of Gafsa Governorate of Tunisia. It lends its Latin name to the Mesolithic Capsian culture. With a population of 105,264, Gafsa is the 9th-largest Tunisian city and it is 335 kilometers away from the capital Tunis.
Contents
1Overview
2Ancient history
3Bishopric
4Recent history
5Transport
6Sport
7Media
8International relations
8.1Twin towns — Sister cities
9Climate
10See also
11References
11.1Notes
12External links
Overview​[​edit​]
Gafsa is the capital of the southwest of Tunisia and is both a historical oasis and home to the mining industry of Tunisia. The city had 111,170 inhabitants at the 2014 census, under the ruling of the mayor, Malek Necibi.[1] The city lies 369 km (229 mi) by road southwest of Tunis. Its geographical coordinates are 34°25′N 8°47′E.
Ancient history​[​edit​]

Capsa in Roman times was near the "limes romanus" called Fossatum Africae.

Romans ruins at Gafsa, 2013.
Excavations at prehistoric sites in the Gafsa area have yielded artefacts and skeletal remains associated with the Capsian culture. This Mesolithic civilisation has been radiocarbon dated to between 10,000 and 6,000 BCE. The associated ancient population, known as the Snail eaters, are known for their extensive middens of snail shells. They are believed to be the ancestors of the modern Berbers​.​[2]
The city of Capsa belonged to King Jugurtha​, who deposited his treasures there. It was captured by Gaius Marius in 106 BC and destroyed, later becoming reestablished under the Punic-style magistracy of sufetes before being granted the status of a Roman colonia​.​[3]​[4] Capsa was an important city of Roman Africa near the Fossatum Africae​.​[5] Roman cisterns are still evident in the city ruins[5]
The Vandals conquered the Roman city and ruled it until the death of Genseric (477). The Berbers then occupied it, making it the capital of a Romano-Berber kingdom until subjected to Byzantium under Justinian I (527–565). He made Capsa the capital of the province of Byzacena​. The Duke of Byzacena resided there. In 540, the Byzantine governor general Solomon built a new city wall, naming the city Justiniana Capsa.[3]
The Arab army of Uqba ibn Nafi conquered Gafsa in 688, in spite of resistance from the Berbers.​[6] After the Arab conquest​, Capsa started to lose importance, replaced by Muslim​-founded Kairouan​.
Historians such as Camps and Laverde consider Gafsa the place in North Africa where African Romance last survived, until the 13th century, as a spoken language.
Al Yacoubi reports that this time its inhabitants were considered Romanized Berber and Al-Idrissi says they continued to speak an African Latin and part of them remained faithful to the Christian religion​.​Gafsa ASM
Bishopric​[​edit​]

Map showing Capsa
Extant documents give the names of a few of the bishops of Capsa.​[7]​[8]​[9]
In the 3rd century, Donatulus took part in the council that Saint Cyprian convoked in Carthage in 256 to discuss the problem of the lapsi.
In the 4th century, at the Council of Carthage (349), Fortunatianus of Capsa was present, mentioned as the first among the bishops of Byzacena​. A Donatist bishop of Capsa called Quintasius was at the council held at Cabarsussi in 393 by a breakaway group of Donatists led by Maximianus​.
In the 5th century, at the joint Council of Carthage (411) attended by Catholics and Donatists​, Gams and Morcelli say Capsa was represented by the Donatist Donatianus, and that it had no Catholic bishop.​[8]​[9] According to the more recent Mesnage, Donatianus was instead the Donatist bishop of Capsus in Numidia, and Capsa in Byzacena was represented by the Catholic Fortunatus and the Donatist Celer, whom the earlier sources attributed to Capsus.​[7] All three sources agree in attributing to Capsa the Vindemialis who was one of the Catholic bishops whom Huneric summoned to Carthage in 484 and then exiled. However, the latest editions of the Roman Martyrology​, which commemorates Vindemialis on 2 May, call him bishop of Capsus in Numidia.​[10]
Capsa still had resident bishops at the end of the 9th century, being mentioned in a Notitia Episcopatuum of Leo VI the Wise (886–912).​[7] but a community may have lasted until the early 12th century​[11]
No longer a residential bishopric​, Capsa is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[12]
Recent history​[​edit​]
Phosphate mines were discovered in 1886, and Gafsa today is home to one of the largest mines of phosphate in the world.
In the Second World War, Gafsa suffered heavy bombardment from both the German and Italian side and the Allies. Part of its Kasbah was destroyed.
On 27 January 1980, a group of dissidents armed and trained by Libya occupied the city to contest the régime of Habib Bourguiba​. 48 people were killed in the battles.
The Gafsa region has had an active political voice throughout its history, and various events there have shaped its political developments in the various phases of modern Tunisia.
In 2008, Gafsa was the center of riots directed against the government of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali. The government was swift and brutal in its suppression of the uprising, but this movement has since been credited with sowing the first seeds of the Jasmine Revolution that removed Zine El Abidine Ben Ali from power three years later, igniting the Arab Spring across much of North Africa and the Middle East.
In 2014, a lake suddenly appeared around 25 kilometers from the town. The cause of the lake's formation is currently unknown.​[13]
Transport​[​edit​]
Gafsa – Ksar International Airport is located in the city.
Sport​[​edit​]
El Kawafel Sportives de Gafsa (Arabic: القوافل الرياضية بقفصة, often referred to as EGSG) is the main football club of Gafsa.
Media​[​edit​]
Radio stations:
and other government and private Tunisian radios broadcast in Gafsa as Shems FM, RTCI, Youth Radio, Culture Radio, Zitouna, and the National Radio.
International relations​[​edit​]
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Tunisia
Twin towns — Sister cities​[​edit​]
Gafsa is twinned with:
Climate​[​edit​]
Gafsa has a hot desert climate (Köppen climate classification BWh).
Climate data for Gafsa (1981–2010, extremes 1950–2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)24.8
(76.6)
32.0
(89.6)
36.9
(98.4)
38.0
(100.4)
42.8
(109.0)
46.1
(115.0)
46.2
(115.2)
45.7
(114.3)
43.5
(110.3)
39.5
(103.1)
35.5
(95.9)
29.0
(84.2)
46.2
(115.2)
Average high °C (°F)15.3
(59.5)
17.5
(63.5)
21.0
(69.8)
24.9
(76.8)
29.8
(85.6)
34.9
(94.8)
37.9
(100.2)
37.5
(99.5)
32.6
(90.7)
27.3
(81.1)
20.8
(69.4)
16.1
(61.0)
26.3
(79.3)
Daily mean °C (°F)9.6
(49.3)
11.3
(52.3)
14.6
(58.3)
18.1
(64.6)
22.8
(73.0)
27.3
(81.1)
30.2
(86.4)
30.0
(86.0)
25.9
(78.6)
21.1
(70.0)
14.8
(58.6)
10.5
(50.9)
19.7
(67.4)
Average low °C (°F)4.0
(39.2)
5.2
(41.4)
8.1
(46.6)
11.4
(52.5)
15.7
(60.3)
19.8
(67.6)
22.4
(72.3)
22.8
(73.0)
19.8
(67.6)
15.3
(59.5)
9.2
(48.6)
5.2
(41.4)
13.2
(55.8)
Record low °C (°F)−5.5
(22.1)
−4.3
(24.3)
−2.1
(28.2)
1.8
(35.2)
6.0
(42.8)
9.1
(48.4)
13.8
(56.8)
15.1
(59.2)
10.3
(50.5)
2.6
(36.7)
−1.2
(29.8)
−4.9
(23.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches)26.1
(1.03)
7.8
(0.31)
14.3
(0.56)
17.9
(0.70)
12.5
(0.49)
4.8
(0.19)
1.4
(0.06)
4.5
(0.18)
19.8
(0.78)
16.4
(0.65)
18.8
(0.74)
16.9
(0.67)
161.2
(6.36)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)2.32.53.12.22.01.20.21.02.52.62.02.323.9
Average relative humidity (%)65615855524743485561656856
Mean monthly sunshine hours204.6212.8244.9267.0306.9324.0356.5337.9282.0254.2222.0207.73,220.5
Mean daily sunshine hours6.67.67.98.99.910.811.510.99.48.27.46.78.8
Source 1: Institut National de la Météorologie (precipitation days/humidity/sun 1961–1990)[15][16][17][note 1]
Source 2: NOAA(humidity and sun 1961–1990)[19]
See also​[​edit​]
Africa portal
References​[​edit​]
^
"Recensement de 2004 (Institut National de la Statistique – Tunisie)". ins.nat.tn. Archived from
the original on 2015-09-24​. Retrieved 2016-03-27​.
^ Paul Lachlan MacKendrick, The North African Stones Speak (UNC Press Books, 1 Dec. 2000).
^ a b Siméon Vailhé, "Capsa" in Catholic Encyclopedia (New York 1908)
^ Ilẹvbare, J.A. (June 1974). "The Impact of the Carthaginians and the Romans on the Administrative System of the Maghreb Part I". Journal of the Historical Society of Nigeria. 7 (2): 187–197. JSTOR 41857007​.
^ a b Trudy Ring, Robert M. Salkin, Sharon La Boda International Dictionary of Historic Places: Middle East and Africa, Volume 4 (Taylor & Francis, 1994) p312.
^ History of Gafsa (in French) Archived 2014-05-15 at the Wayback Machine
^ a b c J. Mesnage, L'Afrique chrétienne​, Paris 1912, pp. 69–70
^ a b Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae​, Leipzig 1931, p. 464
^ a b Stefano Antonio Morcelli,
Africa christiana, Volume I, Brescia 1816, pp. 118–119
^ Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 978-1274930071​)
^
"The Last Christians Of North-West Africa: Some Lessons For Orthodox Today". orthodoxengland.org.uk​. Retrieved 2016-03-27​.
^ Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1​), p. 838
^
"Gafsa Beach: Mysterious Lake Discovered in Drought-Stricken Tunisia Could be 'Radioactive​'​"
. uk.news.yahoo.com​. Retrieved 2016-03-27​.
^ Vacca, Maria Luisa.
"Comune di Napoli -Gemellaggi" [Naples – Twin Towns]. Comune di Napoli (in Italian). Archived from the original on 2013-07-22​. Retrieved 2013-08-08​.
^
"Les normales climatiques en Tunisie entre 1981 2010" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
^
"Données normales climatiques 1961-1990" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
^
"Les extrêmes climatiques en Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
^
"Réseau des stations météorologiques synoptiques de la Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Retrieved 3 February 2020.
^
"Gafsa Climate Normals 1961–1990"​. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration​. Retrieved 2015-01-24​.
Notes​[​edit​]
^ The Station ID for Gafsa is 64545111.​[18]
External links​[​edit​]
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Gafsa.
Communes of Tunisia
Ariana Governorate
Béja Governorate
Ben Arous Governorate
Bizerte Governorate
Gabes Governorate
Gafsa Governorate
Jendouba Governorate
Kairouan Governorate
Kasserine Governorate
Kébili Governorate
Kef Governorate
Mahdia Governorate
Manouba Governorate
Médenine Governorate
Monastir Governorate
Nabeul Governorate
Sfax Governorate
Sidi Bouzid Governorate
Siliana Governorate
Sousse Governorate
Tataouine Governorate
Tozeur Governorate
Tunis Governorate
Zaghouan Governorate
Romano-Berber cities in Roman North Africa
Sorted by contemporary national borders
Morocco
Algeria
Tunisia
Egypt
Spain
Kingdoms
and provinces
Related articles
1 UNESCO World Heritage Sites 2 Proposed
Categories: Communes of TunisiaCities in TunisiaArchaeological sites in TunisiaOases of TunisiaCatholic titular sees in AfricaPopulated places in Gafsa Governorate
Search
This page was last edited on 11 May 2021, at 17:29 (UTC).
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
Privacy policy
About Wikipedia
Disclaimers
Contact Wikipedia
Mobile view
Developers
Statistics
Cookie statement
Coordinates34°25′N 8°47′E
TalkContributionsCreate accountLog in
ArticleTalk
ReadEditView history
Visit the main pageMain pageContentsCurrent eventsRandom articleAbout WikipediaContact usDonateHelpLearn to editCommunity portalRecent changesUpload fileWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationCite this pageWikidata itemDownload as PDFPrintable versionWikimedia CommonsالعربيةتۆرکجهБеларускаяCatalàCebuanoČeštinaCymraegDanskDeutschΕλληνικάEspañolEsperantoEuskaraفارسیFrançais한국어ItalianoעבריתქართულიҚазақшаLietuviųMagyarمصرىNederlands日本語PolskiPortuguêsRomânăРусскийScotsSlovenščinaSrpskohrvatski / српскохрватскиSuomiSvenskaไทยTürkçeУкраїнськаاردو中文Edit links