Inkscape - Wikipedia
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Inkscape is a free and open-source vector graphics editor used to create vector images, primarily in Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) format. Other formats can be imported and exported.[4]

Inkscape 1.1 on Arch Linux
Initial releaseNovember 2, 2003; 17 years ago
Stable release1.1[1] (May 24, 2021; 26 days ago) [±]
Written inC++ with gtkmm, Python (extensions)
Operating systemFreeBSD
PlatformIA-32 and x64
Size81.6 MB
Available in90 languages[2]
TypeVector graphics editor
Inkscape can render primitive vector shapes (e.g. rectangles, ellipses, polygons, arcs, spirals, stars and 3D boxes) and text. These objects may be filled with solid colors, patterns, radial or linear color gradients and their borders may be stroked, both with adjustable transparency. Embedding and optional tracing of raster graphics is also supported, enabling the editor to create vector graphics from photos and other raster sources. Created shapes can be further manipulated with transformations, such as moving, rotating, scaling and skewing.
Inkscape began in 2003 as a code fork of the Sodipodi project.[5] Sodipodi, developed since 1999, was itself based on Raph Levien's Gill (GNOME Illustration Application).[6] One of the main priorities of the Inkscape project was interface consistency and usability by following the GNOME human interface guidelines.[5]
Inkscape FAQ interprets the word Inkscape as a compound of ink and -scape.[7][8]
Four former Sodipodi developers (Ted Gould, Bryce Harrington, Nathan Hurst, and MenTaLguY) led the fork, citing differences over project objectives, openness to third-party contributions, and technical disagreements. They said that Inkscape would focus development on implementing the complete SVG standard, whereas Sodipodi development emphasized developing a general-purpose vector graphics editor, possibly at the expense of SVG.[9]
Following the fork, Inkscape's developers changed the programming language from C to C++; adopted the GTK (formerly GIMP Toolkit) toolkit C++ bindings (gtkmm); redesigned its user interface, and added a number of new features.[10] Inkscape's implementation of the SVG standard, although incomplete, has shown gradual improvement.[11]
Since 2005, Inkscape has participated in the Google Summer of Code program.[12]
Up until the end of November 2007, Inkscape's source code repository was hosted by SourceForge. Thereafter it moved to Launchpad.[13] In June 2017, it moved to GitLab.[14]
Object creation
Inkscape 0.48.2, showing a rectangle (selected with the select tool), an ellipse, a star and two text objects
Inkscape workflow is based around vector objects. Tools allow manipulating primitive vector shapes: simple ones like rectangles, ellipses and arcs, as well as more complex objects like 3D boxes with adjustable perspectives, stars, polygons and spirals. Rendering feature that can create objects like barcodes, calendars, grids, gears and roulette curves (using the spirograph tool). These objects may be filled with solid colors, patterns, radial or linear color gradients and their borders may be stroked, both with adjustable transparency. All of those can be further edited by transformations—such as moving, rotating, scaling and skewing—or by editing paths.
Other tools allow creating Bézier curves, freehand drawing of lines (pencil), or calligraphic (brush-like) strokes which support a graphics tablet.[15]
Inkscape is able to write and edit text with tools available for changing font, spacing, kerning, rotation, flowing along the path or into a shape. Text can be converted to paths for further editing. The program also has a layers (as well as an objects) feature that allows the user to organize objects in a preferred stacking order in the canvas. Objects can be made visible/invisible and locked/unlocked through these features.
Symbol libraries enable Inkscape to use existing symbols like logic-gate symbols or DOT pictograms. Additional libraries can be included by user.[16]
Inkscape supports image tracing, the process of extracting vector graphics from raster sources.
Clones are child objects of an original parent object. Different transformations can be applied to them, such as: size, position, rotation, blur, opacity, color and symmetry. Clones are updated live whenever the parent object changes.
Object manipulation
Every object in the drawing can be subjected to arbitrary affine transformations: moving, rotating, scaling, skewing and a configurable matrix[clarification needed]. Transformation parameters can be specified numerically. Transformations can snap to angles, grids, guidelines and nodes of other objects, or be aligned in specified direction, spaced equally, scattered at random.
Objects can be grouped together. Groups of objects behave similarly to objects. Objects in a group can be edited without having to ungroup them first.
The Z-order determines the order in which objects are drawn on the canvas. Objects with a high Z-order are drawn on top of objects lower in the Z-order. Order of objects can be managed either using layers, or by manually moving the object up and down in the Z-order. Layers can be locked or hidden, preventing modifying and accidental selection.
The Create Tiled Clones tool allows symmetrical or grid-like drawings using various plane symmetries.
Appearance of objects can be further changed by using masks and clipping paths, which can be created from arbitrary objects, including groups.
The style attributes are 'attached' to the source object, so after cutting/copying an object onto the clipboard, the style's attributes can be pasted to another object.
Operations on paths
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Inkscape has a comprehensive tool set to edit paths (as they are the basic element of a vector file):
Inkscape includes a feature called Live Path Effects (LPE), which can apply various modifiers to a path. Envelope Deformation is available via the Path Effects and provides a perspective effect. There are more than a dozen of these live path effects. LPE can be stacked onto a single object and have interactive live on canvas and menu-based editing of the effects.
File formats
This article needs to be updated. The reason given is: Inkscape supports more formats. Please update this section to reflect recent events or newly available information. (January 2020)
Inkscape's primary format is SVG 1.1, meaning that it can create and edit with the abilities and within the constraints of this format. Any other format must either be imported (converted to SVG) or exported (converted from SVG). The SVG format is using the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) standard internally. Inkscape's implementation of SVG and CSS standards is incomplete. Most notably, it does not support animation natively.[18] Inkscape has multilingual support, particularly for complex scripts. Formats that used the UniConvertor library are not supported beyond the 1.0 release. A workaround is to have a parallel installation of version 0.92.x.[19]
Inkscape file format support
Format NameImportExport
Adobe Illustrator Artwork (AI)native
CorelDRAW (CDR)native
Microsoft Visio Drawing (VSD)native
Portable Document Format (PDF)nativenative
compressed SVG (SVGZ)native
Computer Graphics Metafile (CGM)with UniConvertor
Encapsulated Postscript (EPS)with Ghostscriptnative
PostScript (PS)with Ghostscriptnative
SK1with UniConvertor
sketchwith extension
Xfig (FIG)with extension
Flash XML Graphics (FXG)native
Hewlett-Packard Graphics Language (HPGL)native
HTML5 canvas elementnative
LaTeX (TeX)native
Synfig (SIF)native
Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML)native
Other features
Platform support
The latest version of Inkscape 1.0.x (and older line 0.92.x) is available for Linux, Windows 7+, and macOS 10.11-10.15 platforms.[23] Inkscape is packaged with AppImage, Flatpack, PPA and source by all major Linux distributions (including Debian, Ubuntu, Fedora, OpenSUSE) with GTK+ 3.24+ (0.92.x with GTK+ 2.20+ for older Linux).[24][25]
As of 2017, Wacom tablet support for GTK 3 is in a reviving project. Version 1.0.x includes GTK 3 and Wacom support depending necessary Wacom Linux or Unix driver. [26][needs update]
Release history
VersionRelease dateNotable Features
0.35November 11, 2003Initial release of Inkscape based on Sodipodi 0.32, new keyboard shortcuts[27]
0.36December 11, 2003GUI redesign and improved usability[28]
0.37February 16, 2004[29]Boolean path operations and path inset/outset, major code refactoring[30]
0.38April 12, 2004[31]Text kerning and letter spacing, multi-stage gradients[32]
0.39July 20, 2004[33]Markers, clones, and pattern fills[34]
0.40November 30, 2004[35]Multi-layer support, bitmap tracing (only greyscale), and text on path[36]
0.41February 10, 2005Clone tiler tool and color bitmap tracing[37]
0.42July 26, 2005Flowing text support, styling text spans, enhanced effects support, and the new gradient tool[38]
0.43November 19, 2005Connector tool, collaborative editing, tablet pressure/angle sensitivity[39]
0.44June 24, 2006Layers panel, support for clipping and masking, PDF export with transparency[40]
0.45February 5, 2007Gaussian blur, pattern along path, new Undo History panel, improved bitmap tracing using simple interactive object extraction, color effects[41]
0.46March 24, 2008Docking user interface, Paint Bucket, Tweak and 3D Box tools, Live Path Effects, support for most SVG filters, the ability to open PDF files, import from the Open Clip Art Library, and OpenType/PostScript and Type1 font support[42]
0.47November 24, 2009Eraser tool (can slice paths), timed autosave, spiro splines interface for paths, auto-smooth nodes for paths, spellchecker for the text tool, new path effects like "sketch" and "hatches", new Python extensions like "alphabet soup" and "convert to Braille", basic support for SVG fonts[43]
August 23, 2010;
July 2014
Multipath node editing, improved text tool: subscript, superscript, numerical and preset inputs for text kerning, tracking and more text enhancements, new Airbrush (Spray) tool, LaTeX export with PDF / PS / EPS, JessyInk extension for creating presentations viewable in SVG-enabled web browsers​[44]​[45]​[46]​[47]​[48]​[49]
0.91January 30, 2015[50]Switched from libnr to Cairo rendering library, which brought a significant rendering speed improvement.​[51]​Refactoring; Measure tool, new import/export formats, grayscale mode, alignment modes, Symbol library and support for Visio stencils, Guides can have labels, variable width strokes (PowerStroke).[52][53]
0.92January 4, 2017[54]Infrastructure Focus; Mesh gradients are now supported, several new path effects, default resolution changed from 90 dpi to 96 dpi to match the CSS standard.[55]
0.92.1February 7, 2017Several bug fixes[56]
0.92.2August 7, 2017Several bug fixes and batch converter to upgrade from 90 to 96 dpi[57][58]
0.92.3March 11, 2018Snap package ready for Linux, Windows 32-bit and 64-bit and Windows 10 App ready, macOS release not ready yet, several bug fixes[59][60]
0.92.4January 17, 2019Increased stability, bug fixes[61][62]
0.92.5April 9, 2020Increased stability, bug fixes, extensions compatible to Python 2 and 3[63][64]
1.0alphaJanuary 17, 2019Maintenance and optimization focus, see new roadmap with version 0.92 to 1.2,[65] GTK+ 3 Transition, Python 2 to 3[66][67][68][69][70][71]
1.0beta1September 8, 2019Test case and documentation focus, MacOS Version Certified, Improved HiDpi and more[72]
1.0beta2December 3, 2019Bug fixes, MacOS 10.10-10.15 Catalina Supported[73]
1.0rc1April 9, 2020Bug fixes
1.0May 4, 2020Stabilization focus[74]
1.0.1September 6, 2020Bug fixes, experimental color-managed PDF export[75]
1.0.2January 17, 2021Bug fixes, disable zoom with middle mouse click, lock canvas rotation[76]
1.1May 24, 2021Significant changes in core and GUI, only Python 3 extensions supported, improved live path effects (LPE)[77][78][79]
1.1.12021Bugfix and some changes in GUI[80]
Old version
Older version, still maintained
Latest version
Latest preview version
Future release
TechRadar gave Inkscape a positive rating of four stars out of five. It lauded the wide range of editing tools and support for many file formats, but noted that the application's processing can be slow. It considered Inkscape to be a good free alternative to proprietary graphics editors such as Adobe Illustrator.[82] PC Magazine's review was rather mixed, giving the application three out of five. It criticized the interface's graphics and lack of optimization for stylus support, the application's poor interoperability with other graphics editors, unwieldy text formatting controls, and the quality of the Mac version. However, it did praise the ability to add custom filters and extensions, the Inkscape community's passion for creating and sharing them, and the precise path and placement tools. It found Inkscape to have limited uses in profession compared to Adobe Illustrator and CorelDRAW.[83] In its 2012 Best of Open Source Software Awards, InfoWorld gave Inkscape an award for being one of the best open-source desktop applications, commending its typographic controls and ability to directly edit the XML text of its documents.[84]
See also
Free and open-source software portal
  1. ^ "Welcome to Inkscape 1.1!". The Inkscape Project. May 24, 2021. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
  2. ^ "List of language files at time of release of version 0.92.3 - repository". Inkscape. March 8, 2018. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
  3. ^ "COPYING in Inkscape source". Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  4. ^ "Inkscape Features". Retrieved January 13, 2020.
  5. ^ a b "FAQ | Inkscape". Retrieved May 5, 2020. How did Inkscape start? […] Inkscape was started as a fork of Sodipodi, in late 2003, by four Sodipodi developers: Bryce Harrington, MenTaLguY, Nathan Hurst, and Ted Gould. Our mission was creating a fully compliant Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) drawing tool written in C++ with a new, more user friendly (GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) compliant) interface and an open, community-oriented development process.
  6. ^ " Interviews Lauris Kaplinski". September 24, 2001. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  7. ^ "FAQ". Inkscape Project. Retrieved February 10, 2016. What does 'Inkscape' mean? [...] The name is made up of the two English words 'ink' and 'scape'. Ink is a common substance for drawings, and is used when the sketched work is ready to be permanently committed to paper, and thus evokes the idea that Inkscape is ready for production work. A scape is a view of a large number of objects, such as a landscape or ocean-scape, and thus alludes to the object-oriented nature of vector imagery.
  8. ^ Compare -scape
  9. ^ "Announcing new project (sodipodi mailing list)". November 6, 2003. Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  10. ^ "Inkscape Sodipodi Comparison". Retrieved December 9, 2015.
  11. ^ "Frequently asked questions - Inkscape Wiki". July 29, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2012.
  12. ^ "Google's Summer of Code". Inkscape wiki. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007.
  13. ^ "Inkscape moving to Launchpad".
  14. ^ "Inkscape moves to GitLab".
  15. ^ "Inkscape tutorial: Calligraphy". Retrieved December 26, 2019.
  16. ^ "SymbolsDialog - Inkscape Wiki". Retrieved July 3, 2016.
  17. ^ "Inkscape Keyboard Layout". creative commons. Retrieved May 3, 2016.
  18. ^ "Animation". Inkscape. Retrieved June 18, 2017.
  19. ^ "Release notes/1.0 - Inkscape Wiki".
  20. ^ "Extension repository". Inkscape Wiki. Retrieved October 22, 2009.
  21. ^ "inkscape/lib2geom". December 18, 2019 – via GitHub.
  22. ^ "Graphics Math Library 2geom's First Release Available For Use Beyond Inkscape | Inkscape".
  23. ^ "All Platforms for Inkscape 1.0". Retrieved May 6, 2020.
  24. ^​
  25. ^
  26. ^ "Linux Tablet Driver Project Revived | Inkscape".
  27. ^ Harrington, Bryce (November 11, 2003). "[Inkscape] Inkscape Release 0.35". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 5, 2020.
  28. ^ Gould, Ted (December 11, 2003). "[Inkscape] Inkscape 0.36 - "See, even a 5 year old can use it."". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  29. ^ Harrington, Bryce (February 16, 2004). "[Inkscape] Announcing Inkscape 0.37 Release". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  30. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.37 | Inkscape".
  31. ^ Harrington, Bryce (April 12, 2004). "[Inkscape] Announcing Inkscape 0.38 Release". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  32. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.38.1 | Inkscape".
  33. ^ Gould, Ted (July 20, 2004). "[Inkscape] Inkscape 0.39". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  34. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.39 | Inkscape".
  35. ^ Harrington, Bryce (November 30, 2004). "[Inkscape] Announcing Inkscape 0.40 Release". inkscape-announce (Mailing list). Retrieved January 9, 2020.
  36. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.40 | Inkscape".
  37. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.41 | Inkscape".
  38. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.42 | Inkscape".
  39. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.43 | Inkscape".
  40. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.44.1 | Inkscape".
  41. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.45.1 | Inkscape".
  42. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.46 | Inkscape".
  43. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.47 | Inkscape".
  44. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.48 | Inkscape".
  45. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.48.1 | Inkscape".
  46. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.48.2 | Inkscape".
  47. ^ "Download Inkscape | Inkscape".
  48. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.48.4 | Inkscape".
  49. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.48.5 | Inkscape".
  50. ^ "Inkscape Version 0.91 is Released!".
  51. ^ "Release notes/0.91". Inkscape Wiki. Retrieved August 15, 2015.
  52. ^ "Release notes for 0.91".
  53. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.91 | Inkscape".
  54. ^ "Inkscape Version 0.92 is Released!".
  55. ^ "Release notes for 0.92".
  56. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.92.1 | Inkscape".
  57. ^ "Inkscape 0.92.2 Delivers Greater Stability and Easier Contributions | Inkscape".
  58. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.92.2 | Inkscape".
  59. ^ Developers, Inkscape Website. "Announcing the 0.92.3 Release of Inkscape - Inkscape". Retrieved October 15, 2018.
  60. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.92.3 | Inkscape".
  61. ^ "Inkscape launches versions 0.92.4 and 1.0 alpha!". The Inkscape Project. January 17, 2019. Retrieved January 18, 2019.
  62. ^ "Download Inkscape 0.92.4 | Inkscape".
  63. ^ "Download Inkscape legacy bugfix branch | Inkscape".
  64. ^ "Release notes/0.92.5 - Inkscape Wiki".
  65. ^ "Roadmap - Inkscape Wiki".
  66. ^ "Notice of removal of GTK+ 2 support - Inkscape Wiki".
  67. ^ "GTK+ 3 migration - Inkscape Wiki".
  68. ^ "GTK+ 3 issues - Inkscape Wiki"., no uniconverter support with less Import filters
  69. ^ "Download Inkscape 1.0.1 | Inkscape".
  70. ^ "Download Inkscape 1.0alpha0 | Inkscape".
  71. ^ "Release notes/1.0 - Inkscape Wiki".
  72. ^ "Inkscape 1.0 beta1 available for testing | Inkscape".
  73. ^ "Download Inkscape 1.0beta2 | Inkscape".
  74. ^ "Introducing Inkscape 1.0". Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  75. ^ "Inkscape version 1.0.1 patches crashes & bugs | Inkscape".
  76. ^ "Enjoy bug fixes in Inkscape 1.0.2 and try out Inkscape 1.1 alpha | Inkscape".
  77. ^​
  78. ^
  79. ^
  80. ^
  81. ^​
  82. ^ Ellis, Cat (July 26, 2017). "Inkscape review". TechRadar. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  83. ^ Tupper, Shelby (February 28, 2019). "Inkscape Review". PC Magazine. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
  84. ^ Wayner, Peter (September 18, 2012). "Bossies 2012: The Best of Open Source Software Awards". InfoWorld. Retrieved January 18, 2020.
Further reading
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Inkscape.
Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Inkscape
Wikiversity has learning resources about Inkscape

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